Umushumba wa Kiliziya Gatolika ucyuye igihe ni muntu ki?

Umushumba wa Kiliziya Gatolika ucyuye igihe ni muntu ki?


Yanditswe kuya 1-03-2013 - Saa 03:05' na Mwizerwa Henri Gilbertus

Papa Benedigito wa 16, amazina ye asanzwe ni Joseph Alois Ratzinger. Yavutse tariki ya 16 Mata 1927, avukira i Marktl, mu Budage, ni hafi y’umupaka w’iki gihugu na Autriche. Ratsinger ni umwana w’umuhererezi muri batatu bavukanaga; babyawe na Ratsinger ndetse na Maria Pentner. Se akaba yari offisiye muri gendarmerie y’u Budage.

Ku myaka 16 gusa, Ratsinger yinjiye mu iseminari nto, hari nyuma gato y’intambara ya kabiri y’Isi. Mu mwaka wa 1944, yakoze kandi ibijyanye na gisirikare nk’uko bitegekwa n’ibihugu byinshi kuri iyi Si; iyi myitozo yayikoreye ahitwa Wermacht. Yabarizwaga mu itsinda ryacukuraga imyobo yagwamo ibifaru byashoboraga guturuka muri Autriche. Yaje gutoroka ariko yongera kugarurwa ahaba kugeza muri Kamena 1945 aho yarekuwe agataha iwabo n’amaguru.

Yahawe ubusaserdoti tariki ya 29 kamena1951. Nyuma aza kuba Arikiyepisikopi wa Munich na Freising mu gihugu cye cy’u budage, ndetse aza kuba Cardinal tariki ya 27 Kamena 1977 abuhawe na Papa Pawulo wa 6.

Kuva mu 1981 kugeza 2005, yatowe na Papa Yohani Pawulo wa 2 kuyobora urwego rurebana n’inyigisho z’ukwemera (Congrégation pour la doctrine de la foi). Tariki ya 19 Mata 2005, nibwo yatorewe kuba umushumba wa Kiliziya Gatorika asimbura Papa Yohani Pawulo wa 2 wari umaze kwitaba Imana.

Gusa, Papa Benedigito wa XVI yatunguye benshi ubwo ku wa Mbere tariki 11 Gashyantare 2013, yatangazaga ko, tariki ya 28 azegura ku mirimo ye ku mpamvu z’imiterere y’ubuzima bwe. Aha akaba yaravuze ko ananiwe ku myaka ye 85.

Muri iki cyegeranyo, reka dusubize amaso inyuma, turebera hamwe bimwe mu byaranze imyaka umunani yayoboye, yageze kuribyinshi ; ariko kadi yahuye n’ibibazo by’ingutu n’intambara zagiye zikomerera uyu Nyirubutungane.

Nyuma yo gutorerwa kuyobora imbaga y’Imana tariki 19 Mata 2005, Papa Benedigito wa XVI ntibyari byoroshye kuzungura Yohani Pawulo wa Kabiri, akaba ari papa wabaye ikirangirire ndetse wari ukunzwe bikomeye.

Mu kiganiro yagiranye na Televiziyo y’Abafaransa France 24 nyuma y’amasaha macye, atangaje ko azegura ku ntebe y’ubutungane mu mpera za Gashyantare, Philippine de Saint-Pierre umuyobozi w’ibiganiro kuri televiziyo ya Kiliziya Gatolika KTO, yagize ati “ Kuri ubu niba yeguye, birashoboka ko kuri we byinshi mu byo yifuzaga kugeraho yabigezeho”. Koko hari gahunda nyinshi zari zimuri ku mutima yabashije gusohoza.

Mu misa ye ya nyuma yo kuri iki Cyumweru tariki 24 Gashyantare 2013, Papa yavuze ko mu kiruhuko cye agiye kujyamo agiye gukomeza gusenga, nk’igihango Imana yamuhaye; avuga ko nubwo afite imbaraga nke kubera ubusaza atazigera ajya kure Kiliziya imwe itunganye Gatolika.

Uko amatora y’uzamusimbura azakorwa

Yashyizeho akanama gategura amatora y’uzamusimbura, abakaridinali bose ubu bakaba ari 213 ariko si ko bose batora. Muri bo, abakaridinali 125 bari munsi y’imyaka 80 y’amavuko, ibi bikaba byatuma bemererwa kugira uruhare mu nama y’abakaridinali igamije gutora umupapa mushya (Conclave). Ubusanzwe conclave itora Papa iba igizwe n’Abakaridinali 125.

