Filime zifite agaciro n’icyerekezo gihamye nizo zishobora guteza imbere sinema nyarwanda

Filime zifite agaciro n’icyerekezo gihamye nizo zishobora guteza imbere sinema nyarwanda


Yanditswe kuya 23-04-2012 - Saa 07:30'

Muri iyi minsi usanga mu Rwanda hari inkubiri idasanzwe yo gushyira ahagaragara ’filime’ cyane cyane zikozwe n’urubyiruko ku buryo bisigaye bigaragara ko sinema ari ingeri y’ubugeni ikunzwe ariko iramutse idahawe agaciro n’icyerekezo, urwo rukundo rudasanzwe ifitiwe n’abifuza kuyikora huti huti wasanga rutayiteza imbere ahubwo rwayisubiza inyuma. Uretse kandi iyo nkubiri, hari n’ibitekerezo binyuranye ku gaciro ka filime nyarwanda, aho usanga bamwe bavuga ibinyuranye “ni amakinamico, si nk’izo tubona zindi,…)

Ibi bikurikira ni ibitekerezo bya Jean-Claude Uwiringiyimana, umuhanzi wa sinema nyarwanda akaba n’umwarimu muri Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda aho yigisha n’amasomo arebana n’ibyo gukora filime n’ubundi buhanzi.

Muri make J-Claude Uwiringiyimana ni muntu ki?

Yavutse tariki ya 3 Kanama 1974. Mu myaka 38 afite, imyaka 10 ayimaze yigisha muri Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda, aho yagiye gukora nyuma yo kuba umunyamakuru w’ibiganiro kuri TVR (TV Producer) hagati ya 2000 na 2002. Azwi mu ngeri z’ubuhanzi bunyuranye kuva mu w’1996, aho yanditse amakinamico anyuranye akanayahuguramo nk’impuguke (consultant), imivugo n’inkuru ngufi.

Igihangano cya mbere cya filime yagikoze mu w’2003. Azwi muri filime ’Rya Joro ry’i Nyange (2009); iyi ategenya kuyishyira ku ma DVD vuba aha kuko kugeza ubu yerekanwaga mu ma salles gusa. Indi ni ’;Star in Love. Ni wowe nkunda’ (2011), na Bayi Bayi Anita (2011). Yitabiriye, mu w’2009 i Ouagadougou muri Burkina Faso, Iserukiramuco Nyafurika rya Sinema (FESPACO). Afite impamyabumenyi ya Masters mu Nyandiko, Indimi n’Umuco (Textes, Langues et Cultures) yaboneye i Limoges mu Bufaransa n’Impamyabushobozi mu kuyobora filime (Certificate in Filmmaking). Arateganya gusohora mbere y’Ukuboza 2012 igitabo cyigisha ibya sinema mu Kinyarwanda n’indi filime ndende mbere ya Kanama 2012.

Muri iyi nkuru, Jean-Claude Uwiringiyimana aragaruka k’uko abona sinema nyarwanda muri iki gihe n’ibyibazwa na benshi kuri yo.

Sinema nyarwanda ni iki?

Mbere na mbere ntiwavuga sinema nyarwanda udasobanuye “sinema” icyo ari cyo. Ubundi sinema ni ubugeni mvanganzo (creative art) bwubakiye ku mashusho agenda (moving pictures) ku buryo ubuhanga afatanye n’uruhererekane rwayo rufashijwe n’ibindi biyunganira bivuye mu zindi ngeri z’ubuhanzi nk’imikinire (umwihariko w’ikinamico), imivugano (dialogues) yubakiye ku buhanga mbarankuru bwo mu buvanganzo (literature), muzika n’andi majwi (music and soundtracks) biherekeza ibikinwa, bigatanga igihangano twita “filime” kibereye ijisho, amatwi n’imbamutima zacu.

