Ikiguzi cy’intwaro gakondo zatsembye Abatutsi muri Jenoside

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 12 Mutarama 2019 saa 09:38
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Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 ni imwe mu zitazibagirana mu mateka y’Isi, zakoranywe ubugome bukabije, igakorwa nyuma y’imyaka hafi 40 gusa Isi yiyemeje gukumira icyitwa Jenoside aho cyaba hose.

Mu mezi atatu gusa, abasaga miliyoni bari bamaze kwicwa bunyamaswa bazira uko baremwe.

Abahakana n’abapfobya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, bavuga ko byabaye nk’impanuka, ivuye ku burakari bwatewe n’ihanurwa ry’indege yari itwaye Perezida Juvenal Habyarimana, nyamara ibimenyetso simusiga byerekana ko Jenoside atari impanuka.

Ibimenyetso by’ibanze ni ukuba abatutsi mu gihugu hose barahizwe, ababahize bafite amalisiti yabo bigashimangira ko byateguwe.

Mu bice byinshi hari ibyobo byari byaracukuwe, mu 1994 bijugunywamo abatutsi bishwe abandi bakiri bazima. Mbere ya Jenoside kandi hari amagambo ya bamwe mu bayobozi bari ku butegetsi yumvikanishaga ko hari umugambi wo kurimbura abatutsi.

Hari ikindi kimenyetso kitajya kivugwa cyane cy’intwaro gakondo zifashishijwe mu kurimbura abatutsi zaguzwe ku bwinshi mbere gato ya 1994.
Muri Kanama 1996, Leta y’u Rwanda yemereye itsinda ry’impuguke mpuzamahanga kuza gukora raporo ku madeni Guverinoma ya mbere ya Jenoside yari yarafashe guhera mu 1990 kugeza mu 1994.

Intego nyamukuru y’iyo raporo yiswe “L’usage de la dette extérieure du Rwanda (1990-1994)” kwari ugusesengura amadeni y’u Rwanda kugira ngo bihe Guverinoma y’Ubumwe uburyo bwiza bwo kuganira n’ibigega mpuzamahanga by’imari byagombaga kuyiha inguzanyo.

Pierre Galand ni we wari uhagarariye izo mpuguke afatanyije n’impuguke mu by’imari mpuzamahanga Michel Chossudovsky.

U Rwanda mu gihe cy’intambara

Umwaka wa 1990 wabaye uw’impurirane z’ibibazo byinshi ku Rwanda. Uwo mwaka ni wo FPR-Inkotanyi yatangije urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu, bikubitirana n’ubukungu bwari bwifashe nabi ndetse n’inzara yacaga ibintu kubera amapfa mu bice byinshi by’igihugu.

Uwo mwaka kandi nibwo hatangijwe politiki y’amashyaka menshi, yaje gushibukaho imitwe y’urubyiruko yari iyashamikiyeho. Urwo rubyiruko urwinshi rwari urwazahajwe n’ubukene n’ubushomeri, rwabibwemo ingengabitekerezo kugeza ubwo rwishoye muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994.

Umwaka wa 1990 na 1991 ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bwari bwaraguye kubera impamvu nyinshi zirimo n’imanuka ry’ibiciro ku isoko mpuzamahanga.

Mu ngengo y’imari ya Leta, 96 % yatangwaga n’ibihugu n’imiryango mpuzamahanga. Iyo myaka ni nabwo igihugu cyatangiye gufashwa muri gahunda ya Banki y’Isi n’Ikigega mpuzamahanga cy’Imari (IMF), rushyirwa muri gahunda y’inkunga n’inguzanyo z’ingoboka igamije kuzahura ubukungu (ASAP).

Izo nkunga akenshi zigendana n’amabwiriza akakaye igihugu cyazihawe kiba kigomba gukurikiza.

Nk’igihugu cyari mu ntambara, cyahawe agahenge gake n’ibyo bigo by’imari ko kugura intwaro mu Ugushyingo 1990, ndetse no kongera umubare w’abasirikare.

Ibyo byatumye mu 1990 ingengo y’imari igenda ku gisirikare iba 37% by’ingengo y’imari yose na ho mu 1991 iba 51%.

Mu 1992, Banki y’Isi na IMF byabujije u Rwanda kongera gushora amafaranga menshi mu gisirikare, birusaba kuyigabanya ahubwo ikongera ibijyanye n’mibereho myiza y’abaturage ndetse n’iterambere.