Mu bakardinali 22 bahawe ububasha bwo kujya mu kanama gatora Papa (Conclave), abagera kuri 7 ni Abataliyani. Kuri ubu bibaye ngombwa ko hatorwa undi muyobozi wa Kiliziya Gatolika mushya, igihugu cy’u Butaliyani cyahagararirwa n’abagera kuri 30 ari nacyo gihugu cyaba gifite umubare munini w’abatora. Ibi bikaba byakwibazwaho na benshi nyuma y’aho Kiliziya imaze igihe iyoborwa n’Abapapa 2 bikurikiranye batari Abataliyani, bakavuga ko byabaha kongera kubona Umupapa w’Umutaliyani.

Nyamara ibinyamakuru byo mu gihugu cy’u Butaliyani nka La Republica, bitangaza ko nka Karidinali Timothy Dolan yaba umusimbura mwiza wa Papa mu gihe kizaza, aho bimwita ’Papabile’, bivuze ko afite ubushobozi bwo kuba Papa.

Muri rusange kuva yagera ku buyobozi bwa Kiliziya, Papa Benedigito wa XVI amaze gushyiraho abakaridinali 84 bava mu bihugu bitandukanye by’Isi.

Kuba Nyirubutungane Papa Benedigito wa 16 ashyizeho aka kanama k’abakaridinali bashya birasanzwe kuko muri Kiliziya Gatolika, iyo Papa ageze mu gihe yiyumvamo intege nke zo kuyobora ashyiraho akanama kazatora umusimbura.

Ubwo Papa Benoit XVI yatangaza ko ahagaritse kuyobora Kiliziya Gatolika taliki 11 Gashyantare 2013, muri uwo mugoroba inkuba yakubise ingoro ye yitiriwe Mutagatifu Petero iri i Roma; nk’uko ikinyamakuru Le Gentside kibitangaza.

Ifoto igaragaza umurabyo umanuka ku gasongero k’ingoro ya Mutagatifu Petero yafashwe n’umunyamakuru w’Umutaliyani witwa Filippo Monteforte ukorera ikigo ANSA. Yaje gukwirakwira vuba ku mbuga nkoranyambaga.

Bamwe bibaza niba iyo foto ari umwimerere bivuga ko byabaye cyangwa ari mpimbano. Abahanga mu kugenzura amafoto bemeza ko iyo foto ari umwimerere n’ubwo nta bushobozi buhambaye bakoresha mu kuyisuzuma.

Papa Benoit XVI ni we mu mupapa ufashe icyemezo nk’icyo mu myaka 600 ishize. Uwaherukaga kwegura ni Papa Gregory XII mu mwaka w’i 1415.

Ubuzima bwe ataratoretwa kuba Umuyobozi Uukuru wa Kiliziya ku Isi

Nk’uko twigeze kubivuga tugitangira Kalidinali Ratsinger amaze kurekurwa yasubiye kwigira ubupadiri, akandika ibitabo ndetse agasoma n’iby’abandi banditsi nka Paul Claudel, Georges Bernanos, François Mauriac n’abandi. Yiga philosophie na tewologiya muri Kaminuza ya Munich. Yakunze cyane ndetse anavumbura abanditsi benshi b’Abakristu nka Tomas wa Aquino waragijwe Seminari Nkuru ya Filosofiya y’i Kabgayi mu Rwanda.

Ratsinger ari mu ba mbere basesenguye bibiliya. Yahawe ubupadiri tariki ya 29 Kamena 1951, misa ye y’umuganura ayisomera ahitwa Saint-Oswald de Traunstein. Yaje kuyobora paruwasi nyuma aba umwarimu mu Iseminari ya Freising.

Mu 1953 nibwo yabonye impamyabumenyi y’ikirenga muri théologie akomeza yigisha muri kaminuza. Kubera ubumenyi n’ubuhanga yari afite, yabaye umukuru uyobora inama zikomeye muri kaminuza ya Munich (maître de conférence à l’université de Munich).

Ratsinger, yitabiriye inama yabereye i Vatican bwa kabiri (concile œcuménique Vatican II); iyi yabaye mu byiciro bine kuva 1962 kugeza mu 1965). Nyuma y’iyo nama yakomeje kwigisha n’amahame ya Kiliziya Gatolika muri kaminuza zinyuranye.