Urukomatanye rw’ubu buhanga n’uyu mwihariko wa sinema nirwo rwatumye sinema iza mu ngeri z’ubuhanzi bwakunzwe ku isi mu rwego rwo gutuma abantu bidagadura (entertainment art) aho mu myaka itagera ku 120 sinema imaze itangiye (bivugwa ko yatangiye kuwa 28 Ukuboza 1895), mu birebana n’inganda nyamuco (cultural industries) ubu iri mu zinjiza akayabo cyane mu ruganda rwa Hollywood na rwo rwatangijwe mu gihe gito sinema ikivuka (Hollywood yatangiye nka Company mu mpera z’umwaka w’1919).

Urugero twatanga kuri ubwo budahangarwa bwo kwinjiza akayabo k’amafaranga cyane aho sinema yabaye umuco ni urwa filime benshi muzi yitwa Avatar (2009) yakozwe na David Cameron ishorwamo amadolari y’Amerika 387, 000,000 , yinjiza hafi miliyari eshatu z’amadolari y’Amerika (2,780, 000,000 USD. Source: Wikipedia/Avatar).

Umuntu atarose, akibona iyi mibare, yahita yumva ko sinema mu Rwanda, tuyumvise mu buryo bwa Hollywood, itashoboka. Gusa ariko, sinema nyarwanda iriho, iri mu bihe byayo bya mbere, kandi irakunzwe uko iri, ari na ho duhera tuvuga ko kuyitekerezaho by’umwihariko ari ngombwa muri ibi bihe kugira ngo igire agaciro, igaheshe igihugu cyacu mu ruhando rwa sinema mpuzamahanga, yubakiye ku buhanga busabwa mu bushobozi bwacu butari buriya bwa Hollywood. Iyo ikintu kivuka kidatatekerejweho mu mizi yacyo, gikura mu kajagari. Tuzi twese umugani ugira uti “Umwana apfa mu iterura”.

Mu gusobanura sinema nyarwanda icyo ari cyo, twabanza kubireba mu cyerekezo kigari cya sinema nyafurika. Iyo usesenguye neza usanga iyi sinema nyafurika itubakiye kuri za nganda kabuhariwe mu kwinjiza akayabo, nka Hollywood twavuze. Ni sinema yakuze yubakiye ku mishinga bwite y’abahanzi ubusanzwe badafite n’aho bahuriye na sinema. Urugero ni urw’uvugwa ko ari Umunyafurika wa mbere wakoze filime, Sembene Ousmane, mu w’1968, ubusanzwe akaba yari umwanditsi w’inkuru ndende (novelist).

Byagiye bigaragara ko umuzi wa sinema nyafurika ushibuka ku bantu ku giti cyabo (independent cinema, independent filmmakers) baba batagamije ahanini iby’ubucuruzi. Gusa mu myaka mike ishize (guhera mu 2000) mu bihugu bimwe na bimwe nka Nigeria, bigaragara ko mu gihe kizaza bene izi nganda zishobora kutaba inzozi mu bihugu byinshi by’Afurika, n’u Rwanda rurimo, kuko ubu twemeza ko “sinema nyarwanda” iriho.

Sinema nyarwanda rero ikaba ari urukomatanye rw’ibihangano byose bya filime byakozwe ku Rwanda n’umuco warwo, bikozwe n’Abanyarwanda. Aha dushobora no kongeraho n’izindi filime zakozwe ku Rwanda ariko zikozwe n’abanyamahanga ubwabo cyangwa bafatanije n’Abanyarwanda, inyinshi muri iri za nyuma zikaba ari izakozwe kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Ntibyoroshye ariko kwemeza neza igihe Sinema nyarwanda yatangiriye, ariko ushingiye ku mpamvu nyinshi (aho sinema ishobora gutanga akazi, mu mwaka hakaboneka amafilime anyuranye y’Abanyarwanda, akitabirwa kurebwa n’Abanyarwanda) twavuga ko sinema nyarwanda ifite icyerekezo cy’umwuga twayishyira mu myaka ya nyuma ya 2000.

Iyi sinema irahari ndetse filime nyarwanda ubu ziboneka ku bwinshi, igisigaye kikaba ari ukureba agaciro kazo ari na ko gatanga icyerekezo cya sinema nyarwanda.

