Intifada, intambara ntagatifu isobanuye iki?

Yanditswe na Jean Luc K. Mugisha
Kuya 18 Werurwe 2017 saa 05:36
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Intifada ni ijambo rifite imizi mu myaka yo hambere aho ryakoreshejwe muri Iraq mu ntambara yashyamiranyije abayoboke b’ishyaka ry’aba-socialistes n’aba-communistes biraye mu mihanda batangira kurwanya ubutegetsi bwa Cyami bw’aba-Hashemites.

Rifite igisobanuro gikomeye mu bihugu by’Abarabu mu bijyanye na politiki kuko risobanura “ibikorwa by’abaturage bigamije kwigomeka no kurwanya ubutegetsi bubakandamiza cyangwa umwanzi uturutse hanze y’igihugu.”

Iri jambo rikomoka ku rurimi rw’icyarabu Intifadah, ryamamaye cyane mu ntambara y’akarere k’Uburasirazuba bwo hagati mu ntambara imaze imyaka myinshi ihanganishije Israél na Palestine. Ibihugu byombi bipfa ubutaka buherereye mu gace ka West Bank na Gaza buri wese avuga ko ari ubwe.

Igisirikare cya Israél gifite ingabo zo ku rwego rukomeye ku Isi, zigizwe n’imitwe yashinzwe mu myaka ya 1920, ari nayo ntangiriro y’amakimbirane hagati y’Abayahudi n’Abarabu cyigaruriye intara z’Abarabu.

Aya makimbirane yaje gufata indi sura mu 1947 nyuma y’ishingwa rya Leta ya Israél. Ingabo z’icyo gihugu kugeza icyo gihe zabarizwaga mu mitwe ya Irgoub na Lehi itarakoreraga hamwe mu buryo bwa gisirikare.

David Ben Gourion, umugabo wayoboye icyo gihugu kimaze gushingwa, yafashe icyemezo cyo guhuriza hamwe iyo mitwe y’ingabo hashingwa igisirikare gikomeye cya Israél nyuma y’intambara ya kabiri y’isi.

Intambara yeruye hagati ya Israél n’Abarabu

Hamaze gushingwa Leta ya Israél, ntibyishimiwe n’ibihugu by’Abarabu. Ku itariki 14 Gicurasi 1948, ibyo bihugu byo mu Burasirazuba bwo hagati byateye Israél.

Ni ukuvuga Misiri, Jordanie, Siriya, Irak, Liban, Abarabu bo muri Palestine na FPLP, Umutwe Uharanira Kubohoza Palestine. Ni intamba yarangiye Tsahal, ingabo za Israél, zitsinze imirwano mu ntambara y’iminsi itandatu, ibintu byakururiye igitinyiro izo ngabo mu karere no ku isi muri rusange. Israél yabaye igihugu gifite ingufu n’ubushobozi budasanzwe mu karere, irushaho no kwagura ibirindiro.

Intifada, intambara ntagatifu (Jihad) ku bayisilamu

Israél, Leta igizwe ahanini n’Abayahudi yaje kwisanga ihanganye n’AbanyePalestine ahanini bagizwe n’abayisilamu. Yeluzalemu, umurwa mukuru w’imyemerere y’amadini menshi yagabanyijwe mo kabiri hashingiwe ku cyemezo cy’Umuryango w’Abibumbye mu mpera za 1947.

Abanya-Palestine biruka bahunga ibisasu baraswagaho n’ingabo za Israel nyuma y’imyigaragambyo yabereye ahitwa i Ofer mu Majyaruguru ya Israel

Ni igikorwa cyakajije umurego w’Abarabu mu rugamba rwabo. Ikibazo cyaje guhinduka icy’idini, bamwe mu bayobozi ba Isilamu bakomeza inyigisho mu misigiti itandukanye yo kurwana iyo ntambara bita Jihad. Ni intambara bemera ko uyiguyemo ku ruhande rwabo ahita ajya mu ijuru.

