Abategetsi b’abagore bahinduye mu buryo budasanzwe politiki y’ibihugu byabo

Yanditswe na David Eugène Marshall
Kuya 4 Ukuboza 2017 saa 12:10
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Ihame ry’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye mu Rwanda rimaze gushinga imizi mu buryo budashidikanywaho mu gihe hakiri ibihugu bimwe ku isi aho usanga havugwa imyato ibikorwa by’abagabo gusa kandi hari n’abagore b’intwari babereye icyitegererezo sosiyete.

Kuva isi yaremwa, uko imyaka yagiye ikurikirana, abagore bagiye bagira uruhare muri politiki y’ibihugu byabo ndetse no mu bindi bice by’ubuzima bagaragaje ko ari indashyikirwa mu mivugire n’imigirire.

Itonde ryabo ni rirerire cyane ndetse uwabarondora ntiyabarangiza gusa hari abo amateka azirikana ku bikorwa bidasanzwe byabaranze mu myaka yabo ku isi.

Muri iyi nkuru turabagezaho igice cya mbere kirimo abagore babiri bagaragaje ubushake buhambaye mu mpinduka za politiki zo mu bihugu byabo.

-  Umuhinde Indira Priyadarshini Nehru Gandhi

Indira Gandhi yabaye Minisitiri w’Intebe w’u Buhinde, umugore rukumbi iki gihugu cyagize kuri uyu mwanya mu mateka yacyo. Indira Gandhi yavutse ku ya 19 Ugushyingo 1917, yitaba Imana ku wa 31 Ukwakira 1984, arasiwe iwe mu rugo n’uwari ushinzwe kumurinda.

Amateka ye arahambaye kubera ubuhangange n’ubutwari bwamuranze mu guharanira ko igihugu cye kigira ijambo mu ruhando rwa politiki mpuzamahanga.

Indira aza ku mwanya wa kabiri mu bategetse u Buhinde ku rwego rwa Minisitiri w’Intebe igihe kirekire. Ni umugore wamamaye cyane muri politiki y’iki gihugu no mu buyobozi bw’Ishyaka rya The Indian National Congress (INC).

Indira Gandhi kandi yakomoraga inkoni y’ubugabe kuri se umubyara Jawaharlal Nehru wabaye Minisitiri w’Intebe wa mbere w’u Buhinde.

Gandhi yagiye avugwaho imitegekere idasanzwe; yahinduye imikorere ya Banki y’u Buhinde atagishije inama cyangwa ngo amenyeshe Minisitiri w’Imari. Ibi ngo byatumye uwari Perezida w’u Buhinde, amwirukana mu ishyaka rya INC.

Uyu mugore yahise yiyegereza intumwa za rubanda hafi ya zose zari mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko y’u Buhinde, hafi 65 % by’abari abadepite n’abasenateri bakomokaga muri iryo shyaka biyunga hamwe bashyiraho irindi shami ry’ishyaka ubwabo kandi barakomera cyane.

Mu 1971, Gandhi yarwanye na Pakistan arayitsinda, bihesha ubwigenge Bangladesh yari yarigaruriwe na Pakistan, urugamba rwatumye u Buhinde buhinduka igihangange na magingo aya mu Karere ka Aziya y’Amajyepfo.

Mu mwaka wa 1983 hari agatsiko k’abantu babarizwaga mu idini rya “Sikh” ryari rifite abayoboke biganje mu Karere ka Punjab basaga n’abashaka kwikura ku Buhinde ariko Gandhi abitera imboni rugikubita. Bakimara kumenya ko Gandhi yatangiye kubahigisha uruhindu bahungiye muri Golden Temple, urusengero rwari rukomeye muri ako karere maze bihishana n’intwaro zabo.

Indira Gandhi ni we mugore wabaye Minisitiri w’Intebe w’u Buhinde

Indira Gandhi yahise ategeka ko urwo rusengero rusukwaho urufaya rw’amasasu n’amabombe yaraswaga n’ibitwaro bya rutura. Iyi ni na yo yabaye intandaro yo kuraswa kwe kuko umwe mu basirikare bamurindaga wakomokaga muri abo bantu yamurashe asa nk’uwihorera.

- Margaret Thatcher wabaye Minisitiri w’Intebe w’u Bwongereza

Margaret Hilda Thatcher uzwi nka “Baroness Thatcher” ni we mugore wa mbere wahawe inshingano zo kuba Minisitiri w’Intebe mu Bwongereza ndetse aza ku isonga mu bamaze igihe kirekire kuri iyi ntebe mu kinyejana cya 20.

Yabaye Minisitiri w’Intebe w’u Bwongereza kuva mu 1979 kugeza mu 1990, anayobora ishyaka ry’Aba-Conservative kuva mu 1975 kugeza mu 1990.

Thatcher yavukiye mu Mujyi wa Grandtham mu Bwongereza ku wa 13 Ukwakira 1925, yitaba Imana ku wa 8 Mata 2013 azize indwara yo gususumira.

Se umubyara yaje kuba Umuyobozi w’Umujyi wa Grandtham kandi icyo gihe yari umwe mu bavuga rikijyana.

Margaret Thatcher yize Ubutabire muri Kaminuza ya Oxford, ahakura impamyabushobozi y’ikirenga mu byo gukoresha ibyuma bifotora amagufa (radiographie).

