Ni nde ukwiye kubazwa ishibuka ry’inyeshyamba za M23 zongeye kukameza muri Congo?

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 9 Werurwe 2017 saa 11:13
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Ikibazo cya M23 cyakunze kutavugwaho rumwe mu karere bamwe bakavuga ko giterwa n’u Rwanda na Uganda, kiza no kubyara ikindi gikomeye ubwo bamwe mu banyaburayi bahagarikaga inkunga zabo, nubwo uko bagendaga bamenya ukuri bazirekuraga.

Hari hashize iminsi aba barwanyi basa n’abacecetse, nyuma y’inkundura barwanye ahagana mu 2012 ikibazo kigakwira akarere n’umugabane muri rusange, ariko baza gukubitwa inshuro n’ingabo za Loni, bamwe bakwira imishwaro mu mashyamba, abandi bahungira mu Rwanda na Uganda.

Ubu ubwoba ni bwose mu burasirazuba bwa Congo hikangwa intambara nshya nyuma yo kongera kwirema kwa M23, biturutse ku barwanyi bari barahungiye muri Uganda bagashyirwa mu nkambi irinzwe bikomeye, ariko bamaze kurambirwa ubuhunzi bagenda banyonyomba, kugeza no ku muyobozi wabo Gen. Sultan Makenga.

Bashinja Leta Congo kunanirwa gushyira mu bikorwa amasezerano yashyiriweho umukono i Nairobi bakemera gushyira intwaro hasi mu 2013.

Ugusubira mu mashyamba ya Congo no kongera gukozanyaho n’ingabo za Leta, FARDC, kwashimangirwa n’abagera kuri 30 baheruka gusesekara mu Rwanda bavuga ko bahunze imirwano.

M23 ntiyapfuye kubaho

Dusubije amaso inyuma, izina rya M23 (Mouvement du 23 Mars) rifite inkomoko kuwa 23 Werurwe 2009, ubwo Leta ya Congo yasinyanaga amasezerano y’amahoro na CNDP (Congres National pour la Defence du Peuple) yayoborwaga na Gen Laurent Nkunda (yaje gusimburwa na Gen. Bosco Ntaganda ubu uri inyuma ya ‘fer à béton’ z’Urukiko Mpuzamahanga rw’i La Haye akurikiranyweho ibyaha byibasiye inyokomuntu.)

Igice cy’abaturage Nkunda yarwaniraga bamwe mu Banye-Congo ntibabemera nk’abenegihugu bagenzi babo ku buryo babahigaga bukware bakicwa nk’inyamaswa, maze hagiyeho umutwe ubarengera bose barawuyoboka.

Aba ni bo bari batuye mu Burasirazuba bwa Repubilika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo mu gice cyahoze ari icy’u Rwanda ari na yo ntandaro yo kuba benshi mu bari muri M23 bavuga ikinyarwanda ku buryo wakeka ko ari Abanyarwanda.

Amasezerano yo kuwa 23 Werurwe yagenaga ko abari muri uwo mutwe bashyirwa mu ngabo za leta abandi bagasezererwa bagasubizwa mu buzima busanzwe, ugahinduka ishyaka rya politiki n’abari abarwanyi bawo bafunzwe bakarekurwa.

Gusa kuwa 4 Mata 2012, havutse undi mutwe wavugaga ko ya masezerano atashyizwe mu bikorwa, abari binjijwe mu ngabo za leta batangira kuziyomoraho. M23 icyo gihe yahise itangirana n’abasirikare bagera kuri 300 bahoze muri CNDP bigumuraga bavuga ko bafashwe nabi mu ngabo za leta, badahembwa, igisirikare nta bushobozi gifite ndetse ko bicwa n’inzara.

Barakamejeje biratinda

Mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari, Afurika yose n’amahanga ntazibagirwa M23 yarwanye inkundura ariko hagati ya Nzeri n’Ukwakira 2013, nyuma yo gutsindwa n’ingabo za Leta ya Congo n’iza Monusco, bamwe mu barwanyi bayo bagashyira intwaro hasi abandi bakayabangira ingata bagatatana, aho igice kiyobowe na Pasiteri Runiga kirimo abasaga 600 cyerekeje mu Rwanda abandi bajyana na Colonel Sultan Makenga muri Uganda.

