Iby’ingenzi byari mu masezerano ya Arusha

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 25 Mata 2019 saa 08:44
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Ku wa 4 Kanama 1993, icyizere n’impungenge byari byose mu banyarwanda nyuma y’amasezerano y’amahoro ya Arusha yari amaze gusinywa hagati ya Guverinoma y’u Rwanda na FPR Inkotanyi yari mu buhungiro.

Ayo masezerano yasinyiwe muri Tanzania yafatwaga nk’agiye gushyira iherezo ku mvururu za politiki no gucikamo ibice mu banyarwanda byari bigiye kumara imyaka ine mu gihugu nyuma yo kwemera amashyaka menshi no kurangiza burundu intambara yo kubohora igihugu yari yaratangijwe n’Ingabo za FPR Inkotanyi mu Ukwakira 1990, ziharanira uburenganzira bw’impunzi zisaga ibihumbi 500 zari zimaze imyaka irenga 30 hanze y’igihugu.

Ibihugu bitandukanye byagize uruhare ngo ayo masezerano asinywe ariko icyizere cyari gike ku ishyirwa mu bikorwa ryayo dore ko muri Guvernoma y’u Rwanda harimo ibice bimwe biyashyigikiye ibindi biyamagana.

Perezida Habyarimana Juvénal ubwe yigeze kuvuga ko ayo masezerano ari ‘ibipapuro’ naho Lt Col Nsengiyumva Anatole wigeze kuyobora ubutasi bwa gisirikare we avuga ko ‘agamije kugurisha igihugu ku banzi.”

Nubwo ari amasezerano atarageze ku nshingano zayo dore ko Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yatangiye atarashyirwa mu bikorwa, tugiye kureba zimwe mu ngingo zikomeye zari ziyagize.

Ikibazo cy’impunzi
Urugamba rw’ingabo za FPR Inkotanyi rwatangijwe mu Ukwakira 1990, rwari rugamije gucyura impunzi zirimo izari zimaze imyaka isaga 30 zimeneshejwe mu gihugu.

FPR yinjiye muri urwo rugamba nyuma y’aho Guverinoma y’u Rwanda igaragarije ko nta bushake bwo kuzicyura, dore ko Perezida Habyarimana ubwe yivugiye ko u Rwanda ari nk’ikirahure cyuzuye amazi, ushyizemo andi yameneka.

Ku isonga mu bibazo byaganiriweho mu masezerano ya Arusha ikibazo cy’impunzi cyari kirimo.

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda na FPR Inkotanyi byemeranyijwe ko amahoro n’ubwiyunge mu gihugu bitagerwaho impunzi zikiri hanze y’igihugu.

Hemejwe ko nta mananiza agomba gushyirwa ku mpunzi yifuza gutaha kandi ko igomba kwemererwa gutura aho ishaka mu gihugu mu gihe ntawe ibangamiye.

Mu kwirinda amakimbirane mu baturage, hemejwe ko impunzi zimaze imyaka isaga icumi mu buhungiro zitagomba kubaza imitungo zasize mu gihe yaba yarafashwe n’abandi. Leta yahawe inshingano zo gushakira izo mpunzi zidafite imitungo aho gutura.

Mu gihe hari imitungo y’impunzi yigaruriwe na Leta, izo mpunzi zagombaga guhabwa ingurane.

Hemejwe ko hajyaho Komite ishinzwe gucyura impunzi ndetse no mu biro bya Minisitiri w’Intebe hakajyaho umwanya w’umunyamabanga ushinzwe icyo kibazo.

Leta yasabwe kumenyesha za ambasade zayo hirya no hino ku isi gufasha impunzi zifuza gutaha, kandi zagera mu gihugu ntihabeho guhezwa muri serivisi zose.

Kubera ko hari impunzi zari zifite ubwenegihugu bw’ahandi kandi mu Rwanda nta bundi bwenegihugu bwemerwaga, amasezerano ya Arusha yemeje ko amategeko y’ubwenegihugu avugururwa umuntu akemererwa gutunga uburenze bumwe.

