Mu cyumba cya RTLM: Inkuru yo ku wa 7 Mata 1994 (Video)

Yanditswe na Philbert Girinema
Kuya 6 Kamena 2019 saa 08:53
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Itariki ya 7 Mata 1994 izahora yibukwa mu mateka y’Isi nk’umunsi u Rwanda rwinjiye mu icuraburindi rikomeye, ryahitanye Abatutsi basaga miliyoni imwe. Hari ku wa Kane, ubu hashize iminsi 9191 ihwanye n’imyaka 25, ukwezi kumwe n’iminsi 30.

Umugambi wari umaze imyaka ucurwa wo gutsemba Abatutsi nibwo watangiye gushyirwa mu bikorwa mu buryo bweruye, nyuma y’imyaka ugenda ugeragezwa ndetse unacengezwa mu baturage, kugeza ubwo bemeye kumena amaraso y’abaturanyi, abana cyangwa ababyeyi babo.

Abariho icyo gihe bibuka neza uko imiborogo yari hose mu gihugu, ariko n’abatari bakavutse uyu munsi babona ibimenyetso bigaragaza inzira igihugu cyanyuzemo.

Imwe mu nzira zifashishijwe mu gushishikariza ubwicanyi ni radiyo RTLM, yakoreshejwe mu guhamagarira Abahutu kwica abo bitaga inyenzi n’andi mazina abambura ubumuntu, mu kumvisha abicanyi kubikora ntacyo bishisha.

Iyi radiyo yatangiye kuvuga ku wa 8 Nyakanga 1993, muri Jenoside yanakoreshwaga mu kuranga uduce twihishemo Abatutsi ngo Interahamwe zijye kubahiga.

Nyuma yo guhanurwa kw’indege ya Habyarimana ku ya 6 Mata 1994, iyi Radio yakanguriye rubanda ko Abatutsi bigometse ari bo bakoze ayo mahano, maze ihamagarira abantu icyo yitaga intambara ya nyuma yo gutsemba Abatutsi. Imvugo yasubirwagamo kenshi yari iyo “Gutema ibiti birebire.”

Valerie Bemeriki ni umwe mu banyamakuru bayikozeho ndetse kuva ku ya 06 Mata kugera ku ya 17 Mata ntiyigeze ava mu cyumba cyatangarizwagamo amakuru. Ni we wavuze inkuru y’ihanurwa ry’indege ya Habyarimana kuko yayimenye arimo gutaha, ahita asubira ku kazi.

Magingo aya afungiye muri Gereza ya Mageragere aho amaze imyaka 20 nyuma yo guhamwa n’ibyaha bya Jenoside, agakatirwa igifungo cya burundu. Yemeye ibyaha anasaba imbabazi.

Yinjiye mu itangazamakuru mu 1990 avuye mu kandi kazi yakoraga ku Kibuga cy’Indege. Ni nawo mwaka Ingabo zari iza FPR Inkotanyi zafashe umwanzuro wo kubohora igihugu hifashishijwe intambara, kuko izindi nzira zari zananiranye.

Mu kiganiro aherutse kugirana na IGIHE aho afungiye muri Gereza ya Nyarugenge i Mageragere, Bemeriki yabaye umuhamya w’uburyo itangazamakuru ribi rishobora koreka igihugu. Yari inshuro ya mbere kuva yafungwa, agiranye ikiganiro n’ikinyamakuru cyo mu Rwanda.

Bemeriki Valerie yabaye Umunyamakuru kuri RTLM ndetse yumvikanye inshuro nyinshi ashishikariza Abahutu kwica Abatutsi

IGIHE: Utangira wari Umunyamakuru kuri Radiyo cyangwa Televiziyo?

Bemeriki: Oya, natangiriye mu binyamakuru byandika bya MRND. Ikinyamakuru cyitwaga “Umurwanashyaka”, hari n’ikindi cyitwaga “Interahamwe” cyari icy’urubyiruko.

IGIHE: Nk’inkuru ya mbere wanditse niba wibuka yavugaga ku biki?

Bemeriki: Yari inkuru ijyanye n’imirwano n’intambara kuko twabaga mu turere twaberagamo imirwano, twavayo tukaza tugakora inkuru. Ni zo twibandagaho.

IGIHE: Hanyuma waje kujya gukorera RTLM gute?

Bemeriki: Radiyo RTLM imaze gushingwa bafashe abanyamakuru bose bakoreraga ku binyamakuru bya MRND n’abakoreraga CDR n’abandi bo muri ayo mashyaka ya Power babajyana kuri RTLM, ariko njye ntabwo banjyanye. Kutanjyana ntibyanshimishije, narabisabye baranyangira.

