1900-1930, imyaka 30 yaciye imizi y’u Rwanda

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 4 Werurwe 2019 saa 01:54
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Umwaka wa 1900 wazanye indi sura mu miyoborere n’imitegerekere by’u Rwanda. U Rwanda rwari rumenyerewe nk’urw’ Umwami rwinjiwemo n’intumwa z’abandi bami bakomeye barimo Yezu Kristu n’umwami w’u Budage Wilhelm II.

Abapadiri bera (abamisiyoneri) binjiye mu mwaka umwe n’abategetsi b’u Budage bari bahawe u Rwanda ubwo Afurika yigabanywaga n’abanyaburayi ngo bayikolonize, mu 1884.

Basanze Yuhi V Musinga amaze imyaka ine ari umwami w’u Rwanda ariko mu by’ukuri ayoborerwa na nyina Kanjogera. Byabanje kugora yaba abapadiri bera n’abadage kwinjira mu Rwanda kubera uko ubutegetsi bwarwo bwari bwubatse.

Kuwa 2 Gashyantare 1900, abapadiri bera basabye uruhushya rwo gukorera mu Rwanda, ibwami babanza kubyanga ariko baza kwemeranya kuhakorera ariko ntibivange mu mikorere y’umwami.

Ku butegetsi bw’abadage bwarangiye mu 1916, Musinga yasaga n’ubanye neza na bo.

Musinga yari afite ibibazo bye bwite by’abigumuraga hirya no hino mu gihugu cyane cyane mu majyaruguru barimo n’abavandimwe be bamuzizaga kujya ku butegetsi nyuma y’intambara yo ku Rucunshu yaguyemo Rutarindwa wahabwaga amahirwe yo gusimbura Se, cyane ko bombi bari bene Kigeli IV Rwabugili ariko badahuje nyina.

Igitabo Defeat Is the Only Bad News, Rwanda Under Musinga cyanditswe na Alison des Forges kigaragaza ko Musinga yatangiye guhura n’ibibazo mu 1915 mu ntambara ya mbere y’isi, ubwo ababiligi n’abongereza bateraga ingabo z’u Budage mu Rwanda.

Mu 1915 abadage basabye Musinga abasore bato bo kujya ku rugamba guhangana n’ababiligi, ababaha adashidikanya kuko atifuzaga ko abadage batsindwa, ikindi yumvaga ko abo basore bazaba baratojwe kurwana nibagaruka bazaba mu ngabo ze.

Mu 1916, abadage baratsinzwe basimburwa n’ababiligi, bo biyegereza cyane abapadiri bera ndetse batangira gusa n’abananiza umwami Musinga.

Umubano w’ababiligi n’abamisiyoneri ntiwari uwa hafi. Mu gihe abadage barimo batsindwa mu Rwanda, bamwe mu bapadiri bera bahaye inkunga ababiligi. Urugero, mu 1916 ubwo intambara yari irimbanyije, ababiligi bahuye na Padiri Huntziger wayoboraga Misiyoni ya Save, bamusaba kubafasha bakorohereza ingabo mu ntambara, ashishikariza abakiristu kubaha ibyo kurya n’ibindi bakenera.

Ababiligi kandi bashakaga kugendera ku bapadiri bifuzaga ko ububasha bw’umwami n’abatware bugabanywa, ntibakomeze gukandamiza abakene bari biganjemo abahutu.

Igitabo cya Des Forges kivuga ko “Bamwe mu basirikare b’abababiligi biyemeje guha abahutu uburenganzira busesuye ku butaka bwabo n’umusaruro wabo. Umusirikare wagombaga kumva umuhutu winubira umutware we, yagombaga kumenya impamvu yo kwinuba kwe akabikemura.”

Musinga yatangiye kubahukwa

Musinga we yakomeje guhura n’ibibazo, bamwe mu muryango we n’abatware batangiye kumwitaza kuko bari bamaze kubona ko ababiligi ari bo bakomeye.

Mu mpera z’umwaka wa 1916, Rwagataraka umuhugu wa Rwidegembya watwaraga i Kinyaga, yashatse uburyo atabara se wari watangiye kwangwa akanafungwa n’ababiligi.

Mu kugura se, Rwagataraka yabeshyeye Musinga ko agihishe Captain Wintgens wari umugaba w’ingabo z’abadage. Ababiligi baraje basaba Musinga kumubaha ariko undi agira ubwoba abaha umuja we. Padiri Huntziger abimenye yabwiye ababiligi ko uwo yabahaye atari we, bituma ababiligi bafata Musinga baramufunga.

