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Amagorwa abajya mu bigendajuru hirya y’Isi bahurira na yo mu bwiherero

Yanditswe kuya 30-11-2016 saa 22:40' na IGIHE


Kuva ku Murusiya Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin mu 1961 ubwo yabaga ikiremwamuntu cya mbere kigeze mu isanzure yifashishije icyogajuru Vostok, Ikigo cy’Abanyamerika gikora ubushakashatsi ku bumenyi bwo mu kirere n’isanzure, NASA, Icy’Abanyaburayi n’abandi bahigana ubuhanga, barasizanira kumenya byinshi mu isanzure n’ibirigize, ari nako boherezayo ibigendajuru bigenda birutana ubuhanga.

Mu isanzure, ni urugendo rukomeye kuko nk’undi Murusiya Valeri Vladimirovich Polyakov, byamutwaye iminsi 437 n’amasaha 18 ataragaruka ku Isi, kandi akenera ibyangombwa byose nk’umuntu, harimo ibiribwa, ibinyobwa, bidasigana no kujya mu bwiherero ngo ibitagifite umumaro bibise ibindi umubiri ukeneye.

Hari benshi bakwibaza aho ibyo bituma ndetse n’inkari zabo bijya, niba bijugunywa mu muyaga bigakomeza kuzenguruka mu kirere, birundwa ahantu runaka cyangwa ukundi bigenda ?

Umushakashatsi w’umunyamerika Hank Green, mu mashusho yahuje yerekanye uko ubwiherero bwo hejuru mu kirere bwifashishwa, mu gihe umuntu aba ari ku ntera itakigenzurwa n’imbaraga zo mu nda y’Isi zituma ikintu kiremereye cyose, iyo kivuye aho kiri kimanuka kijya hasi, ariko mu isanzure ho kikaba cyafata icyerekezo runaka.

Aha twavuga nk’uko icunga cyangwa avoka bishobora guhanuka mu giti bikitura ku itaka kubera imbaraga zo mu Isi zikurura (gravite de la terre), mu gihe mu bushorishori bw’isanzure izo mbaraga zitagerayo, ku buryo ushobora gufata ibuye mu ntoki, warirekura ntirimanuke hasi ahubwo rikareremba nk’akababi unaze mu mazi, nk’uko byagaragajwe n’abahanga nka Isaac Newton.

Ibyo ubwabyo bisobanura imbogamizi zishobora kubaho niba ushaka kujya mu bwiherero, kuko nta ngufu zituma imyanda urekura imanuka ijya aho yagenewe.

Imbogamizi ya mbere iba ingano nto y’ubwiherero mu cyogajuru, kuko mu gihe ku Isi bugira umurambararo uri hagati ya sentimetero 30 na 45, mu cyogajuru ni ukwifashisha umwenge utarengeje sentimetero 10 kuko haba hakenewe ko umwanda uguma aho woherejwe.

Kugira ngo umuntu aboneze neza ahabugenewe, abahanga ba NASA basanze hakenewe utuntu ujya mu bwiherero afataho, ndetse mu bwiherero hasi bagashyiraho Camera zifasha umuntu kwireba mu ndorerwamo uburyo afata icyerekezo kizima.

Uburyo bwo gukoresha ubwiherero bunakubiye mu masomo abakoresha ibyogajuru bahabwa ku ikubitiro. Ku muntu uri kwituma, iyo arangije ahita afungura uburyo bubasha kubika iyo myanda neza yumye.

Abakoresha ibyogajuru ngo banze kuba bajugunya uyu mwanda mu kirere hafi y’Isi baba bari ku muvuduko wa kilometero 28 000 ku isaha, mu yindi iba izenguruka mu isanzure.

Ku nkari bikorwa mu buryo butandukanye no kwituma, ndetse buri muntu uri mu cyogajuru agira agakoresho ke agomba kwifashisha: Hariho akantu gasa n’umubirikira kaba gacometse ku gahombo kajyana inkari.

Hank Green ati “Ubusanzwe ahantu banyuza inkari hatandukanye bitewe n’ubikora, niba uri mu cyogajuru ari umugabo cyangwa ari umugore. Gusa byorohera cyane abagore kuko bashobora kwegereza icyo gikoresho cyagenwe, ku mubiri wabo.’’

Gusa ngo si byiza ko umugore yegereza aka gakoresho ku mubiri we, kuko uko asohora inkari zikururwa n’umwuka wagenwe, kuburyo yegereje ku mubiri cyane bishobora kumutera ikibazo. Izo nkari zigenda zijya mu kintu cyagenewe kwakira amazi mabi.