Agaciro ka filime nyarwanda

Twemeranya ku ruhande rumwe n’abashimangira ko tutazigera dukina filime nk’iza Hollywood. Bibaye ari ku ruhande rw’ingengo y’imari dushoramo, bibaye ari ku muco dukina, bibaye ari ku musaruro tubonamo (nka ziriya ngero twatanze kuri Avatar), aha rwose byaba inzozi tutakabya vuba, twakwemeranya n’abavuga ibi. N’ubwo ariko ku rundi ruhande nta kitashoboka kuko kugira ngo na Hollywood ibe icyo iri cyo ubu ni uko ibimazemo imyaka isaga 93!

Abo tudakwiriye kwemeranya na bo na gato ni abahakana ko ubuhanga bwakoreshejwe bugomba gushimangira ko sinema nyarwanda izagumya kuba ishami rya sinema, bwa buhanga (bumwe bujyanye n’ubushobozi bwacu) na Hollywood ikoresha, bwa bugeni bugendera ku mahame azwi, ku buhanga buzwi, ari na byo, biramutse byubahirijwe, byatuma iyi sinema nyarwanda inahesha igaciro u Rwanda mu ruhando mpuzamahanga.
Iyo dusesenguye, dusanga agaciro ka sinema dufite mu Rwanda kubakiye ku nkingi ebyiri zikomeye ari na zo zitanga umusaruro wa filime tubona (umusaruro mwiza cyangwa mubi): hari agaciro kubakiye ku buryo (ibikoresho, ingengo y’imari) n’agaciro kubakiye ku bumenyi bw’abakora amafilime mu Rwanda. Ibi iyo biteranye ni byo bitanga umusaruro tubona.

Dushingiye ku nkingi ya mbere y’agaciro kubakiye ku buryo, hari intambwe ikomeye Abanyarwanda twateye yo kubasha gutinyuka, kuko ugiye ubona ingengo y’imari ahandi bagenera filime, mu Rwanda hatinyuka mbarwa; cyangwa yenda nta n’uwatinyuka. Ubu buryo kandi bw’amafaranga n’ibikoresho nibwo buha agaciro filime, ikitwa ityo kuko nibwo butuma ubona uburyo n’umwanya wo kubahiriza bwa buhanga uwo mwuga wateganyije.

Hari uwigize kugereranya urwego rwa sinema na muzika mu Rwanda. Ntibihuye bishingiye kuri ubu buryo tuvuga, ku buryo hagereranywa inzego izi ngeri z’ubugeni ziriho. Birashoboka yenda ko ufite hagati ya 50,000 frw na 100,000 frw wajya muri studio ugakora indirimbo ikarangira, ariko muri sinema ariya ashobora gukora indirimbo imwe utayakubye inshuro zirenga mirongo 50 byagorana kumvisha abantu ko ikivuyemo ari filime koko yuzuye. Na bwo kandi ni mu Rwanda kuko ahandi ingengo y’imari ku bakora amafilime atari ay’inganda (independent films) ntiwakwiyumya ukora filime imwe irenze isaha udafite nibura 100,000 by’amadolari y’Amerika. Muti kuki?

Iyi ngengo y’imari ni yo ituma filime itegurwa neza, umunsi wo gufata amashusho umukinnyi agahabwa umwanya, agakosorwa, ufata amashusho akubahiriza amabwiriza azwi kandi ariho yo kuyafata, ufata amajwi bikaba uko, uhindura ahakinirwa bikaba uko, n’ibindi; ku buryo kugira ngo wizere agaciro ka filime wagombye gufata ku munsi amashusho azavamo iminota itarenze ibiri gusa (ni ukuvuga ingano shusho – shots- 20 buri munsi wo gufata amashusho).

Byumvikana ko filime y’isaha yagafashe iminsi mirongo itatu mu kuyifata! Yenda tubyite ko ibi ari ibya Hollywood, ariko n’iyo wakoresha ingufu zingana zite byagorana gufata ku munsi, mu buryo bwa gihanga, amashusho azavamo iminota irenze 8, kuko igihangano cyavamo cyaza gifite ubusembwa bwinshi.

