Tumenye neza Loni u Rwanda rumazemo imyaka 50

Tumenye neza Loni u Rwanda rumazemo imyaka 50


Yanditswe kuya 29-10-2012 - Saa 14:39' na KAYITAYIRE Alphonse/Geneva

Muri iki gihe hizihizwa imyaka 50 u Rwanda rumaze mu muryango w’Abibumbye n’imyaka 67 uwo muryango umaze ushinzwe, birakwiye kurushaho kumenya neza iby’uwo muryango mpuzamahanga usanzwe umenyerewe ku izina rya Loni.

Ijambo « Umuryango w’Abibumbye (United Nations ) ryakoreshejwe bwa mbere n’uwari Perezida wa Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika, Franklin D. Roosevelt, mu nyandiko yiswe “Itangazo ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye (Declaration of United Nations) ryashyizwe ahagaragara ku itariki ya 1 Mutarama 1942 n’intumwa z’ibihugu 26 zari ziteraniye i Washington DC muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika zirebera hamwe uko intambara ya kabiri y’Isi yose yarangira.

Loni yagiyeho isimbura undi muryango mpuzamahanga « League of Nations » nawo wari waragiyeho mu 1919 nyuma y’intambara ya mbere y’Isi yose, ukaba wari ugamije gukumira amakimbirane ayo ariyo yose hagati y’ibihugu kugira ngo hatazongera kubaho ukundi intambara y’Isi. Uwo muryango wari ufite icyicaro i Geneva mu Busuwisi ntiwashoboye kugera ku nshingano zawo kuko haje kubaho intambara ya 2 y’Isi yose.

Mu 1944, Intumwa z’u Bushinwa, u Burusiya, u Bwongereza na Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika zahuriye mu mujyi wa Dumbarton Oaks muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika, zungurana ibitekerezo ku ishingwa ry’Umuryango mpuzamahanga mushya wo kubungabunga amahoro ku Isi. Ibitekerezo byavuye muri iyi nama nibyo byagendeweho mu gutegura umushinga w’inyandiko y’amategeko cyangwa amahame shingiro (Charter) yagomba kuzagenga Umuryango w’Abibumbye umaze gushingwa.

Uwo mushinga w’amahame shingiro wanonosowe mu yindi nama yahuje intumwa z’ibihugu 50 mu mujyi wa San Francisco na none muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika mu 1945.

Ayo mategeko yaje gushyirwaho umukono ku wa 26 Kamena 1945 n’intumwa z’ibyo bihugu 50 byaje guhita byiyongeraho igihugu cya Poland, cyo kitari kitabiriye ya nama yo kunoza ya mahame shingiro ariko nayo yemerwa mu bihugu 51 byashinze Umuryango w’Abibumbye.

Umuryango w’Abibumbye washinzwe rero ku mugaragaro ku wa 24 Ukwakira 1945, ubwo ya mahame shingiro yari amaze kwemezwa burundu n’u Bushinwa, u Bufaransa, u Burusiya, u Bwongereza na Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika ndetse hamaze kuboneka n’ibindi bihugu biyemeza burundu, birenze icya kabiri cy’ibyari byarayashyizeho umukono (Biriya bihugu 5 ni byo bya nyiri cyicaro gihoraho mu nama ya Loni ishinzwe Amahoro ku Isi).

Itariki ya 24 Ukwakira 1945 ifatwa nk’itariki y’amavuko y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye. Iyo tariki ikaba yubahirizwa nk’umunsi mukuru wa Loni (UN Day) kuva mu 1948. Mu mwaka wa 1971, Inteko Rusange ya Loni yanifuje ko ibihugu biwugize byajya byubahiriza iriya tariki nk’umunsi w’ikiruhuko ; ariko kugeza ubu ibihugu byinshi ntibyubahiriza iki cyifuzo.

Nk’uko bikubiye mu mahame shingiro, Umuryango w’Abibumbye ubu ugizwe n’ibihugu 193 urangajwe imbere by’umwihariko no kwita ku mahoro n’umutekano mpuzamahanga, iterambere ry’ubukungu n’imibereho myiza by’abaturage ndetse no guharanira uburenganzira bw’ikiremwa muntu.

Tugarutse rero ku gihugu cyacu, twakwibukiranya ko u Rwanda rwemerewe runakirwa ku mugaragaro mu Muryango w’Abibumbye ku wa 18 Nzeri 1962 nyuma gato y’uko rwari rumaze gusubizwa ubwigenge bwarwo n’u Bubiligi, ku wa 1 Nyakanga 1962.

