Uko Karl Marx agereranya idini n’ikinya cyo gusinziriza abashobewe ngo bagire agahenge

Yanditswe na David Eugène Marshall
Kuya 10 Mutarama 2018 saa 07:07
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Umuhanga muri Filozofiya, Karl Henreich Marx, wabayeho hagati y’imyaka ya 1818-1883, ni umwe mu bakunze kwandika ku nkomoko y’umuntu n’isano afitanye n’icyo abantu bita Imana n’idini, aho yabigereranyaga nk’ikinya cyo gusinziriza abashobewe ngo bagire agahenge mu bibazo bibugarije.

Ibitekerezo by’Umudage Marx, ku idini bisa n’ibyakoreye mu ngata ibya mugenzi we Feuerbach nawe wari wigeze kuvuga ko umuntu ariwe ugira uruhare mu kugena ibirebana n’iyobokamana, ko iyobokamana atari ryo rifite uruhare na mba ku kiremwa muntu.

Ibi byose aba bahanga babikoraga ngo mu rwego rwo kwimakaza umuco wo kunenga ibitavugwaho rumwe n’abantu, uko kunenga kukaba kwatera umuntu kugera ku kuri nyako, atari ugufata ibivugwa byose nk’ukuri ngo abantu bamire bunguri badasesenguye.

Karl Marx ariko mu bitekerezo bye, ntiyagiye kure cyane y’ibyavugwaga na Feuerbach, ahubwo yaje kubishimangira nk’aho yavuze ko “Umuntu afata ibyo atekereza, akabyihindukirizaho we ubwe bwite nk’uwireba mu ndorerwamo, bityo ibyo avuga ko yizera bikamutera kwinjira mu byo we yita Imana ariko ashidikanya, mu by’ukuri akabikora nk’ugaruye ishusho ye bwite y’ibimuri mu bitekerezo akabyita Imana kandi ariwe Mana yivuga.”

Marx akemeza ko ngo abantu bakwiriye kureka kumva Imana nk’iyibera mu kirere ahantu kure, ahubwo bakayiyegereza mu buzima bwabo bwa buri munsi, agasa n’uca amarenga ko buri wese yagakwiriye kwiyumva nk’Imana ye ku giti cye, ko kandi ari ko bimeze.

Yaba Marx cyangwa Feuerbach, icyo basa n’abahurizaho kandi, ni uko niba koko Imana ubwayo yararemye umuntu mu ishusho yayo, nta kabuza ko umuntu nawe ari Imana neza neza nk’uko iyamuremye nyine imeze.

-  Ibitekerezo bya Marx byakwiriye isi kandi bihindura ubuzima bwa benshi

Gusa Karl Marx ubusanzwe anabarwa nk’umukurambere w’abaharaniye ukwigenga kw’ikiremwa muntu, kuko ku bitekerezo bye niho havuye inkomoko ya bamwe yatumye baharanira uburenganzira bwabo mu bihugu bitari bike kuri iyi Si.

Mu nkundura izwi cyane nka “Marxism”, bigaragara ko intwari zaharaniraga ubwigenge bw’ibihugu bitari bike zifashishaga ingengabitekerezo za Marx mu icengezamatwara ryo mu rugamba rw’ubwigenge bw’ibihugu byabo.

Ni muri urwo rwego Marx hari aho yagize ati “Kuba abantu bajya impaka ku iyobokamana n’imyizerere yabo, ni intambwe y’ingenzi yo kwibohora imigozi ya byinshi bishidikanywaho n’ikiremwa muntu.”

Aha niho ndetse muri politiki igenga imibereho myiza y’abantu, bivugwa ko ari uburenganzira bwa buri wese mu gutanga igitekerezo cye, yaba ashima cyangwa anenga, Liberté d’Expression, cyangwa Freedom Of Speech mu rurimi rw’Icyongereza.

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Marx akomeza ashimangira ko umuntu watangiye kwita ku by’iyobokamana n’amadini kenshi atabiterwa n’uko yumva aguwe neza cyane, ahubwo abikora nko kubura uko agira, aho kenshi mu madini atandukanye haba huzuyemo amaganya abantu bavuga ko baganyira Imana, bamwe bayitabaza mu ngorane zijyanye n’imibereho bafite, cyangwa ubukungu bwabo bugeze aharindimuka, bakabona kwegera inzira y’amasengesho.

Ku bwa Marx ngo ibi ntibikorwa mu ntego yo gushaka Imana ahubwo aba ari ugushoberwa kuri benshi, cyangwa se abandi bakabikora bakuruwe n’irari n’inyota y’ibintu baba bafite, byigaragaza mu byo baba basaba Imana.

Muri kimwe mu bitabo yanditse yise ngo “La Réligion est l’opium du peuple”, umuntu agenekereje ni nko kuvuga ko “Idini mu bantu ari igihamya cyo gushoberwa kwabo”, Marx ntiyatinye kuvuga ko bisa n’aho abantu bitangiye kwisunga amadini baba bakeneye ikiyobyabwenge cyabafasha kwikura mu byago n’akaga kaba kabagose, kugira ngo izo ngorane bazitambukemo nk’abari mu kinya.

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Umuntu ashishoje neza hano, Marx yabaye nk’uca amarenga anakomoza ku bazana amadini, ashimangira ko nabo babikora mu rwego rwo gusinziriza abo baba bakorera ibidakwiye, nko kubahuma amaso kugira ngo umuntu atabona ibibi bamukorera, maze bigaha umudendezo abanyamadini wo kwigarurira imbaga, nayo itabona ko yamaze gufatwa bunyago n’abo banyamadini.

Ibi rero Marx akabihamya avuga ko iyo amadini aza kuba yarazanye ukuri, aba yaranazanye ibisubizo by’abayakurikira, aho kugira ngo abantu bayazemo ari benshi ariko n’ibibazo bikomeze bibe uruhuri mu Isi, maze n’ugerageje kuba hari ibyo atumva neza yitwe umupagani, ndetse ibindi byatuma umuntu asobanukirwa neza abanyamadini bamwe bakabyita amayobera.

Ikindi abahanga bakomeje gusa n’abahurizaho, ngo hari n’indi mirongo migari ngenderwaho mu bukungu na politiki yaje kwaduka mu isi, umuntu atagakwiye gutandukanya cyane n’amadini asanzwe.

Marx atanga urugero rw’aho usanga ibihugu bimwe byitwa ko bigendera kuri Capitalism ... Ibi ngo bikajya gusa neza neza n’amadini asanzwe, kandi akurikiwe n’imbaga itari nto ku Isi, aho we abyita “Idini rya kijyambere”.

Icyo Marx anegura cyane kurushaho ariko, ni uko yaba amadini cyangwa Capitalism, byombi bigera ku muntu byishushanya nk’ibije kumwubaka, kandi ari amaco yo kumunyunyuza imitsi, bimwubikiriye ku bukene n’ibibazo yifitiye, ugasanga n’utwo yacungiragaho biratumucucuye, umuntu akabeshaho idini aho kuba ari ryo rimubeshaho.

Karl Henreich Marx ni umwe mu bahanga Isi yagize bari bazobereye ibijyanye n’imitekerereze ya muntu

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