Inkuru yabo yaribagiranye ariko mu gihe gishize habaye ibyatunguranye bisa n’ibya ya filime kuko abasirikare ba Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, u Buhinde, u Bushinwa, u Rwanda na Tanzania bagiye muri Uganda mu Karere ka Ibanda bahageze bakubitwa n’inkuba kubera inkuru babwiwe.

Aha muri aka karere niho hari inkambi ikomeye ya gisirikare mu 2015 yashyizwemo abahoze muri M23 bagera ku 1374 bavanywe ahazwi nka Kasese gusa ubu abahabarizwa ni 300 gusa.

Abarwanyi ba M23 mu nkambi muri Uganda

Muri aba basaga 1300 bari barajyanywe muri iyi nkambi, 19 nibo bizwi ko bajyanywe kuvururirwa mu bitaro bya gisirikare bya Bombo, icyenda bizwi ko bapfuye kuva mu 2013 bagezwa muri Uganda. Barindwi bahoze ari abarwanyi bagiye mu kazi kazwi mu gihe abandi barindwi bahawe uruhushya rwo kujya kureba abavandimwe babo.

Abandi bagiye he? Ibyibazwa ni byinshi ariko igikomeye ni uburyo batorotse. Uganda yemeza ko yafashe 101 batorotse, hakibazwa uko babikoze niba barakinnye imikino nk’imwe yo muri ya filime ya ‘Prison Break’ cyangwa niba hari undi wabacikishije.

Uyu mutwe watumye abagabo bakubitana imitwe

Byatangiye bivugwa ko u Rwanda ari rwo rushyigikiye M23, ingingo u Bufaransa bwumvise neza maze bukanjama ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda kugeza n’aho rusabiwe ibihano byo kwimwa inkunga zimwe na zimwe.

U Rwanda rwakunze kuvuga ko rudakwiye kwitirirwa ikibi cyose kibangamiye umutekano kuko ntaho ruhuriye n’uyu mutwe. Ibi byabaye mu gihe Uburasirazuba bwa Congo Kinshasa bukigerwaho n’amakosa ya Mobutu wakirije yombi abari bamaze kumena amaraso y’Abanyarwanda akabaha rugari, ubu bakaba ari bo banyuzamo bagahungabanya umutekano mu bice bya Rubavu.

Ni mu gihe kandi Congo Kinshasa yabaye ikotaniro, intara ya Katanga n’Uburasirazuba bw’Igihugu bikaba biri mu maboko y’imitwe yitwaje intwaro.

Mu gihe bamwe mu Banye-Congo baba bahuze mu turimo abandi barya ubuzima ku mucanga w’Inyanja ya Atlantique, nta wakwibagirwa ubunyamaswa buba buri kubera muri Kivu y’Amajyaruguru mu duce nka za Beni na Rutshuru, aho abaturage bicishwa intwaro gakondo ubutitsa.

Ugiye kureba uko iki gihugu kimeze muri iki gihe, muri Congo habarirwa amagana y’imitwe y’inyeshyamba irimo za Mai Mai Nyatura n’andi moko menshi ya Mai Mai, ADF NALU irwanya ubutegetsi bwa Uganda, FDLR n’indi myinshi ivuka uko bucyeye n’uko bwije.

None u Rwanda ruzanwamo rute?

Mu byumweru bibiri bishize Umuryango uharanira guteza imbere amahoro, Demokarasi n’Uburenganzira bwa muntu muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, (CEPADHO), wasabye Perezida Joseph Kabila kurega Leta y’u Rwanda n’iya Uganda bitewe n’ibitero by’abahoze ari abarwanyi ba M23 bikomeje kwibasira igihugu.

Uyu muryango uvuga ko Loni, Afurika Yunze Ubumwe , Inama Nkuru y’Akarere k’Ibiyaga bigari (ICGLR) n’Umuryango w’Ubukungu w’Ibihugu bya Afurika y’Amajyepfo, SADC, bakwiye kureba iki kibazo hakagira ibyemezo bifatirwa u Rwanda.

Gusa mbere ya byose hakwiye gukemurwa ikibazo cyatumye M23 ibaho, Kabila akaba ari byo bisubizo atanga aho kujya gushakira ahandi mu buryo busa no gupfunda umutwe.

Bamwe mu barwanyi ba M23 batorotse inkambi muri Uganda basubira mu mirwano muri Congo

Amafoto: AFP


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