Muri rusange, ibihugu byinjira mu Muryango w’Abibumbye ku bushake bwabyo, nta gahato, bikurikiranye inyungu runaka biba byabanje kwibazaho. Ibi bivuga ko kwinjira muri Loni, bisabwa n’igihugu kigenga kandi kibyifuza, bigatangwa n’ibihugu biba biwusanzwemo.

Kuba rero igihugu kibonye ubwigenge, ntibisobanura ko gihita cyinjira mu muryango w’Abibumbye. Twatanga urugero rw’u Busuwisi buri kwizihiza muri uyu mwaka wa 2012 imyaka 10 gusa bumaze bwinjiye muri Loni, kandi bufite ubwigenge kuva mu 1848 !

Ubwo bushake bw’ibihugu bunakenerwa no mu kwinjira mu nzego cyangwa imiryago imwe n’imwe ishamikiye kuri Loni ; uretse ko hari naho igihugu gihita kiyinjiramo ako kanya mu gihe kinjiye muri Loni (Urugero ni nk’Ishami rishinzwe Ubucuruzi n’Iterambere / United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, UNCTAD). Ariko kandi hakaba n’izindi nzego bisaba ipiganwa rihanitse ndetse riri no ku rwego rwo hejuru mu by’ububanyi n’amahanga, kugira ngo igihugu gishobore guhabwa amahirwe yo kuyibonamo intebe. Aha ni nko mu Nama Inshinzwe Amahoro ku Isi (UN Security Council) u Rwanda rwatorewe kwinjiramo ku wa 18 Ukwakira 2012, mu gihe cy’imyaka ya 2013-2014 ; muri Komite Nshingwabikorwa y’Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye rishinzwe Impunzi (UNHCR Executive Committee) u Rwanda rwakiriwemo ku mugaragaro ku wa 1 Ukwakira 2012 no mu nama ya LONI ishinzwe Uburenganzira bwa Muntu (UN Human Rights Council) n’izindi.

Mbere y’uko Umuryango w’Abibumbye ujyaho, hari indi miryango mpuzamahanga ikurikirana ibintu bitandukanye ku rwego rwa tekiniki yari yarashinzwe, nk’Umuryango Mpuzamahanga w’Itumanaho (International Telecommunication Union, ITU) washingiwe i Paris mu 1865 n’Umuryango Mpuzamahanga w’Amaposita (Universal Postal Union, UPU) washinzwe mu 1874. Iyo miryango kimwe n’indi yashinzwe nyuma y’uko Loni ijyaho, yagiranye na Loni amasezerano ataziguye y’imikoranire; ariko buri wose ukagumana ubwigenge bwawo. Kwinjira rero muri iyi miryango ntaho bihurira no kuba muri Loni: igihugu gifite uburenganzira bwo kuyijyamo no kuyivamo igihe gishakiye kabone n’iyo cyaba kitari muri Loni cyangwa kiyirimo.

Ibihugu bimwe byishakira inyungu kurusha ibindi muri Loni

Imyitwarire rero y’ibihugu mu Muryango mpuzamahanga uwo ariwo wose, waba Loni, amashami yawo cyangwa indi yose, irangazwa imbere ikanagengwa n’inyungu igihugu kiyibonamo.

Muri rusange kuba muri iyo Miryango bigira inyungu nyinshi ku bihugu biyigize. Ariko na none usanga ibihugu bizicuranwa, ibifite ingufu nyinshi bikifuza no gutwara inyungu zagenewe ibifite intege nke. Aha twavuga nk’ubusumbane bukabije bukunze kugaragara nko ku myanya y’abakozi igenerwa ibihugu muri iyo Miryango. Usanga ibyanditswe atari byo bikurikizwa.

Hari n’aho usanga inyungu za politiki zirenga ku mahame aba yarumvikanyweho yakagombye kugenderwaho. Usanga kandi hari n’aho igihugu gishaka gushimangira ubwigenge bwacyo ndetse no guharanira ibyo gihabwa n’amategeko yakagendeweho n’iyo Miryango, kibuzwa uburyo na bigenzi byacyo bifite ingufu nyinshi kubera za nyungu za politiki, bityo bikaba aka wa mugani wa ya mafi mato atungwa n’amanini.

Umwe mu miti yo kuvanaho ako karengane k’ibihugu bifite ingufu nke, ni ukwishyirahamwe ku ibyo bihugu bifite ingufu nke kandi bihuje ibibazo, bikimenya, bikagira ijwi rimwe; bityo kubimeneramo bikabera ikibazo gikomeye bimwe bishaka kubibuza uburyo.

Gusa ibyo nabyo akenshi ntibyoroha kuko ibyo bihugu by’intege nke usanga nabyo ubwabyo bisubiranyemo akenshi byohejwe n’ibindi bihora byifuza kwikubira twose; bityo “gucamo ibice kugira ngo utegeke” bigahabwa intebe izuba riva !

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