Sobanukirwa imikorere ya ATM, icyuma gitanga amafaranga

Yanditswe na Mukaneza M.Ange
Kuya 17 Gashyantare 2017 saa 09:11
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Uko iterambere rirushaho gusakara mu gihugu niko n’ikoranabuhanga ryaguka mu nzego zose. Ijambo ATM si rishya mu matwi ya benshi mu Banyarwanda kuko umuntu wese ugana banki cyangwa ikigo cy’imari yigeze kuyibwirwa, ndetse udafite konti nawe ashobora kuba yarumvise abandi bayivuga.

ATM mu magambo arambuye bivuga Automated Teller Machine n’icyuma cy’itumanaho gifasha abantu kubona serivisi z’imari cyane kubikuza no kwishyura hatabaye guhura n’umukozi wa banki.

Mu gihe ATM ya mbere yatangiye gukoreshwa mu 1963 na Banki yo muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, mu Rwanda zatangiye gukoreshwa mu myaka ya 2000 aho imikorere yazo yagenzurwaga na sosiyete yitwaga Simtel, yaje guhinduka Rswitch.

Ubwoko butatu bwa ATM burimo NCR, DIBOLD na WINCOR nibwo bukoreshwa mu Rwanda, impuzandengo y’igiciro cy’imashini imwe kikaba kiri hagati y’ibihumbi 23-25 by’amadorali (asaga miliyoni 18 Frw) utabariyemo kuyigeza mu gihugu no kuyubakira.

Ese amafaranga agera ku muntu byaciye mu zihe nzira?

ATM zifite uruhare runini mu kwihutisha serivisi z’amabanki n’ibigo by’imari, kuko zigabanya imirongo n’amasaha yo gutegereza; ikindi kandi ushobora kujya kubikuza cyangwa kubitsa isaha iyo ariyo yose.

Umukiliya wa Banki abikuza amafaranga kuri ATM/ Ifoto: The New Times

Hari ibibazo by’amatsiko abantu batandukanye bibaza ku mikorere ya ATM, harimo nk’uburyo amafaranga ava kuri konti, impamvu idapfa kwibeshya, ikibabwira ko amafaranga yashize, uburyo ikarita ikorana n’icyuma n’ibindi byinshi.

Mu rwego rwo kurushaho gusobanukirwa n’imikorere y’ibi byuma, IGIHE yaganiriye n’Umuyobozi Mukuru wa RSwitch, Ikigo Nyarwanda gifasha banki n’ibigo by’imari guhererekanya amafaranga hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga, Jean Claude Gaga.

Nk’uko yabisobanuye ATM igizwe n’ibice bitandukanye bituma amakuru ahererekanywa hagati ya banki n’urwego rugenzura imikorere y’iki cyuma kugira ngo umukiliya abone serivisi yihuta.

ATM ifite igice kigaragarira amaso kiriho ahashyirwa ikarita, ahasohokera amafaranga, ahashobora gushyirwa amafaranga wifuza kubitsa, ahandikirwa (keyboard), ahiyandika amabwiriza uba ugomba gukurikiza (screen) n’umwanya usohokeramo inyemezabwishyu (receipt). Igice cy’imbere kirimo kigizwe n’udusanduku dushyirwamo amafaranga n’ibindi bituma icyuma kibasha gukora.

Kugira ngo ushobore kubikuza amafaranga wifashishije ATM bigusaba kuba ufite ikarita yabugenewe (ATM Card); iba iriho amakuru atandukanye akwerekeyeho; kugira ngo icyuma kiyakire bikaba bisaba umubare w’ibanga.

Gaga ati “Ikintu cy’ingenzi gikorwa kuri ATM kijyana n’amakuru ari ku ikarita yawe. Ikarita ukoresha mu kubikuza iba ifite umwirondoro, nimero ya konti, banki yawe, umubare w’amafaranga ufite n’umubare w’ibanga.”

Iyo ushyize ikarita muri ATM ibanza gusoma ibiriho ikoresheje ikoranabuhanga ubundi ikihutira kukubaza umubare w’ibanga kugira ngo imenye neza ko nyiri ukuyikoresha ariwe nyirayo koko. Iyo umaze kuwushyiramo ihita itangira kukubaza ibintu bitandukanye birimo icyo wifuza gukora n’ibindi.

Aya makuru atandukanye uba washyize muri ATM ahererekanywa hagati ya RSwitch cyangwa ibindi bigo bikora nkayo na banki, kugira ngo hagenzurwe niba ibyo uvuga aribyo koko, ubundi ugahabwa amafaranga wifuza. Mu Rwanda ATM nyinshi ntizemerera umuntu kubikuza amafaranga arenze ibihumbi 200 by’amafaranga y’u Rwanda icyarimwe.