Muri ubwo busembwa harimo gukina nabi kw’abakinnyi badatuye ari ab’umwuga, maze filime yasohoka ikagaragarira benshi nk’ikinamico, kuko icyo uyikora aba yitayeho kubera igihe gito afite ni ugufata gusa amashusho y’abakinnyi bavuga imivugano (dialogues) atitaye gutunganya aho bavugira, kuhahitamo, kuvugisha uburyo amashusho afatwa kuko akenshi ibi byose byongera ikintu kinini ku butumwa butangwa. Aha twahanura abakora amafilime mu Rwanda ko batashukwa n’uko ahanini Abanyarwanda bikundira ubu inkuru ivugwa muri filime runaka kurusha kwita ku buhanga ngombwa bwo kuyikora. Turi mu ntango birumvikana, kwita ku bivugwa gusa, byagira agaciro imbere mu gihugu, ariko byagorana kurenga umupaka, bikerekana isura nziza ya sinema nyarwanda.

Gusa na none iyo ubuze ingengo y’imari ariko uzi ibyo urimo n’ibyo ukora byagira ifatiro, ariko biba agahomamunwa iyo wiyemeje gukora uyu mwuga nta buryo nta n’ubumenyi. Ibi bikaba bituganisha ku ngingo ya kabiri.

Twifuje kuvuga ku ngingo y’agaciro kubakiye ku bumenyi bw’abakora filime kuko uko bigenda bigaragara ubu abenshi baragenda babyinjiramo babikunze ariko batazi amabanga y’uwo mwuga. Umuntu yaba afite imfatashusho (camera) iciriritse, n’abantu bangahe biteguye kumukinira ku buntu, ati ngiye gukora filime! Nta nyandiko (screenplay), nta bumenyi, nta gahunda… Arafotoye arafotoye uko abonye, nta gaciro k’amajwi, nta buhanga mu mikinire, nta bumwe bw’inkuru, filime igasohoka, akayita filime nyarwanda. Akayiha icyo cyapa na yo ikinjiramo ityo. Umuntu akaba yabasha gukora amafilime nk’arindwi y’isaha irenga, imwe imwe, mu mwaka umwe! Sibyo rwose, bene iyi migirire, aho guha agaciro sinema nyarwanda, irayivangira bikabije.

N’ubwo tutagamije gutanga isomo rya sinema muri iyi nkuru, ntitwabura kwibutsa ko hari inzego ngombwa mu gukora filime : imyiteguro yo kuyandika, gushaka ingengo y’imari, gushaka abakinnyi (ibyo uko ari bitatu bijya mu byo twita pre-production), gutegura ifatwa ry’amashusho hakorwa igishushanyo mbonera (production design), ifatwa ry’amashusho (production), gutunganya amashusho, kugena urukurikirane rw’imiseruko (succession of sequences) no kuvanga amajwi na muzika (twita post-production). Izi nzego cyangwa ibyiciro byubahirijwe, nta filime irengeje isaha yagakozwe mu mezi ari munsi y’ane kuva umushinga utekerejwe kandi na bwo ingengo y’imari ihari.

Ku bafite amafaranga runaka, iyo badafite ubu bumenyi, by’umwihariko mu gukora igishushanyo mbonera (production design) usanga batangira batazi iyo bagana bakazitirwa mu nzira bagenda batazi bakarekeraho badashoje umushinga kandi hari amafaranga bamaze gutanga.

Uretse ubu bumenyi kandi ku mwuga urimo uwo ari wo n’uko ukorwa, hari no kutamenya amategeko y’ibanze awushamikiyeho.

Twagaruka aha ku kamenyero k’amafilime nyarwanda amwe n’amwe akoresha cyane cyane ibihangano by’abandi cyane abanyamuzika b’abanyamahanga bazwi mu rwego mpuzamahanga maze bigakoreshwa mu guherekeza amashusho yabo, ku bw’amahirwe, uwo muziki ugahisha akenshi ubusembwa buri mu mashusho.

