Umurage 2016 isigiye Isi mu ngingo 12, mu mboni za Banki y’Isi

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 3 Mutarama 2017 saa 08:40
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Mu bijyanye n’imibereho y’abaturage, politiki, impinduka mu bukungu, kuvana abaturage mu byabo, byagiye bigarukwano mu 2016 ndetse inzozi ni uko bimwe bitasubira muri uyu mwaka mushya wa 2017.

Mu mibare itandukanye yagiye ishyirwa ahagaragara na Banki y’Isi, igaragaza ko hari bimwe mu bihugu byagerageje kwitwara neza, nubwo hari n’ingingo zinyuranye bisa n’aho zasubiye inyuma aho kugaragaza impinduka.

Mu ngingo 12, Banki y’Isi igaragaza zimwe mu mpinduka zabaye mu 2016, cyangwa se bimwe mu bintu bikomeye uyu mwaka usize.

1. Umubare w’impunzi ku Isi wiyongereye bidasanzwe

Mu ntangiriro za 2016, abantu basaga miliyoni 65 bari baravanywe mu byabo n’impamvu zinyuranye bariyongereye bavuye kuri miliyoni 60 zabarurwaga mu 2015. Muri bo, abasaga miliyoni 21 banditswe nk’impunzi mu buryo bwemewe.

Umubare munini w’impunzi n’abantu bavanwe mu byabo ahanini mu myaka 25 ishize babarurirwa mu bihugu byagiye bibamo amakimbirane nka Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, u Burundi, Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, Somalia, Sudani, Colombia n’icyahoze ari Yugoslavia.

2. Amasezerano agamije kurwanya ihindagurika ry’ibihe yatangiye gushyirwa mu bikorwa

Amasezerano agamije gukumira ihindagurika ry’ibihe yemerejwe i Paris mu Ukuboza 2015, mu 2016 yemezwa burundu n’ibihugu 118 mu gihe ibigera ku 194 byayashyizeho umukono, bikagaragaza ukwiyemeza kwabyo mu gukumira ugushyuha kw’Isi dutuye.

Ibi biniyongeraho ivugururwa ry’amasezerano ya Montreal agamije gukumira ikoreshwa ry’imyuka ya Hydrofluorocarbons isohoka cyane mu byuma bikonjesha, amasezerano yemerejwe i Kigali kuwa 15 Ukwakira 2016.

3. Ubucuruzi mpuzamahanga bwarahungabanye

Mu 2016, ubucuruzi mpuzamahanga bwahungabanye ku gipimo cyo hejuru kuva habaho ikibazo cy’ubukungu mu 2008. Umusaruro w’ubucuruzi wabaye mubi mu mwaka wose ku isoko mpuzamahanga aho bimwe mu bicuruzwa byataye agaciro n’ishoramari mpuzamahanga rigenda gahoro, mu gihe ubucuruzi aribwo shingiro ry’ubukungu bw’Isi bukanafasha ibihugu kugabanya ubukene.

4. Abaturage batunze telefoni ngendanwa kurusha uko babona amazi meza n’amashanyarazi

Gutunga telefoni igendanwa byazamutse cyane mu bihugu bikennye n’ibiri mu nzira y’amajyambere, ariko kubyaza umusaruro ikoranabuhanga harimo nko kongera umusaruro, amahirwe mu iterambere ry’imiryango ikennye n’ibindi, byo ntibiragerwaho, nk’uko bigaragazwa na 2016 World Development Report, ikorwa na Banki y’Isi ku buryo internet ikoreshwa.

Ivuga ko “hejuru ya 40 ku ijana by’abatuye Isi bagerwaho na internet, abayikoresha bashya bakiyongera buri munsi. Muri 20 ku ijana by’ingo zikennye, ingo 7 ku 10 bafite telefoni ngendanwa. Ingo zikennye cyane ziba zifite amahirwe yo gutunga telefoni ngendanwa kurusha uko zibona ubwiherero cyangwa amazi meza.”

5. Kimwe cya gatatu cy’abaturage bari bafite munsi y’imyaka 20

Mu bihugu bigera kuri 40 byo muri Afurika, hejuru ya 50% by’abaturage bafite munsi y’imyaka 20. Nyamara urebye mu bihugu 30 bikize, munsi ya 20% by’abaturage bose bafite munsi y’imyaka 20. Global Monitoring Report yo mu 2015/2016 igaragaza ko abatuye Isi bari kwiyongera mu buryo bashobora kuzabera umuzigo ibihugu mu gihe kiri imbere.