Iyo uri kubikuza kuri ATM itari iya banki ufitemo konti, Ikigo gishinzwe kugenzura imikorere y’icyo cyuma, itanga raporo kugira ngo banki yawe yishyure ayo mafaranga wahawe. Muri uku guhererekanya amakuru niho hazamo kuba umuntu yishyuzwa amafaranga runaka.

Kubitsa ukoresheje ATM, ufata amafaranga ukayashyira mu ibahasha (envelope) ubundi ukayashyira ahabugenewe, bitewe n’icyuma uri gukoresha kuko byose bidatanga iyi serivisi. Ibi ariko abantu benshi barabitinya kuko baba batizeye umutekano w’amafaranga yabo.

Ese kuki ATM idapfa kwibeshya mu kubara?

Nk’uko twabivuze hejuru, imbere muri ATM habamo udusanduku dutandukanye dushyirwamo inoti, ku buryo iya 5000 idashobora kwivanga na 2000 cyangwa 1000.

Gaga ati “Iyi niyo mpamvu ituma ari gake cyane ATM ishobora kuba yakwibeshya, ngo igihe ugiye kubikuza ibihumbi 100 ibe yayaguha aburamo inoti cyangwa arenga. Bitewe n’umubare wayo ushaka igenda ifata muri buri gasanduku.”

Biramutse bibaye ko uhabwa amafaranga atuzuye, kimwe n’igihe wabikuje ukabibona ko yavuye kuri konti ariko icyuma ntikiyaguhe; wihutira kubimenyesha banki ikabikemura bitarenze amasaha 24.

Kurenga bishobora guterwa na serivisi mbi cyangwa ibindi bibazo biri muri banki, kuko RSwicth yo iba yamaze gutanga raporo y’uko ikibazo giteye.

Ni abantu benshi kandi wagiye wumva bavuga ngo ikarita yanjye icyuma cyayimize, aha Gaga avuga ko biterwa n’impamvu zinyuranye zirimo kwibeshya umubare w’ibanga inshuro nyinshi, cyangwa ikibazo cya ATM ubwayo. Kuko iba yaguyemo imbere, ubimenyesha banki yashyizeho icyo cyuma igafungura ikayikuramo.

“The ATM is out of service”, nabwo ni ubutumwa bukunze kugaragara ku cyuma bwerekana ko kitari gukora. Kuri iki Gaga avuga ko buri banki yagakwiye kugena ubutumwa bwihariye bugaragaza ikibazo cyabayeho, kuko hari n’ubwo hiyandikamo kuriya kandi ari amafaranga aba yashizemo cyangwa byaturutse ku miyoboro ya internet.

Buriya ngo iyo amafaranga agiye gushira muri ATM, banki zihabwa ubutumwa buzimenyesha ko ari make kugira ngo zihutire gushyiramo ayandi.

Ese amafaranga ari muri ATM ashobora kwibwa?

Gaga avuga ko amafaranga ari muri ATM aba afite umutekano kuko imeze nk’umutamenwa, ku buryo kuyifunga hakoreshwa uburyo butandukanye kandi bwizewe.

Kugira ngo umuntu yibe amafaranga ari muri ATM, bisaba guterura icyuma cyose; igikorwa ubwacyo kitoroshye kuko akenshi ziba zubakiye mu gikuta ndetse no gufungura umutamenwa bigatwara igihe kitari gito.

Ubujura bukunze gukorwa ni ukwiba amakuru ari ku ikarita ubundi hagakorwa indi isa nayo (Cloning). Ibi bigerwaho hifashishijwe akuma gafata amashusho (Camera) cyangwa akandi gakoresho gashyirwa mu mwanya ujyamo ikarita.

Gaga yagize ati “Niyo mpamvu mbere yo gukoresha ATM, ugomba kubanza kureba niba nta camera idasanzwe irimo, ndetse niyashyizwemo na banki itari ahantu ibasha gufata amakuru ari ku ikarita, nayo uri gushyira mu cyuma.”

Amakarita akoreshwa kuri ATM atandukanira he?

Mu Rwanda haba ubwoko butandukanye bw’amakarita akoreshwa muri ATM ariko azwi cyane akaba ari Smartcash, Mastercard na Visacard.

Gaga avuga ko urebye yose akora kimwe, itandukaniro rikaba riri mu mafaranga zigura ndetse n’ahantu zishobora gukoreshwa haba imbere mu gihugu cyangwa hanze yacyo.

Yakomeje avuga ko banki zishishikariza kubanza gusobanurira buri muntu wese wifuza ikarita kugira ngo yihitiremo imunogeye bitewe n’icyo akeneye.

Umuyobozi Mukuru wa RSwitch, Ikigo Nyarwanda gifasha banki n’ibigo by’imari guhererekanya amafaranga hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga, Jean Claude Gaga

[email protected]


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