Uko byagenze mu 1961 ubwo Cuba yaneshaga Amerika mu rugamba rw’amateka

Yanditswe na David Eugène Marshall
Kuya 1 Gashyantare 2018 saa 10:41
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Mu myaka 57 ishize, ingabo za Cuba zari ziyobowe na Fidel Castro zakoze amateka adasanzwe ubwo zatsindaga iza Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, mu ntambara itaramaze igihe kinini ariko yasize isura y’uko n’ibihugu by’ibihangange byatsindwa ku rugamba.

Inkuru y’uru rugamba ni ndende kuko ifite umuzi mu 1952, ubwo Général Fulgencio Batista yahirikaga ubutegetsi bwa Carlos Prio wari Perezida wa Cuba, akayobora igihugu mu bucuti bukomeye na Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, n’igitugu kiruta icy’uwo yasimbuye.

Ntiyaburambyeho kuko Fidel Castro n’inyeshyamba ze za M-26-7 [Movement du 26 Juillet] yaje gushoza intambara yiswe iya ‘Revolusiyo ya Cuba’ yo kumukura ku butegetsi, kugeza ubwo ku wa 1 Mutarama 1959, ahisemo guhunga Umujyi wa Havana [Umurwa Mukuru wa Cuba]. Ibi byatumye ku wa 6 Mutarama 1959, ingabo za Castro zinjira muri Havana zishimirwa cyane n’abaturage.

Kuva ku butegetsi bwa Général Fulgencio wari inshuti y’akadasohoka ya Amerika, byahinduye byinshi kuko inyungu zose z’iki gihugu zahise zihagarara. Aha harimo; amasosiyete acukura akanacuruza peteroli, amabanki n’ibindi bigo by’ubucuruzi nk’amaduka y’ikawa, inganda z’isukari n’ibindi byahise bishyirwa mu maboko bwite y’abanya-Cuba.

Ibi byiyongereyeho ko amasoko ya Cuba n’izindi nyungu ziganisha ku bucuruzi mpuzamahanga byahise bihabwa u Burusiya, guhera ubwo Amerika ibona ko amazi atakiri yayandi.

Ubu bucuti bw’u Burusiya na Cuba bwateye umutima uhagaze Abanyamerika bumva ko nta kabuza Abarusiya barimo kubasatira, kuva ubwo biyemeza gutangiza intambara yo gukuraho ubutegetsi bwa Fidel Castro.

Ku wa 4 Mata 1961, Ibiro by’Ubutasi bya Amerika (CIA) ku itegeko rya Perezida John F. Kennedy, byatangije intambara kuri Cuba, kandi urwo rugamba rwari rumaze igihe kitari gito rutegurwa mu ibanga rikomeye, ku ngengo y’imari ihwanye na miliyari 13 z’amadolari zo gutegura ibitero n’inyeshyamba zizahirika Fidel Castro.

Imirwano mu Mwaro w’Ingurube [Bay of Pigs battle]

Ku ya 5 Mata 1961, Batayo eshanu z’inyeshyamba zishyigikwe na Amerika n’indi Batayo y’ingabo za yo bwite zamanukiye mu mitaka, ziturutse mu bihugu byari bikikije Cuba byari byazihaye inzira aribyo Guatemala na Nicaragua, zaba izo mu mazi, mu kirere no ku butaka.

Kuwa 13 Mata nibwo urugamba rwanzitse neza. Ingabo n’inyeshyamba za Amerika zari zitwaje indege z’intambara zo mu bwoko bwa B-26 zanakoreshejwe mu kugaba ibitero byibasiye ibirindiro by’ingabo zirwanira mu kirere za Cuba.

Ku ya 15 na 16 Mata ibitero by’izo ndege byafashije mu kuburabuza ingabo za Cuba, ari nako izo ndege zicira inzira inyeshyamba. Icyo gihe ahibasiwe cyane ni ahazwi nka Playa Girón Beach mu Karere ka Bay Of Pigs muri Cuba. Ni ahantu abantu bakundaga kujya gufatira akaruhuko kuko ari ku nkengero z’inyanja ya Pacifique.

Cuba yakubitiye inshuro ingabo za Amerika mu ntambara yabereye mu Mwaro w’Ingurube [Bay of Pigs battle] mu 1961

Fidel Castro yigiriye ku rugamba

Général José Ramón Fernández, umwe mu bari bakomeye mu ngabo za Cuba n’ingabo yari ayoboye bakomye imbere ibitero bya Amerika n’inyeshyamba zo muri Brigade ya 2506, bityo mu butwari buhambaye, ingabo za Cuba zihagarika umuvuduko w’ibyo Amerika yashakaga kugaba mu kirere.

Mu minsi mike yakurikiyeho, Général Fernández yakuwe ku buyobozi bw’ingabo ku mpamvu zitamenyekanye maze Fidel Castro, ubwe yiyoborera imirwano.

Aho Fidel Castro agereye ku rugamba, mu gihe kitarenze iminsi itatu yonyine, ingabo zose zateye Cuba zari zamaze kugotwa n’abasirikare be, abatarishwe bagirwa imbohe bose uko bakabaye.

Kuva ubwo, Fidel Castro, yahise afatwa nk’intwari kabuhariwe muri Cuba kandi yiyemeza gushimangira umubano we n’Abarusiya.

Fidel Castro afatwa na benshi nk’intwari muri Cuba

Amerika yatakaje byinshi

Nubwo iyo ntambara yamaze igihe gito ariko yasize ishenye byinshi inahitana abatari bake. Ni intambara yari ikaze, bivugwa ko ku mpande zombi bahatakarije abasirikare n’ibikoresho byinshi. Ku ruhande rwa Cuba, hapfuye abasirikare 176, mu gihe abari ku rwa Amerika n’inyeshyamba yafashaga hapfuye 118.

Indege eshatu za Amerika na zo zarahanuwe, mu gihe izindi esheshatu za Cuba zasenywe n’ibitero by’indege z’intambara za Amerika, binavugwa kandi ko ubwato bubiri bw’intambara bwa Amerika bwarohamishijwe mu Nyanja n’ingabo za Cuba zirwanira mu mazi.

Kuva icyo gihe Cuba yahise icana umubano na Amerika kugeza mu mwaka wa 2015, ubwo ibi bihugu byombi byongeraga kuwubyutsa, bibifashijwemo n’Umushumba wa Kiliziya Gatolika Papa Francis, ndetse Obama wari Perezida wa Amerika anasura iki gihugu ku wa 21 Werurwe 2016.

Abasirikare ba Cuba bishimira intsinzi nyuma yo guhangana n'ingabo za Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika
Barack Obama agaragiwe n'umuryango we ubwo yagiriraga uruzinduko muri Cuba mu 2016 rwo kunoza umubano hagati y'ibihugu byombi byari bimaze imyaka 50 birebana ay'ingwe

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