Uko yazamukaga ni nako yazamurwaga mu ntera kuko tariki ya 24 Werurwe 1977, yagizwe Arikiyepisikopi wa Munich na Freising, muri Nyakanga uwo mwaka kandi yahise agirwa Karidinali, icyo gihe ni Papa Paul VI niwe wari umushumba wa Kiliziya.

Muri sinodi ku birebana na Gatigisimu yabaye mu 1977, nibwo yaganiriye gato na Karidinali Karol Wojtyła waje gutorerwa kuba papa nyuma gato mu mwaka wa 1978 agafata izina rya Yohani Pawulo wa 2. Bakaba barakomeje kugenda bakorana cyane cyane mu myiherero ndetse no mu gihe cy’igisibo

Mu 1980, Ratsinger yasabwe kujya akora rapport kuri sinodi y’abasenyeri ku nsanganyamatsiko yagira iti "Ubutumwa bw’umuryango w’Abakristu mu Isi ya none « Les missions de la famille chrétienne dans le monde d’aujourd’hui ».

Mu myaka 23, uyu Ratsinger yahuraga na Papa Yohani pawulo wa II buri wa gatanu ni mugoroba kandi buri wa kabiri bagasangira ku meza amwe, gusa kenshi bazaga mbere ho gato bakaganira no ku bindi.

Akiri Karidinali Joseph Ratsinger yagaragazaga ko Kiliziya idashyigikiye intambara

Karidinali Joseph Ratsinger kandi yagiye agaragaza ko kiliziya idashyigikiye intambara zinyuranye zigenda zibera ku isi ; mu kiganiro yagiranye n’Ibiro Ntangazamakuru Zenit ku itariki ya 3 Gicurasi 2003, yavuze ko intambara ibera muri Irak yatejwe na Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika ntacyo yakiza, ahubwo avuga ko inzira y’amahoro ari yo ikemura byinshi.

Ntashyigikira ababana bahuje ibitsina

Karidinali Ratsinger yakomeje guhakana bidasubirwaho ko Kiliziya idashyigikiye na gato ababana bahuje ibitsina ndetse agahamya atarya iminwa ko Kiliziya itaha Abakristu uburenganzira bwo gukuramo inda ku bushake. Aha akaba yunze mu gitekerezo cya Papa Yohani Pawulo wa 2 cyo gufunga ibigo 260 byo mu Budage byigishaga ibijyanye no kuboneza urubyaro mu myaka ya 1990.

Igihe papa Yohani Pawulo wa 2 yashyingurwaga tariki 8 Gicurasi 2005, Kalidinali Joseph Ratsinger yahawe ubutumwa bwo kuyobora ibikorwa byo kumuherekeza.

Ku ntebe y’ubupapa nka Karidinali Joseph Ratsinger

Nyuma y’amatora y’abakardinari ku wa 19 Mata 2005, saa kumi n’imwe na 56, bamaze amasaha agera kuri 24 bahitamo papa, umwotsi wera wazamutse ku gisenge cya Chapelle ya Sixtine.

Saa kumi n’ebyiri na 35, nibwo Kalrdinali ukomoka mu gihugu cya Chilie Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez, yatangarije ku rubuga rwa Mutagatifu Petero (place Saint-Pierre), ko Kalidinali Joseph Alois Ratsinger ariwe usimbuye Papa Yohani Pawulo wa 2 ku kuragira Kiliziya ya Kristu nk’umupapa wa 265 ku rutonde rw’abapapa; mushya akaba yarahawe izina rya Benedigito wa 16.

Ku myaka ye 78, amaze gutorwa, Papa Benedigito wa 16, mu ijambo rye rigufi yagize ati "Ba nyakubahwa, nyuma ya Papa ukomeye Yohani Pawulo wa 2, ba nyakubahwa Karidinali mwantoye nk’umukozi woroheje mu murima wa nyagasani. Nkeneye isengesho ryanyu, mu byishimo bya Kristu wazutse, nizeye ubufasha bwe butajegajega. Turajya imbere, uhoraho na Bikira Mariya bazadufasha. Umubyeyi utasamanywe icyaha ari ku ruhande rwacu, murakoze".

Ari mu ba Papa batowe bakuze

Papa Benedigito wa 16 yari umupapa watowe akuze ugereranyije n’abamubanjirirje.