Uwo mwaka, IMF yasabye u Rwanda kugabanya miliyari zirindwi z’amafaranga ku ngengo y’imari niba rwifuza ko bongera kurutera inkunga. IMF yategetse ko ahubwo ku mafaranga agenerwa ibikorwa by’imibereho myiza n’iterambere hiyongeraho 33.6 %.

Ibyo byabaye nk’ibitera ubwoba Leta, yemera ayo mabwiriza ariko icura undi mugambi wo kujya ifata rwihishwa amafaranga agenewe ibikorwa by’iterambere, akifashishwa mu gisirikare.

Igurwa ry’imihoro yahitanye imbaga

Umwaka wa 1992 wazamukanye n’imitwe myinshi ishamikiye ku mashyaka, irimo iyagize uruhare rukomeye muri Jenoside nk’Interahamwe z’ishyaka MRND n’Impuzamugambi z’ishyaka CDR.

Guverinoma ni yo yatangaga amafaranga yo kugura ibyangombwa nk’intwaro gakondo, imyambaro n’ibindi iyo mitwe yakoreshaga, byiyongera ku byagurirwaga igisirikare nk’uko Raporo ibivuga.

Kuva mu 1992 kugeza 1994, ibikoresho by’ubwirinzi (bya gisirikare) byinjizwaga mu gihugu byariyongereye. Ibyo byaterwaga nuko hari n’ibikoresho byazanwaga byitirirwa ibigamije iterambere ry’abaturage kandi ari ibyo kwifashishwa nk’intwaro.

Kubera ko Leta yari yahawe umubare ntarengwa w’ayo igomba gushyira mu gisirikare, ntabwo kugura ibigenewe Interahamwe n’Impuzamugambi n’abandi bari mu mugambi wa Jenoside byari koroha kandi amafaranga menshi yakoreshaga yaravaga mu nkunga n’inguzanyo.

Byatumye itangira kunyereza amafaranga agenewe ibikorwa by’iterambere ikayagura intwaro gakondo nk’imihoro, ibitiyo, amapiki n’ibindi rwihishwa, bikaza byitirirwa ibigiye kwifashishwa mu buhinzi.

Raporo igira iti “Nkuko imibare ya BNR ibigaragaza, mu 1992 haguzwe imihoro myinshi ivuye mu Bushinwa. Iyi mihoro yaguzwe amafaranga y’inguzanyo yari agenewe guteza imbere abaturage. Kuva mu 1992 kugeza mu 1994, u Rwanda rwaguze ibilo 581,000 by’imihoro ifite agaciro k’amadolari 725,669.”

BNR igaragaza ko hagati ya 1991 na 1994, haguzwe imihoro, amapiki, amashoka, inkonzo (impabuzo), ibitiyo n’ibindi ‘byifashishijwe muri Jenoside’ bipima ibilo 3 385 568. Byaguzwe amafaranga 640 388 414 ($4,671,533).

Iyo mihoro yinjizwaga n’ibigo by’ubucuruzi bitandukanye. Hari nk’imihoro raporo ivuga ko yinjijwe mu gihugu tariki 19 Ukuboza 1992, iguzwe ku isoko ryahawe ETS Kabuga Félicien.

Impuguke zivuga ko Banki y’Isi na IMF byigize ntibindeba ku ikoreshwa nabi ry’amafaranga byahaga Leta y’u Rwanda, ngo kuko uko kunyerezwa kw’amafaranga agamije guteza imbere abaturage, byakorwaga ku mugaragaro.

Zigira ziti “Leta yakoresheje amafaranga y’inguzanyo yari agenewe guteza imbere abaturage, iyakoresha mu gutera inkunga imitwe yagize uruhare muri Jenoside. Hakimara kugurwa imihoro myinshi mu 1992, Banki y’Isi yagombaga guhita ikoranya ibigega by’imari mpuzamahanga bagafunga konti iriho inguzanyo bari bahaye u Rwanda.”

Ibyo siko byagenze kuko nka konti ya Leta yari muri Banque Bruxelles Lambert yishyuriweho imihoro mu 1992, yakomeje gukora kugeza nyuma gato ya Mata 1994.

Impuguke zikomeza zigira ziti “Raporo yacu isanga ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya Jenoside ryaraturutse ku bushake runaka bw’abashinzwe iby’imari.”

Amafaranga yatakajwe ku bijyanye n’igisirikare n’imitwe ishingiye ku mashyaka hagati ya 1990 na 1994 asaga miliyoni 112 z’amadolari nkuko biri muri raporo.

Mu 1992 haguzwe imihoro myinshi ivuye mu Bushinwa

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