Nyuma yo gukora iperereza, baje gusanga Musinga arengana baramurekura.

Ibi ubwabyo ryari ishyano, kumva ko umwami wafatwaga nk’Imana mu banyarwanda ahangarwa n’abanyamahanga agafungwa hafi kunyongwa, byongeye yagambaniwe n’umuturage we.

Akababaro ka Musinga, uburyarya bw’ababiligi

Mu 1917, ababiligi batangiye kubona ko batahindura ibintu badakoranye na Musinga. Baramwiyegereje bamwumvisha ko niyemera gukorana na bo bazakomeza kurinda ingoma ye n’icyubahiro cye. Bamuhaye impano zirimo imyenda n’imodoka, bamusaba guha amadini ubwisanzure.

Mu kurushaho kumwiyegereza, mu ntangiriro za 1918, Uwari ukuriye ubutegetsi bw’Ababiligi mu bya gisirikare (résident militaire) i Kigali, Major Gérard-François Declerck yagiye kwa Musinga ngo yumve akababaro aterwa n’abapadiri bera.

Akababaro ka Musinga kagaragara muri Raporo yanditswe na Oscar Anthème Defawe, umusirikare w’umubiligi wabaga i Nyanza, akaba n’umujyanama w’umwami.

Hari aho Musinga agira ati “Mu gihe cy’abadage, abatutsi bose n’abahutu bisanzuraga iwanjye, buri wese yaranyubahaga n’abapadiri ubwabo baranyubahaga. Ubwo bazaga bambwiye ko bazanywe n’Imana yabo, ko ntawe bazagirira nabi kandi ko batazivanga mu mikorere yanjye.

Umunsi ababiligi bazaga, abapadiri bahinduye imyitwarire. Batangiye kwivanga mu mikorere yanjye n’ibindi bibi bitavugwa. Nubwo bavuga ko kubeshya ari bibi, babeshye abayobozi babo bakuru.

Iyo ngize icyo mbwira abatutsi, iyo atagishaka ajya kureba padiri akamubwira ngo nta nyumvire, ngo ntacyo mvuze. Iyo ngize icyo nsaba abahutu baturiye Misiyoni kugira icyo bankorera, bajya ku bapadiri bagasakuza ngo babagiriye nabi, ngo babasahuye. Ahantu hose nshyize umutware, abapadiri bashyirayo umukiristu ngo amugenzure. Uwo mukristu agakoranya abatishimiye umutware, hakaba impande ebyiri zitavuga rumwe ku musozi.”

Musinga yanavuze ko ngo umunsi umwe Padiri Huntziger yigeze kumubwira ngo “Guhera ubu Musinga wamanuwe mu ntera, ninjye mutware wawe. Ntabwo bikiri nka cya gihe kubw’abadage […] Yavuze ko njyana abana banjye kwiga iwe ariko ntabo azabona. Yanyambuye imisozi, yanyambuye abaturage banjye, antwara ubutware bwanjye none arashaka no kunyambura abana kugira ngo nyuma bazansuzugure, ibyo ntibizigera bibaho.”

Ababiligi bakomeje kwereka Musinga ko nta cyo azaba nakomeza kubumvira, bituma anemera kuvanaho amwe mu maturo n’imisoro by’agahato abahutu basabwaga gusa na we yabikoraga azi ko ari ukubiyegereza ngo bazamufashe guhangana n’abapadiri.

Muri Kanama 1917, ababiligi bongeye gusaba Musinga gusinya iteka riha abahutu ubutaka bukubye kabiri ubwo bari bafite no kugabanya igihe cy’uburetwa kikava ku minsi itatu ikaba ibiri mu cyumweru.

Abamisiyoneri (abapadiri) nta kibazo bari bafitanye n’ababiligi kugeza icyo gihe kuko babonaga uburyo bushya bwo gukorana n’umwami buzatuma yemera abatware bakabatizwa, rubanda rukaboneraho kuko bari barabonye ko abaturage bemera cyane ibyo babwiwe n’abatware.

Umwami ubundi yubahirwaga kuba afite ububasha bwo guhana, kwica cyangwa agakiza. Mu 1917 ababiligi bamusabye kujya abanza kubamenyesha igihe agize uwo ashaka guhana, kwica n’ibindi. Mu 1920 bamutegetse kujya abanza kubamenyesha mbere yo kugira uwo agira umutware cyangwa uwo ahindura. Ibyo byari bisobanuye kumwambura n’igitinyiro gike yari asigaranye.

