Uko Fashoda yabaye intandaro yo kubaho kwa Afurika y’Abafaransa n’iy’Abongereza

Yanditswe na David Eugène Marshall
Kuya 18 Gashyantare 2018 saa 05:43
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Imvugo ikoreshwa cyane ku bihugu bya Afurika igaragaza uburyo bigabanyijemo amatsinda abiri arimo “Anglophones” na “Francophones” ifite inkomoko mu kinyejana cya 19 mu gihe cy’ubukoloni bwakorewe uyu mugabane.

Fashoda ni agace kari gaherereye muri Leta ya Blue Nile muri Sudani y’Epfo kari gacumbitsemo ingabo z’Abongereza.

Ingabo z’u Bufaransa ntizari kure y’aho kuko iki gihugu cyari gifite akarere cyategekaga kuva mu Burengerazuba bwa Afurika muri Sénégal na Côte d’Ivoire ugaruka muri Niger, Cameroun no muri Tchad.

Kuva mu 1882, u Bwongereza bwari bwaragose impande nyinshi za Afurika, guhera Cairo mu Misiri ugaca muri Afurika yo hagati muri Uganda, Sudani, Kenya kugera mu bihugu byo mu Majyepfo ya Afurika mu bihugu bya Afurika y’Epfo, Zimbabwe, Zambia n’ibindi.

Muri Nzeri 1898 nibwo u Bufaransa bwakoze urugendo bwerekeza ku mugezi wa White Nile bushaka kwigarurira ikibaya kiri hafi y’umugezi wa Upper Nile nk’inzira yari kubafasha kumenesha Abongereza bakabakura muri Sudani. Iki gikorwa cyabereye mu gace ka Fashoda (ubu ni mu Mujyi wa Kodok muri Sudani y’Epfo) ku ya 18 Nzeri 1898, bapfa ibihugu bashakaga gukoloniza.

Imishinga yo gusahura Afurika yatumye u Bufaransa n’u Bwongereza bishaka kurwana

U Bufaransa n’u Bwongereza byari bishishikajwe no gusahura ubutunzi bwa Afurika. U Bwongereza bwateguye kubaka inzira ya gari ya moshi yagombaga guhuza imijyi ya Cape Town muri Afurika y’Epfo n’uwa Cairo mu Misiri mu koroshya inzira yagombaga kunyuzwamo ibintu bwakuraga muri Afurika n’ibyo bwazanaga.

Muri icyo gihe u Bufaransa nabwo bwari mu mushinga wo kubaka indi nzira ya gari ya moshi, yagombaga guturuka i Dakar muri Sénégal igahinguranya Afurika yo hagati ikagera muri Djibouti.

Umwanditsi akaba n’Umunyamateka wagerageje kwandika ku byabereye Fashoda, Emmanuel de Waresquiel, yavuze ko habuze gato ibyari umushinga wa gari ya moshi ngo bivemo intambara ikaze hagati y’Abongereza n’Abafaransa muri Nzeri 1898.

Mu gihe ibi bihugu byari mu nyigo z’iyo mishinga, buri ruhande rwari rufite ingabo nyinshi ziteguye urugamba mu gushimangira ibirindiro byarwo, hagambiriwe kwirinda ihungabana ry’ishyirwa mu bikorwa ryayo.

Fashoda nk’ahantu hagombaga guhurirwa n’iyubakwa ry’iyi nzira, haje kuba ikibazo kubera ko ibipimo byose byafatwaga n’abubatsi byagaragazaga ko hazabaho ukugongana.

Muri Nzeri 1898 imitwe y’Ingabo z’Abafaransa n’Abongereza yatangiye kurebana ay’ingwe, maze bisoza habayeho ibiganiro byahuje intumwa z’ibihugu byombi aho iz’u Bwongereza zari ziyobowe na Maréchal Horatio Kitchener, mu gihe Abafaransa bari bahagarariwe na Général Jean Baptiste Marchand.

U Bufaransa bwahise bwiyemeza kwitarura ikibaya cy’uruzi rwa Nile muri Sudani y’Epfo bunasubiza ingabo zabwo inyuma, Abongereza basigara ari bo bacunga ako gace kose bonyine.

Ikindi kivugwa ni uko mu bwubahane busesuye hagati y’ibi bihugu, bishoboka ko muri ibyo biganiro hanzuwe kutubaka izi nzira za gari ya moshi ku mpande zombi.

Abahanga bemeza ko n’ubwo byabaye nk’igihombo gikabije ku mugabane wa Afurika hari n’abemeza ko na duke Abakoloni basigiye umugabane byatewe n’uko uyu mushinga wapfubye.

Uku kutumvikana kuri iri yubakwa ry’ibi bikorwaremezo kandi ryabaye intandaro yo guca imirongo ntarengwa y’aho Abafaransa n’Abongereza batagombaga kurenga muri Afurika. Ibi ngo ni nabyo byatumye habaho Afurika y’Abongereza n’iy’Abafaransa.

Aya mateka kandi yisubiramo iyo hari ahari umwuka ututumba hagati y’ibihugu bibiri byakolonijwe n’u Bufaransa n’u Bwongereza, Fashoda ikoreshwa nk’ijambo rigaragaza uguhangana gukomeye hagati yabyo.

Agace ka Fashoda kari kagiye gutuma u Bufaransa burwana n'u Bwongereza
U Bwongereza bwakolonije Misiri bwanagenzuraga uruzi rwa Nile ahagana mu 1882

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