6. Mu myaka 10 iri imbere hazaba hakenewe imirimo miliyoni 600

Kimwe cya gatatu cya miliyari 1.8 z’urubyiruko rw’Isi nta kazi rufite, ntirwize cyangwa ngo rube rufite amahugurwa runaka. Ku rundi rubyiruko rusaga miliyari ruzaba rugeze ku isoko ry’umurimo mu myaka icumi iri imbere, nibura 40% nibo bazabona ku mirimo isanzweho.

Ahazaza h’umurimo hari guhindagurika cyane, ku buryo ubukungu bw’Isi buzakenera kubyazwamo imirimo isaga miliyoni 600 mu myaka 10 iri imbere, kugira ngo ihangwa ry’imirimo rijyane n’ubwiyongere bw’urubyiruko.

7. Umuntu 1 muri 3 ntiyabashije gukoresha ubwiherero

Umuryango w’Abibumbye uvuga ko nibura miliyari 2.4 z’abaturage batagira uburyo buhagije bubafasha mu isuku, hafi miliyari imwe y’abaturage bo bakaba bituma ku gasozi.

Umwanda n’isuku nke biri mu bituma abana bagwingira, ku buryo hakenewe igikorwa mu kuzamura isuku.

8. Ubukene bukabije bwigabije Afurika yo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara na Aziya y’Epfo

Mu gihe muri rusange umuntu 1 mu 10 yari mu bukene bukabije mu 2013, muri Afurika yo munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara, uwo mubare wo wari abantu 4 mu 10 bahwanye na miliyoni 389, ukaruta abandi bakene bo mu turere dusigaye nk’uko Banki y’Isi ibigaragaza.

9. Bitarenze 2030, bibiri bya gatatu by’abatuye Isi bazaba batuye mu mijyi

Uduce tugize umujyi wa 12 munini ku Isi, buri kamwe gacumbikiye miliyoni 15 z’abaturage, kandi mu myaka 25 ishize, imijyi nka Delhi, Shanghai na Beijing imaze kwikuba gatatu mu bunini. Uyu munsi abasaga kimwe cya kabiri cy’abatuye Isi baba mu mijyi kandi usanga ibumbatiye 80% by’umusaruro mbumbe w’Isi yose.

Gusa ariko, ubucucike bw’abaturage, imirimo n’imitungo ituma imijyi igira umwihariko, binakurura ibindi biza biterwa n’ibikorwa bya muntu, izo ngaruka zikaba zigaragaza n’uyu munsi.

10. Umubare udasanzwe w’amavugurura ibihugu byakoze mu bucuruzi bwabyo

Muri raporo y’uko ibihugu byorohereza abashoramari, Doing Business 2017, byagaragaye ko ibihugu 137 ku Isi byakoze amavugurura 283 mu mwaka ushize. Uyu mwaka wazamutse hejuru ya 20% ugereranyije n’uwabanje.

Mu nzego zakozwemo amavugurura harimo uburyo ibihugu byorohereza abashaka gutangira ubucuruzi, kwishyura imisoro, kubona inguzanyo no kwandikisha umutungo. Muri iyo raporo, icyagaragaye ni uko ibihugu 54 bikennye byakoze amavugurura 113, New Zealand ikaza ku mwanya w’imbere mu korohereza abakora ubucuruzi mu bihugu 190.

Kuri urwo rutonde u Rwanda ruza ku mwanya wa kabiri muri Afurika, n’uwa 56 ku Isi.

11. Kunywa itabi byarazamutse cyane mu bihugu 20

Ibipimo byo kunywa itabi byarazamutse cyane hagati ya 2000 na 2015 cyane cyane mu bihugu bikennye cyangwa mu bifite ubukungu bukiri kwiyubaka. Muri Indonesia nk’urugero, igipimo cyazamutseho 30% muri icyo gihe, ku buryo icyo gihugu uyu munsi gifite miliyoni zisaga 70 z’abaturage banywa itabi.

Imibare igaragaza ko rihitana abasaga miliyoni esheshatu ku mwaka. Nta gikozwe uyu mubare ushobora kuzamuka ku buryo mu 2030 itabi ryaba rihitana ubuzima bw’abasaga miliyoni umunani ku mwaka.

12. Ibihugu bikennye kurusha ibindi byahawe akayabo k’inkunga

Ihuriro rya guverinoma 60 harimo iz’ibihugu byateye imbere n’ibikizamuka ryemeye gushyira miliyari $75 mu kigega gishinzwe iterambere mpuzamahanga, International Development Association (IDA), ikigega cya Banki y’Isi gifasha ibihugu bikennye.

Mu myaka 25 ishize, ibihugu bifashwa na IDA byagiye bikomeza gutera imbere nko mu kubona amazi meza, ibyangombwa by’isukura, kuzamura umubare w’abana barangiza ishuri no kongera umubare w’abana bagerwaho n’inkingo.


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