Intambara y’amabuye

Muri iyo ntambara y’igihe kirekire, abanye-Palestine ahanini bo mu ntara ya Gaza baje gukora imyivumbagatanyo bahangana n’ingabo za Israél zibagose. Ni intambara yatangiye ku itariki 9 Ukuboza 1987 isozwa n’amasezerano ya Oslo. Ni nyuma y’uko kuya 8 Ukuboza muri uwo mwaka radiyo ya Israél itangaje amakuru avuga impanuka y’ikamyo y’Umuyahudi yaciye hejuru y’imodoka, ihitana abanye-Palestine bane. Ni igikorwa cyafashwe nk’ubugizi bwa nabi mu maso y’abo batangira intambara bakimara gushyingura bene wabo.

Iyi intambara yaje kuvugwa ku isi yose nyuma y’uko mu mwaka 1988 umunyamakuru ukomoka muri Israél azengurukije isi yose amashusho yerekana ingabo z’icyo gihugu zihanganye n’abanye-Palestine bazitera amabuye mu gihe zikoresha intwaro. Intambara yafashe izina rya Intifada ya mbere, byandikwa mu mateka nk’uko urubuga wikipedia rubitangaza. Yaje gusozwa mu 1993.

Intifada ya kabiri

Mu mwaka wa 2000 havuzwe Intifada ya kabiri. Ni amakuru yabanje gushyirwa ahagaragara n’Ibiro Ntaramakuru by’Abafaransa, AFP. Iyi ntambara bivugwa ko yarangiye mu 2005, yaranzwe n’ibikorwa byo kwivumbagatanya byakozwe n’abanye-Palestine guhera tariki 28 Nzeri 2000 biturutse ku ruzinduko rwa Ariel Sharon ku musigiti w’Abayisilamu.

Yashojwe n’urupfu rwa Yasser Arafat, umugabo waharaniye igihe kirekire gushinga Leta ya Palestine, ikurikirwa kandi n’ibiganiro hagati ya Ariel Sharon wari Minisitiri w’Intebe wa Israél na Mahmoud Abbas, Perezida wa Palestine.

Abanya-Palestine bareba inyubako iherereye mu gace ka Gaza yasenywe nyuma y’ibitero by’indege za gisirikare za Israel, bigahitana abagera kuri barindwi mu 2012

Intifada yarushijeho kumenyekana ku Isi

Hagati y’imyaka ya 2010-2011, ijambo Intifada ryakoreshejwe ku buryo budasanzwe muri Liban, Irak, Algérie ndetse no mu gusobanura imyivumbagatanyo yo muri Tunisia yakuye Perezida Beni Ali ku butegetsi.

Perezida Ali yahiritswe nyuma yuko umusore urangije kaminuza yitwikiye mu mujyi rwagati yamagana imibereho mibi muri icyo gihugu cyo mu Majyaruguru ya Afurika. Ibi byaje gukwira mu bihugu byinshi, abayobozi benshi bareguzwa mu cyiswe ‘printemps arabe’.

Intifada yakuyeho Hosni Mubarak mu Misiri na Muammar Gaddafi wayoboraga Lybia akaza gukurwa ku butegetsi yishwe. N’iyi Intifada yatangije urugamba rwo muri Siriya mbere yo guhindura isura, iba intambara ikomeye ikomeje guhitana benshi kugeza ubu.

Muri bimwe mu bindi bihugu nko mu 2014, mu Mujyi wa Yerusalem habereye imvururu n’ibitero byibasiye benshi byitwa "Intifada", amakimbirane yashyamiranyije Israél na Palestine mu 2015 yiswe “Al-Quds Intifada”, “Jerusalem Intifada” cyangwa “Knife Intifada” ndetse n’imyigaragambyo yabaye muri Sudani hagati ya 2011 na 2013 yiswe “Sudanese Intifada.”

Intifada isanishwa n'ibikorwa by’abaturage bigamije kwigomeka no kurwanya ubutegetsi bubakandamiza cyangwa umwanzi uturutse hanze y’igihugu

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