Kugabana ubutegetsi

Amasezerano ya Arusha yitabiriwe n’amwe mu mashyaka ataravugaga rumwe na Leta arimo MDR, PSD, PL, PDC n’iryari ku butegetsi rya MRND.

Amasezerano ya Arusha rero ntiyagombaga kwihunza ikibazo cyo gusaranganya ubutegetsi n’urubuga rusesuye rwo gutanga ibitekerezo.

Impande zombi zabanje kwemeranya ko hajyaho Guverinoma y’inzibacyuho kandi muri icyo gihe Itegeko Nshinga ryo kuwa 10 Kamena 1991 n’amasezerano y’amahoro ya Arusha akaba ari yo mategeko azayobora igihugu mu nzibacyuho.

Guverinoma y’inzibacyuho yagombaga kujyaho mu minsi 37 amasezerano amaze gusinywa hanyuma ikamara amezi 22. Ayo mezi yagombaga gushira hamaze kuba amatora rusange ashyiraho inzego zisimbura inzibacyuho.

Byemejwe ko Habyarimana akomeza kuba Perezida mu gihe cy’inzibacyuho, naho Twagiramungu Faustin wakomokaga mu ishyaka MDR akaba Minisitiri w’Intebe.

Indi myanya muri Guverinoma yagabanyijwe amashyaka, MRND ihabwa Minisiteri eshanu zirimo Minisiteri y’Ingabo, iy’Uburezi, iy’Abakozi ba Leta, y’Igenamigambi na Miniisteri y’Umuryango.

FPR yahawe Minisiteri y’Umutekano n’Amajyambere y’icyaro, iyo gutwara abantu n’itumanaho, iy’Ubuzima, iy’Urubyiruko n’umwanya w’umunyamabanga wa Leta ushinzwe gucyura impunzi.

MDR yahawe Minisiteri enye, PSD na PL zihabwa minisiteri eshatu eshatu naho PDC ihabwa umwanya umwe.

Mu nteko Ishinga Amategeko y’inzibacyuho, MRND, FPR, PSD, PL na MDR bose bahawe intebe 11 buri shyaka, PDC igira imyanya ine.

Perezida Habyarimana yambuwe ububasha
Kimwe mu byatumye amasezerano ya Arusha yangwa ku buryo bukomeye n’ishyaka ryari ku butegetsi n’abahezanguni b’abahutu, ni uko ububasha bwinshi Perezida yari afite bwasaga n’ubutagihari.

Abasesengura bavuga ko ahanini Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yajyaga mu biganiro yacitsemo ibice, ntiyumvikane ubwayo ku byo isaba bigatuma ingingo FPR Inkotanyi itanze zumvikana kurusha.

Amasezerano ya Arusha yahaga Perezida ububasha bwo guhagararira igihugu mu ruhando mpuzamahanga, kugena abahagarira u Rwanda mu mahanga no kwakira abahagararira amahanga mu Rwanda.

Perezida yari Umugaba Mukuru w’Ikirenga w’Ingabo ariko ibyemezo bireba ingabo bikabanza kwemerwa n’inama y’abaminisitiri.

Amategeko ya Perezida mbere yo gusohoka yagombaga kujya abanza gusinywaho na Minisiteri cyangwa abanyamabanga ba Leta bireba.

Perezida yari yemerewe gutanga imbabazi, gushyiraho abakozi mu nzego za Leta nk’abanyamabanga ba Leta, Guverineri wa Banki Nkuru, Umuyobozi wa Kaminuza Nkuru n’abandi ariko akabikora ari uko Guverinoma imaze kubyemera.

Ubutumwa Perezida yagombaga kugeza ku baturage nabwo bwagombaga kubanza kwemezwa n’inama y’abaminisitiri.

Mbere yo gusinya ku mategeko yatowe n’inteko ndetse n’amateka y’inama y’abaminisitiri, gutangaza intambara cyangwa kuyihagarika nabyo yari abifitiye ububasha ariko nyuma yo kubyemererwa n’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko ndetse n’abaminisitiri.

Kuvanga ingabo byabaye ihurizo rikomeye mu masezerano

FPR Inkotanyi yari ishyaka rifite n’umutwe w’ingabo ari nazo zatangije urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu.