Thacther utaratinze kuzamuka mu ntera muri Politiki y’u Bwongereza mu 1959 yatorewe kuba Umudepite w’agace ka Finchley. Mu 1970 yagizwe Umunyamabanga wa Leta ushinzwe Uburezi na Siyansi mu Bwongereza kugeza mu 1975.

Mu 1975 yahanganye na Edward Heath ku mwanya wa Perezida w’Ishyaka maze amutsinda ku buryo butunguranye aba umugore wa mbere wanditse amateka yo gutorerwa kuyobora ishyaka rikomeye mu Bwongereza.

Iyi ntsinzi yatumye Abongereza batekereza kuri uyu mugore ndetse mu matora yabaye mu 1979 mu Bwongereza ishyaka rye ryabonye intsinzi yanamugejeje ku ntebe ya Minisitiri w’Intebe umwanya yasimbuyeho James Callaghan.

Thacther akigera ku butegetsi yagowe no kuba mu gihugu cye hari ikibazo cy’ibura ry’imirimo cyane mu rubyiruko; yahanganye na cyo avugurura itangwa ry’amasoko ya Leta, anagira uruhare mu kwegurira ibigo bya Leta abikorera bituma ubukungu bwari bugeze aharindimuka buzanzamuka.

Niwe washyizeho gahunda yiswe “The Britain Self-reliance Policy” ,ibyo umuntu yakwita “Gahunda yo kwigira” ikintu cyamugaragaje nk’umunyapolitiki ukaze kandi ufite gahunda zitajenjetse na mba.

Thacther ni we mugore waremye ubucuti budasanzwe n’ibihugu bibiri by’ibihangange, byahoraga bihanganye mu ntambara y’ubutita. Yari inshuti ya Ronald Reagan wabaye Perezida wa 40 wa Leta Zunze Ubumwe, agakundwa kandi bitangaje na Michael Gorbachev wabaye Umunyamabanga w’iryahoze ari ishyaka ry’Aba- Communiste mu Bumwe bw’Abasoviyeti.

Urubuga rwa Leta y’u Bwongereza Gov.uk ruvuga ko bimwe mu bintu byamubangamiye birimo kwegura kwa Geofrey Howe wari muri guverinoma ye mu 1990.

Muri uyu mwaka yahise atakaza umwanya wa Minisitiri w’Intebe, wegukanwa na John Major wayoboye kugeza mu 1997.

Thacther yakoze ibihambaye ndetse arwana ingamba zitandukanye aho mu gihe Argentine yashakaga gushyira abasirikare bayo ku kirwa cya Falklands giherereye mu Nyanja ya Pacifique kigafatwa nk’ubutaka bw’u Bwongereza, byaramurakaje akigabaho igitero gikaze cyasize amateka ku isi mu mwaka wa 1982.

Margaret Thatcher nyuma yo kuva ku mwanya wa Minisitiri w’Intebe, Ubwami bw’u Bwongereza bwamuzamuye mu ntera agirwa “Baroness Thatcher Of Kesteven”, inyito imwicaza mu myanya y’abanyacyubahiro yagenewe Abongereza bakoze ibidasanzwe.

Mu 1995 kandi yahawe irindi kamba ryitwa Lady Companion Of The Order of the Garter rikaba na ryo ari ikamba ry’ubuhangange ryagenewe abantu bakomeye mu Bwongereza.

Ijambo Thatcher yaneguriyemo Abarusiya ryatumye yitwa "Iron Lady riramuhama

Mu 1976 , Thatcher yagejeje ijambo rikomeye ku Bongereza no ku isi yose ryari mu mbwirwaruhame yiswe “The Britain Awake Speech”, ugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda “Ijambo rihamagarira abaturage b’u Bwongereza gukanguka”.

Iri jambo kandi ryifatiraga mu gahanga u Burusiya bwari bukitwa Repubulika Zunze Ubumwe z’Abasoviyeti maze Abarusiya bamwe bararishima abandi bararinenga.

Margaret Thatcher ni umwe mu bagore bafatwa nk'abahinduye politiki y'u Bwongereza mu gihe yamaze ku butegetsi

Margaret yabwiye Abarusiya ko nta kintu bafite na mba cyatuma bitwara nk’ibihangange ku isi, ko ari abakene kandi bakiri hasi, bashatse bajya bareka kwivuga ubutwari budafite ibikorwa.

Umunyamakuru wo muri Leta y’Abasoviyeti yamuhimbye "Iron Lady", izina yahuje na politiki ye n’uburyo bwe bw’imiyoborere.

Nyuma y’amagambo yavuze ku Burusiya handitswe inkuru yari ifite umutwe ugira uti “Iron Lady Raises Fears” bishatse kuvuga ko “Umugore w’icyuma yavuze amagambo ateye ubwoba.”

Sunday Times yahise isohora ayo magambo uko yakabaye maze nyuma y’icyumweru aba yageze kuri Margaret Thatcher wayakubise amaso atangira kumwenyura.

Margaret yibazaga impamvu iryo zina ryari ryarihariwe n’abandi bagabo nka Otto von Bismarck wategekaga u Budage wari wariswe “Iron Chancellor” yabonaga ntacyo amurusha.

Mu nkuru zitaha IGIHE izabagezaho n’abandi bagore babaye indashyikirwa mu guhindura ubuzima bwa muntu mu ngeri zose.


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