Nabisabye uwari Umunyamabanga w’Ishyaka, yari Matayo Ngirumpatse, ntiyabinyemerera ariko numvaga ko nasigaranye ipfunwe, numvaga byanze bikunze nakagombye kuba narajyanye n’abandi twakoranaga.

Icyaje kuba ni uko ubuyobozi bwa RTLM bwatanze itangazo kuri Radiyo y’Igihugu, basaba ko abantu babyifuza bose bashaka kuba abanyamakuru kuri Radiyo ya RTLM bazaza bagakora ikizamini, abazagitsinda bakaba abanyamakuru. Ni uko nagiyemo rero.

IGIHE: Watangiye ukora ibijyanye n’iki? Ibiganiro cyangwa amakuru?

Bemeriki: Ubundi yari ifite abanyamakuru benshi kandi yari igitangira, twabikoraga byose: twakoraga amakuru, tugakora na animation, twakoraga n’ibiganiro bitandukanye.

IGIHE : Ni ikihe kiganiro cyari gikunzwe mu gihe cya mbere kuri RTLM?

Bemeriki : Urumva tukihagera byari ibihe by’intambara, ikiganiro cyari gikunzwe twavuga ibijyanye n’intambara. Hari igihe habaye amasezerano y’amahoro ya Arusha, hakavugwa ko hagomba kujyaho guverinoma y’inzibacyuho kandi ihuriwemo n’amashyaka menshi ndetse na FPR yari irimo, navuga ko icyo kiganiro cyagiye cyibandwaho cyane.

IGIHE : Niba wibuka, amakuru yaciye kuri RTLM tariki 7 Mata 1994 yari ameze ate?

Bemeriki : Ubundi nagiyeho nko mu mpera za Ukuboza 1993 no mu ntangiriro za 1994. Nibwo nahagiye.

Tariki ya 6 Mata 1994, ndibuka ko icyo gihe nari muri studio maze no kuvuga amakuru mu Kinyarwanda nibwo Me Mbonampeka Stanislas yahamagaye kuri radiyo icyo gihe manutse kuko twakoreraga muri etage ngiye gutaha, ushinzwe tekiniki ahita ahagarara ku ibaraza arambwira ngo hari telefoni yihutirwa idushaka.

Naragarutse, nuko Me Mbonampeka arambwira ngo ‘ndi kubona mu kirere hari indege iri gushya’ ati ariko ntabwo namenye ikintu cyayitwitse, ati ‘mpamagawe n’abazamu banjye bambwiye ko babonye ikintu gitukura cyaturutse ku butaka kirayikubita, gikubita ku ibaba.’

Rero ubwo nibwo yahise ambwira ngo ariko ubwo buriya iriya ndege ntiyaba ari iya Perezida ko twaherutse yagiye i Dar es Salaam yagombaga kuza kuri uyu mugoroba? Nasubije ko iyo nkuru ntayo mfite ko ntazi neza iyo ariyo.

Amaze imyaka 20 afungiye ibyaha bya Jenoside nyuma yo gufatirwa muri RDC aho yari yarahungiye

IGIHE: Wahise ukora iki ako kanya?

Bemeriki: Nagize amatsiko yo gushakisha iyo nkuru. Narahamagaye nk’umuntu wakoze ku kibuga cy’indege, mpamagara abantu bashinzwe ubugenzuzi bw’indege ariko ubwo bigasona hakabura umuntu unyitaba.

Nahamagaye mu Buyobozi bukuru bw’Ingabo, barambwira ngo iyo nkuru bayumvise ariko ngo hari abantu boherejeyo ariko ngo ntibaragera kure, ngo ntabwo baramenya iyo ariyo.

Ikindi nakoze nahamagaye mu bashinzwe kurinda Umukuru w’Igihugu, ariko umuntu witabye, yarayifashe nkivuga ngo ‘Allo’ ahita ayirambika hasi ati ’mbabarira hari ikindi kintu ndimo nkora’.

Ariko nkamwumva ari ku rindi tumanaho ntazi, nkajya numva bavuga ati ‘yewe bite?’, ati ‘barayirashe’ ngo ‘ntibishoboka’, ngo ‘indege ya Perezida?’ Ni uko nabyumvaga. Nyuma akubita ikivugirizo nibwo yaje afata telefoni ati ‘mada’ ati ‘nta mwanya mfite aka kanya ndagiye.’

IGIHE: Wahise utangaza inkuru cyangwa wakomeje gushakisha?