Misa y’umuganura nk’umupapa mushya tariki ya 24 Mata 2005, yari yitabiriwe n’abayobozi bakomeye mu rwego rw’Isi : aha twavuga nka Perezida w’u Bufaransa Jacques Chirac n’umugore we. George W. Bush Perezida wa Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika nawe yari ahari, ndetse na se George Bush hatibagiranye na Bill Clinton yasimbuye.

Ingendo ze

Uyu mupapa nti yakoze ingendo nyinshi kuko yasuye ibihugu by’u Butaliyani,u Budage, Pologne, Espagne, Turquie, Brésil, Autriche, Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, Australie, u Bufaransa, Cameroun, Angola, Israël , Jordanie, Tchéquie, Malte, Portugal, Chypre, u Bwongereza, Croasiya, Bénin, Mexique, Cuba na Liban.

Ibindi yakoze mu mirimo ye byibazwagaho na benshi

Taliki ya 22 Gashyantare 2006, yashyizeho abakardinali bashya 15, yaje kongeraho abandi 23 mu mwaka wa 2007 naho mu 2010 yongeraho abandi 24.

Taliki ya 13 Gicurasi 2005, yatangije gahunda yo gushyira mu bahire Papa Yohani Pawulo wa 2 wari utaramara n’umwaka yitabye Imana, mu gihe ubundi hategerezwaga imyaka 5 nk’uko amategeko asanzwe ya Kiliziya (droit canon) abivuga.

Mu butumwa yageneye ibirori by’Umunsi Mukuru wa Noheli ya mbere ari papa, taliki ya 25 Ukuboza 2005, Papa Benedigito wa 16 yasabye abari bateraniye ku rubuga rwitiriwe Mutagatifu Petero n’Abakkristu bose muri rusange, ko bagomba gukanguka muri roho, kuko bitagenze bityo bazarangazwa n’ikoranabuhanga rigenda rifata intera ikabije ku Isi.

Mbere y’uko aba papa yanditse ibitabo 27, aho yicariye kuri iyi ntebe, yongeraho ibindi nk’ikitwa Deus Caritas Est, mu Kinyarwanda bivuze ngo "Imana ni urukundo”, cyasohotse mu mwaka wa 2006, hari kandi ikitwa “Caritas in Veritate” mu Kinyarwanda bivuze ngo urukundo mu kuri, cyo mu 2009.

Papa Benedigito wa 16, yagiye ahura n’abayobozi b’andi madini nk’Abangilikani, aba Orthodoxe, Abayahudi, Abayisilamu, Ababoudistes n’abandi.

Yagiye ahura kandi n’imiryango mpuzamahanga kuko ku italiki ya 1 Mutarama 2006 ku Munsi Mpuzamahanga w’Amahoro, mu gitambo cya misa i Vatican, yahamagariye Umuryango w’Abibumbye (ONU) kugira umutima wo guharanira amahoro ku Isi.

Taliki ya 17 Werurwe 2009, ubwo yari mu ndege mu rugendo rwerekeraga mu bihugu by’Afurika nka Cameroun, Angola na Benin yagize ati "Rwose ndemeza ko ntawashobora kurwanya icyorezo cya SIDAa akoresheje amafaranga gusa n’ubwo akenewe. Igihe roho itabirimo, igihe Abanyafurika batifasha, ntiwakemura ikibazo mu gutanga udukingirizo. Ahubwo ni ukongera ikibazo. Abasenyeri benshi bashyigikiye iki gitekerezo ; nk’uwari Musenyeri wa Kinshasa Lauret Monsengwo yagize ati "Agakingirizo kongera ibibazo kagatanga umutekano utari utegerejwe".

Reka tuvuge noneho ku byo kwegura kwe

Imbere y’abakaridinali bari bateraniye muri kimwe mu byumba by’i Vatikani, uyu mushumba wa Kiliziya Gatolika wa 265 yatangaje ko yeguye ku mirimo ye. Yagize ati “Muri iyi si ya none, ikomeje kurangwa n’impinduka zihuse ndetse n’ibibazo bifitiye umumaro ukomeye ubuzima bw’imyizerere, kugirango umuntu abashe kuyobora iyi nkuge ya Mutagatifu Petero no gusakaza ivanjili, ingufu z’umubiri na roho ni ngombwa”.

Ibi papa yabitangaje nyuma y’imyaka umunani yari amaze ku ntebe y’ubutungane, imyaka bishoboka ko yaba yaramukomereye ku buyobozi Kiliziya Gatolika.