Nubwo ubu buryo busa n’ubworoheje, ibikoresho byifashishwa ntibyoroshye ku biciro ku isoko, kuko ibigezweho usanga bigura miliyoni 19 z’amadolari ya Amerika, ndetse kugeza mu minsi ya vuba, inkari zabaga zabitswe zajyaga zijugunywa mu kirere iyo aho zibikwa habaga huzuye.

Umurusiya Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin mu 1961 ubwo yabaga ikiremwamuntu cya mbere kigeze mu isanzure yifashishije icyogajuru Vostok

Gusa ibi byaje guhinduka mu 2008 ubwo abakoresha ibyogajuru bazaga gutangira gukoresha uburyo bushya, Water Recovery System, butuma inkari ziyungururwa zikavamo amazi meza ashobora kunyobwa cyangwa agakoreshwa mu gukaraba. Imibare ivuga ko nibura mu mwaka hakorwa toni 6.8 z’amazi meza aturuka ku ihindurwa ry’inkari.

Kuyungurura amazi mu buryo busanzwe ku Isi ni ugucanira amazi mabi, akavamo umwuka ushyushye, ukanyuzwa ahantu hakonje ukavamo amazi ariko meza.

Green ati‘‘Bitandukanye n’uko bikorwa mu isanzure, ahari imbaraga nke zituma ibintu bimwe bishobora kujya hasi ibindi hejuru, kuko bidakunda ko amazi n’ibiyanduje byivangura ngo kimwe kivemo umwuka.’’

Abahanga bubatse uburyo bwihariye mu cyogajuru bwifashisha izindi mbaraga, zikaraga ikintu kimeze nk’akagunguru karimo za nkari kugeza zitangiye kubira, umwuka ugahita ujyamo hagati aho ushobora kuvanwamo mu gihe indi myanda iba iri kuzenguruka mu mpande.

Nubwo ngo hagiye habamo imbogamizi mu mikorere y’ubu buryo bwaje gukora neza, kugeza ubwo umuhanga mu bijyanye n’ibyogajuru, Don Pettit yaje kuvuga ati ‘‘icyayi cy’ejo hashize gihinduka n’icyayi cy’uyu munsi.’’

Green yibaza impamvu byashobotse mu kirere ariko bikaba bidakorwa ku Isi, ariko ngo ubwo buryo kubwubaka byatwaye ISS miliyoni 215 z’amadolari. Imishinga yo kubyaza umusaruro irakomeza gukorwa, muri iki gihe hari aho zibyazwa ingufu z’amashanyarazi n’amazi meza yo kunywa.

NASA ivuga ko iri gusuzuma uburyo buboneye buzwi nka ‘Forward osmosis’, ifasha mu gukamura amazi mu nkari hifashishijwe umusemburo ukize ku isukari n’umunyu, mu gihe imyanda isigara ikize kuri Nitrogen iba ishobora kuvanwamo Ammoniac ishobora gukoreshwa nk’igicanwa muri za moteri zitanga amashanyarazi.

Aha ni naho Green avugira ko hakenewe ubushobozi bwihariye bushobora gutuma n’indi myanda ibyazwa ikintu cy’ingirakamaro, kirenze ibyo ibyazwa uyu munsi.

Iyi migirire nubwo iri gusaba ikoranabuhanga rishya kandi rihenze, yubakiye ku gitekerezo kitari icya vuba, kuko cyanashimangiwe n’Umuhanga mu binyabutabire w’umufaransa, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, wavutse 1743 akaza gucibwa umutwe kuwa 8 Gicurasi 1794.

Mu buzima bwe yize imiterere y’amazi n’ibindi binyabuzima, agaragaza ko ikintu gishobora guhindura imiterere ariko kamere yacyo ari yayindi, nk’uko niba amazi ari mu kintu, ushobora kuyavanamo akaba umwuka ariko akagumana kamere yayo.

Ibyo byaje guhurizwa mu ihame rizwi na benshi mu gifaransa rivuga ngo ‘‘Rien ne se perd, rien ne se crée, tout se transforme’’ ariko bigahura n’ibyari byaravuzwe n’Umugereki Anaxagore ko mu ihangwa ry’ibinyabutabire, nta kintu gishya kiremwa cyangwa ngo kizimire, ahubwo ari ibintu byihuza bishobora no kongera gutandukanywa.

Valeri Vladimirovich Polyakov, wamaze amezi 14 ataragaruka ku Isi
Umwe mu bagenda mu cyogajuru asobanura uko inkari zitunganywamo amazi meza yo gukoresha
Mu boherezwa mu byogajuru hasigaye hashyirwamo n'abagore bo mu bihugu bitandukanye

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