Bemeriki: Njye kuko nari kuri RTLM nshaka kumenya iyo nkuru, nagiye numva utugambo duto yagiye avuga nibwo nahise mvuga nti ‘yewe nti ndi hano kuri RTLM’ nti ‘mbwira iby’iyo ndege numvaga uvuga’. Niwe wampaye inkuru y’uko ari indege ya Perezida bayirashe.

IGIHE: Wahise ukora iki?

Bemeriki: Ntabwo iyo nkuru nahise nyitangaza, nahise mpamagara umuyobozi wa RTLM icyo gihe yari Habimana Phocas, muha iyo nkuru ahita agaruka kuri radiyo.

Iryo joro ryose ryari rimuri mu maboko. Amatangazo yose yatambutse, ayatambukaga cyane ya nijoro yavugaga ko indege ya Perezida yari ivuye i Dar Es Salaam yitegura kugwa ku kibuga cy’Indege bahise bayirasa, niryo ryari itangazo rya mbere.

Irya kabiri dutanga umubare w’abantu bari muri iyo ndege, tutaramenya amazina yabo. Irya gatatu batubwira amazina, ariko ibyo byose ni Umuyobozi Mukuru wabyishakiraga, akayaduha tukayavuga, noneho batubwira n’amazina y’abari muri iyo ndege, abarimo mu gice cy’u Rwanda n’abarimo ku gice cy’u Burundi.

Ibindi byose twarabitangaje ariko ntabwo twatangaje ko abari muri iyo ndege bose nta n’umwe warokotse.

Hashize umwanya, telefoni zakomeje gucicikanya. Harimo telefoni yahamagaye ivuye muri Ambassade y’u Burundi i Kigali, ibaza niba Perezida wabo yahageze.

Umuntu wari i Burundi ni we wahamagaye kuri RTLM, ni njye wari kuri radiyo icyo gihe iryo joro, aratubwira ati ‘ese ko twumvise Ambasade yacu aho mu Rwanda itubwira ko indege ya Perezida wanyu bayirashe, ntabwo mwamenya abantu bari bayirimo?’

IGIHE : Wamusubije iki ?

Bemeriki : Hari uwitwaga Munyemana wahoze akora muri Perezidansi y’u Rwanda niwe wahise atubwira ko izo ndege zaje zikurikiranye, noneho ngo ako kadege kabonye bayirashe kaguma kazenguruka mu kirere. Ni we watubwiye aho ibisasu byaturutse.

Iyo nkuru ni we wayitanze ko byaturutse i Masaka. Noneho ako kadege kari inyuma ngo kamaze kubona ko indege irashwe ko kahise kajya kugwa i Burundi.

Abantu bakomeje guhamagara bati ‘nimutubwire niba Perezida akiriho’, bamwe bishimye abandi bababaye. Bigeze hagati kwa Perezida Habyarimana nibo bahamagaye bavuga ko byarangiye ngo nimuhindure umuziki, ubwo dushyiramo ‘Classique’.

Bigeze saa kumi n’imwe za mu gitondo nibwo Umuyobozi wa RTLM yatanze itegeko ko dutangaza ko abari muri iyo ndege bose nta n’umwe warokotse, ubwo tuvuga ku ruhande rw’u Rwanda, tuvuga no ku ruhande rw’u Burundi.

IGIHE: Umugambi wo gutsemba Abatutsi icyo gihe wari umeze ute?

Bemeriki: Bikiri mu masaha ya saa sita tutaravuga ko iyo ndege bayirashe hari umugabo bita Manirareba Bernard yakoraga muri Banque Commerciale, yari umwe mu bantu b’Interahamwe wari ukomeye wari ufatanyije na ba Kajuga Robert; yari atuye ku Gitega.

Yaje kuri RTLM atanga inkuru y’uko bamaze gukora inama muri Camp GP, yari ihuje abayobozi b’amashyaka MRND, CDR n’amashyaka ya Power hakaba harimo n’abasirikare bakuru barimo aba GP na Etat Major ko bafashe icyemezo cy’uko bagomba kwica Abatutsi.

Yaje atanga amakuru akwirakwira hose abwira n’abayobozi b’Interahamwe aho bari muri za segiteri.

IGIHE: Kuri Radiyo mwahise mutangira kuvuga abagomba kwicwa?

Bemeriki: Ubutumwa yabuhaye Umuyobozi natwe arabuduha. Nibwo yahise avuga ati ibiganiro bigomba guhinduka ntabwo tugikomeje kuvuga nk’uko twavugaga.

Mu gitondo ku itariki 7, Umuyobozi yaduhaye amabwiriza ko nta muntu n’umwe ugomba kujya kwa Uwiringiyimana Agatha ngo kuko ashaka gukora Coup d’Etat kuri Radio Rwanda kuko ngo ari Etat Major imaze kubimubwira.