Gusa imyaka umunani amaze ku ntebe y’ubutungane nti yaranzwe gusa n’ituze muri Kiliziya, kuko igice kinini muri yo cyaranzwe n’ibibazo bitandukanye ; igikomeye muri byo kikaba ari icy’Abihayimana bakoranaga imibonano mpuzabitsina n’abana bakiri bato (Pedophilie).

Nyuma yo kugera ku Ntebe y’Ubutungane mu mwaka wa 2005, itahurwa ry’amahano y’ikorwa ry’imibonano mpuzabitsina ry’abihaye Imana ku bana bakiri bato ryarimo rivuza ubuhuha cyane cyane muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika.

Mu mwaka wa 2008, Papa Benedigito wa XVI ni we wabaye umupapa wa mbere watangaje ko atewe “Ikimwaro” n’icyi gikorwa ndetse ahura n’abahohotewe arabahumuriza. Gusa bidatinze mu mwaka wa 2009 hakomeje gutahurwa ibikorwa nk’ibyo hirya no hino ku Isi, cyane muri Irlande, ndetse no mu bindi bihugu byinshi mu Burayi n’Amerika.

Papa Benedigito wa 16 yaje gutangaza ko ibikorwa byo guhuza ibitsina kw’Abihayimana n’abana bakiri bato bihangayikishije Kiriziya, ndetse anabisabira imbabazi.

Taliki 10 Mata 2010, Vatikani yashyize ahagaragara gahunda ihamye yo kurwanya ikorwa ry’imibonano mpuzabitsina ry’Abihayimana n’abana bakiri bato, ibinyujije ku rubuga rwayo rwa internet.

Niwe mushumba wa Kiliziya wa kabiri wakandagiye mu musigiti

Nyuma yo gushyira ahagaragara iyo gahunda ihamye, yanyarukiye muri Jordania aho yari agiye gukorera urugendo rwe rwa mbere ku butaka bw’Abayisilamu. Yasengeye mu Musigiti wa Al-Hussein, umunini kurusha indi muri icyo gihugu, icyo gihe aba abaye umupapa wa kabiri, nyuma ya Yohani Pawulo wa kabiri, wabashije kwinjira mu musigiti.

Kuva akimara kugera ku ntebe y’ubutungane, Benedigito wa XVI yatangiye igikorwa cy’ubwiyunge n’igice cy’Abagatolika baharanira ko nta mpinduka yabaho ku mahame n’imigenzereze bya cyera by’idini (intégriste).

Muri nyakanga 2007, yashyizeho itegeko ry’uko misa zizajya zisomwa mu Kilatini nk’uko byahoze.

Nyuma gato Papa Benedigito wa 16 akoresheje iteka, yagize impfabusa icibwa mu idini (excommunication) ry’Abihayimana bane ryari ryarakozwe na Papa Yohani Pawulo wa kabiri kubwo kwigira ibyingenge mu Idini Gatolika.

Umwe muri bo yari musenyeri Williamson, uzwi cyane ku kuba yaragiye apfobya Jenoside yakorewe Abayahudi, ndetse no kuba ashinja Abanyamerika kuba aribo ubwabo bateguye igikorwa cyo ku itariki 11 Nzeli 2001 ubwo imiturirwa ya World Trade Center yibasirwaga n’ibitero by’abiyahuzi.

Umunsi wo ku wa gatatu, ni wo papa yajyaga yakiriraho abamugana; uyu munsi ariko ni nawo yabonanye n’ibihumbi n’ibihumbi by’Abakristu baturutse mu mpande zose z’Isi baza kumusezeraho no kumushimira
Ubwo yahuraga n’abakristu bwa nyuma kuri uyu wa gatatu tariki 27 Gashyantare, yasezeye ku bakristu ibihumbi 150 baturutse mu mpande zose z’Isi.

Mu butumwa bwa nyuma yabwiye abari bateraniye ku rubuga rwitiriwe Mugatagifu Petero i Vatican yagize ati" Ndifuza ko mwishimira Ubukristu bwanyu, mukaba inshuti z’Imana yaduhaye umwana wayo w’ikinege".

Ku gicamunsi cyo kuwa 28 Mata 2013 nibwo Papa Benedigito wa 16 yasezeye imbaga ya Kristu akazajya gutura ahitwa Castelgandolfo. Azajya yitwa Nyirubutungane Benedigito wa 16, aho kwitwa Nyirubutungane Papa benedigito wa 16.

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