Mu 1993 Ingabo z’u Rwanda zageraga ku bihumbi 30, mu gihe iza FPR zageraga ku bihumbi 13.

Mu biganiro byo kuvanga ingabo, abahezanguni b’abahutu mu gisirikare bwarwanyije cyane icyo gitekerezo, bavuga ko baba bagiye kwamburwa ubutegetsi burundu bugahabwa abatutsi.

Urugero tariki ya 27 Nyakanga 1992, Lt Col Anatole Nsengiyuma wari ukuriye iperereza yandikiye Umugaba Mukuru w’Ingabo amubwira ngo “Abantu benshi bari kunenga amasezerano ya Arusha agabiza FPR u Rwanda. Abaturage benshi barabyamagana kuko basanga ari ugufatira ubutegetsi mu bundi. Na bamwe mu bo mu mashyaka atavuga rumwe na Leta ntibabishyigikiye. Bavuga ko igihugu cyacu kiri kugurishwa ku mwanzi.”

Hari impapuro z’ibanga zasohowe n’urwego rw’ubutasi bwa Amerika (CIA) zerekana ko Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yabanje kwinangira kuko yifuzaga igisirikare kirimo abasirikare ibihumbi 17 n’abajandarume 8000 bose hamwe bakaba ibihumbi 25, mu gihe FPR yashakaga ko ingabo zitarenga ibihumbi 15 ubariyemo n’abajandarume.

Guverinoma yavuze ko impamvu yifuza abasirikare n’abapolisi benshi ari uko bazi neza ko abazasezererwa mu ngabo, kwinjira kw’impunzi no kwemerera amashyaka menshi bitazateza ibibazo mu gihugu bityo ko hakenewe abashinzwe umutekano bahagije.

Bamwe mu bahuza bagiriye inama Guverinoma ko kongera umubare w’abasirikare n’abapolisi byaba bibi kuko igisirikare gihembwa nabi cyateza ibibazo birenze ibyo cyakemura.

FPR yavugaga ko aho gupfusha ubusa amafaranga menshi ahembwa abasirikare badakenewe ahubwo yashorwa mu gusubiza bamwe mu buzima busanzwe ndetse no gufasha mu kwihangira imirimo.

Byarangiye mu masezerano hemejwe ko hajyaho abasirikare batarenze ibihumbi 13 n’abajandarume batarenze ibihumbi bitandatu kandi Gendarmerie ikajya mu maboko ya Minisiteri y’Umutekano.

Amasezerano avuga ko mu ngabo za Leta hagombaga gusigara ingabo zitarenze 60 % naho iza FPR zikaba 40 % abandi bagasubizwa mu buzima busanzwe nyuma yo guhabwa imperekeza.

Ibyemejwe mu masezerano ya Arusha byagombaga gutangirira kuri Guverinoma y’inzibacyuho yagombaga kujyaho mu minsi 37 ariko ntibyashobotse kubahiriza icyo gihe.

Amashyaka amwe arimo ataravugaga rumwe na Habyarimana yari yatangiye gucikamo ibice byiswe Power ku buryo nayo ubwayo kwemeranya ku bagombaga kuyahagararira muri Guverinoma y’inzibacyuho bitashobotse. Ikindi ishyaka rya CDR ryari ryaratsembye ko ritazemera amasezerano ritagizemo uruhare kandi ari rimwe mu yari akomeye.

Ku wa Gatatu tariki 5 Mutarama 1994 nibwo Guverinoma y’inzibacyuho yagombaga kurahira. Habyarimana yarahiye mu gitondo uwo munsi avuga ko abandi bararahira ku mugoroba ariko byageze ku wa 6 Mata 1994 ubwo indege ye yahanurwaga abasigaye batararahira.

Uhereye ibumoso hari Tom Ndahiro, Andrew Rwigamba, Charles Muhire, Patrick Mazimhaka na Pasteur Bizimungu mu biganiro by’amahoro i Arusha mu 1992 bahagarariye FPR Inkotanyi
Ingabo za FRP Inkotanyi byari byemejwe ko zivangwa n'iza Habyarimana
Amasezerano ya Arusha yambuye ububasha bwinshi Perezida Habyarimana

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