Nyuma y’iminota mike amaze kubivuga twumvise ko Agatha amaze kwicwa. Tubajije ukuntu yishwe, ngo yafatiwe mu mirwano yari ihuje ingabo z’u Rwanda n’iza Minuar ngo zari zishinzwe kumurinda.

Ariko kubera ya nkuru Manirarora yatuzaniye, yakwirakwiye muri segiteri zose z’Umujyi wa Kigali, hose agenda abwira abayobozi b’Interahamwe, ndibuka ko icyo gihe Kajuga Robert we yari arwaye ariko ibintu byose byabaga bagombaga kumuha raporo.

Nibwo muri segiteri nyinshi hano muri Kigali, za Gitega, ku Giticyinyoni, hose batangiye kwica. Ubwo baravugaga ngo barebe mu nzu z’Abatutsi hihishe abasirikare ba FPR. Niyo mabwiriza twari dufite.

Ni we wari kuri Radiyo RTLM umunsi umugambi wo gutsemba Abatutsi utangira gushyirwa mu bikorwa nyuma y'igihe kinini utegurwa. Yarangaga kuri radiyo inzu z'Abatutsi, hanyuma Interahamwe zikajya kubahiga

IGIHE: Wavuye kuri Radiyo ryari?

Bemeriki: Kuva icyo gihe ku ya 07 kugeza ku ya 17 Mata 1994 ntabwo twongeye gusohoka.

IGIHE: Icyo gihe cyose wavugaga amatangazo y’aho Abatutsi bari ngo bajye guhigwa gusa?

Bemeriki: Twagiye dutanga amakuru kuko n’ingabo icyo gihe zahise ziza no kuri Radiyo zifata Radiyo y’u Rwanda na RTLM, abasirikare binjira muri Radio bati ubu nta kindi mugomba gukora, mugomba gutangaza amakuru yose tubahaye. Nta kindi kintu mugomba gutangaza. Ni uko byagenze.

Ni muri ubwo buryo twagiye dukora dukurikije ayo matangazo y’Ingabo n’ubuyobozi twari dufite yaba ab’igihugu, ab’ingabo na ya mashyaka ya Power na MRND. Bose baravugaga ngo turwane inkundura igihugu kidafatwa n’Inkotanyi.

IGIHE: Ni iki wibuka wavugiye kuri iyo radiyo wicuza ubu?

Bemeriki: Rwose umbajije icyo kibazo ntabwo navuga ngo nta butumwa natanze bwo kuvuga ngo Abahutu nibice Abatutsi, narabutanze pe! Cyane ko ari Abatutsi ari n’Inkotanyi bose twabitaga Inyenzi, twabitaga amazina abatesha agaciro kugira ngo bumve ko atari abantu.

Urabona niba uvuze ngo umuntu ni inzoka, kandi inzoka igomba kwicwa, icyo kintu twarakivuze kandi nanjye narakivuze muri icyo gihe ku buryo twaravugaga tuti ‘aho bari hose mugomba kubasangayo.’

Kandi icyo gihe bazanaga amatangazo bavuga ngo itangazo turi butange, tuvuge inzu iyo ariyo noneho Interahamwe n’abasirikare aho bari hose barahita bamenya aho iyo nzu iri bajyeyo.

IGIHE: . Ubonye andi mahirwe yo gusubira kuri radiyo wumva watanga ubuhe butumwa?

Bemeriki: Umwuga w’itangazamakuru narawukunze ariko ngiyeyo ibyo navuze si byo nakongera kuvuga, ahubwo nabisenya byose, nkigisha Abanyarwanda imibanire myiza, nkabigisha kwirinda iby’amoko, nkabigisha kwirinda kugwa mu mutego nk’uwo twe twaguyemo, kuko twaguye mu mutego mubi wakozwe n’abo bari hejuru bateguye Jenoside, noneho tuwugwamo wo kwica abavandimwe bacu.

Icyo nakora ni ugushimangira ubumwe n’ubwiyunge mu Banyarwanda, mbumvisha ko twese turi Abanyarwanda nta Hutu nta Tutsi, ko icyo tugomba gukora ari ugufatanya tukubaka igihugu cyacu.

Mu gice cya kabiri cy’ikiganiro na Bemeriki, tuzagaruka ku buryo yafashwe yarahungiye muri RDC, uko yaburanishijwe, uko yemeye icyaha n’ubutumwa ku bapfobya Jenoside bavuga ko itateguwe n’ibindi.

Uyu munara munini ni wo wakoreshwaga na RTLM. Yakoreraga mu nyubako iri mu Mujyi rwagati ahari Car Free Zone ubu

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