Kuba turi mu gihugu kigendera ku mategeko, cyubahiriza uburenganzira bw’umuhanzi, kikaba cyarasinye n’amasezerano mpuzamahanga arebana n’umutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge (cyane ayazwi akaba ari aya Geneva Convention), iyi migirire iza akenshi ishingiye kuri ubwo bumenyi buke kandi ntiza ihesha agaciro sinema nyarwanda, agaciro ikwiriye kugira mu cyerekezo kiyiganisha ku ruganda nyamuco ruhamye; n’ubwo twemera ko intambwe ikiri ndende.

Ubusanzwe umuziki ukoreshwa muri filime runaka wagombye kuba wakoreshejwe nyirawo yawuguhereye uburenganzira, biri mu masezerano, bitaba ibyo mu gukora igishushanyo mbonera (production design), ugateganya uko uzawuhimba n’uko uzahimbwa. Binumvikane ko n’iyo higanjemo izo ndirimbo z’amahanga, igihangano kigenda gita umwimerere w’ubunyarwanda, uyu mwimerere tukabona ukenewe cyane mu cyerekezo sinema nyarwanda iganamo.

Filime zifite agaciro zatanga n’icyerekezo cyiza cya sinema nyarwanda

Iyo ugiye ureba usanga agaciro filime ifite gashingira ahanini no ku cyerekezo cy’uwayikoze, icyo agamije, kabone n’ubwo yahura n’ingorane mu nzira arimo. Hari umuntu wigeze kwihanukira ati " Nkora filime kuko nshaka kumenyekana". Bati “Warabyize?- Ashwi!, Ufite Uburyo?- Ashwi! Wumva werekeza he?-Nzareba nyuma!”

Aka kaganiro n’ibisubizo byako byerekana intambwe abakora filime nyarwanda bagomba gutera (abatarayitera kuko ni nabo benshi), kuko hari n’ababikora by’urwiganwa ngo " kuko runaka w’undi yakoze filime nanjye ndayikora."

Sinema si igisakuzo, ni ubugeni busaba ubumenyi, ubuhanga n’uburyo bwinshi. Nta wufata amashusho ya filime, nk’ufata ay’ubukwe runaka. Ni ubuhanzi busaba ubufatanye bw’ingeri zinyuranye z’abahanga mu bintu binyuranye (kwandika, gukina, gufata amashusho, kuyatunganya, n’ibindi…), ubwo bufatanye bukavamo igihangano gihesha isura nziza sinema nyarwanda mu rwego ikiriho, ariko ako gaciro ka filime runaka n’iyo kataba kamara kakaba kerekana ibyoko byiza sinema nyarwanda iganamo.

Icyerekezo cya sinema nyarwanda rero kikaba kizaba cyiza ubwo abakora filime nyarwanda bazahesha agaciro ibihangano bakora, bakabikora babizi, bafite aho bagana, hakirindwa kajagari ubu kariho, aho ubishatse, ubirose, yumva yabyuka akora filime.

Ubwo agaciro kazaba kabonetse mu mafilime nyarwanda, n’abayakora bakamenya umwuga bakora, ikizaba gisigaye ni ugusaba Abanyarwanda kugira uruhare mu iterambere rya sinema nyarwanda bagira umuco wo kureba filime batanze umusanzu wo kuyigura kuko ni wo utuma na filime itaha ishoboka.

Uramutse wifuje kwandikira nyir’iri ibi bitekerezo, mwandikire kuri: B.P 152 BUTARE, kuri email: flash_mediapro@yahoo.fr, cyangwa umusure kuriwww.uwirifilms.com website ye: www.uwirifilms.com

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

ANDIKA ICYO UTEKEREZA KURI IYI NKURU

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE:
Witandukira kubijyanye n'iyi nkuru; wikwandika ibisebanya, ibyamamaza cyangwa bivangura; wikwandika ibiteye isoni,
Wifuza kubona byihuse ibivugwa/ibisubizo ku gitekerezo cyawe, andika email yawe ahabugenewe.
Igitekerezo cyawe kigaragara nyuma y'isuzuma rikorwa na IGIHE.com
Ibi bidakurikijwe igitekerezo cyanyu gishobora kutagaragara hano cyangwa kigasibwa, Murakoze!

IBITEKEREZO