Ababiligi bongeye gusaba Musinga n’abatware kohereza abana babo mu mashuri kuko babonaga ejo hazaza abize ari bo bazaba bakenewe mu buyobozi. Bavuze ko nibabyanga amashuri azajyibwamo n’abahutu n’abatutsi bakennye, akaba ari bo bazayobora mu minsi iri imbere.

Muri Kamena 1918, Musinga yemeye ko abana bajya kwiga ariko asaba ko bubakirwa ishuri ryihariye kuko atashakaga ko bigishwa n’abapadiri yashinjaga kwigisha agasuzuguro.

Ababiligi barabyemeye mu 1919 bafungura ishuri ridashamikiye ku bihayimana i Nyanza, yoherezayo abahungu be batatu Munonozi, Rudacyahwa na Rudahigwa, icyakora Munonozi na Rudacyahwa baje kwicwa na mugiga nyuma.

Umwami yasigaye ku izina

Ababiligi bakomeje gukorana bya hafi n’abapadiri. Impamvu ni uko mu nzego nyinshi z’imitegekere n’iterambere hari hakenewe abantu banyuze mu mashuri kandi abamisiyoneri nibo bari bafite amashuri menshi.

Abapadiri nabo bagombaga gukorana n’ababiligi kugira ngo abana barangije kwiga bahabwe akazi muri Leta, babeho neza bitume n’abandi bagira ishyari ryo kugana Kiliziya Gatolika no kohereza abana babo kwiga.

Kuva mu 1919 kugeza mu 1924, abakiristu gatolika bari bavuye ku bihumbi 13 bageze ku bihumbi 26.

Bamwe mu batware bakomeye n’abatutsi b’ibwami bari batangiye gukorana n’abamisiyoneri. Umuhungu wa Musinga Rwigemera na nyina Nyirakabuga bageze aho baramucika bajya kwibanira n’abamisiyoneri.

Ibwami hatangiye kubaho kutavuga rumwe ku buryo mu 1924, Musinga yari asigaye ari umwami ku izina ariko ubutegetsi bwose bufitwe na’abakoloni.

Igitabo The White Fathers Mission in Rwanda cyanditswe na Ian Linden, kivuga ko nyuma ya 1924 abakoloni bari bafite uburyo bwose bwo kuba bakuraho Musinga, bahura n’ikibazo cyo kubona umuntu wizewe uzamusimbura.

Abaturage ntibari bakimufata nk’umwami kuko amategeko menshi yavaga ku bakoloni, abayobozi ba Kiliziya ari bo baba hafi yabo kurusha ab’umwami.

Abonye ko amaboko atangiye kumushiraho, mu 1927 Musinga yandikiye Musenyeri Léon Classe amumenyesha ko yifuza kongera kuba inshuti n’abamisiyoneri ariko yasaga n’uruhira ubusa kuko ibiganiro hagati ya Kiliziya na n’abakoloni byari bigeze kure ngo hashakwe uzamusimbura.

Mu 1927, Guverineri Henri Joseph Voisin yakoze amavugurura mu mitegekere n’imikorere. Amaturo ntiyari akiri ay’umwami. Hashyizweho imisoro mishya, uburetwa, imirimo y’amaboko nko gukora imihanda, gutegekwa guhinga ibihingwa bimwe nk’ikawa, imyumbati n’ibindi.

Ibyo bikorwa byaremereye cyane abaturage ndetse bamwe bahitamo guhunga. Jean Paul Kimonyo mu gitabo cye ‘Rwanda un Génocide Populaire’, avuga ko nyuma y’amavugurura nibura buri mwaka hahungaga abanyarwanda ibihumbi 50.

Tariki 11 kugeza kuri 13 Nzeri 1931, Guverineri Mukuru wabaga muri Congo Mbiligi, Tilkens (Auguste-Constantin) yasuye Musenyeri Classe na Guverineri Voisin ngo bapange itariki yo gukuraho Musinga.

Saa yine n’igice ku wa 14 Ukwakira 1931 igihiriri ry’abaja cyahagurutse i Nyanza giherekeje Musinga na nyina Kanjogera n’abo mu muryango wabo, bajyanwa mu nzu yari yabateguriwe i Kamembe.

Nyuma yo gukuraho umwami ababiligi bari bakuye mu nzira icyababangamiraga cyose. Bashyizeho Mutara III Rudahigwa ariko na we yari azi neza icyo abazungu bapfuye na se ku buryo kubitambika byashoboraga kumukoraho.

Abatware basigaye ari abakozi b’ababiligi, akazi kabo ari ukumenya abitabiriye n’abanze kwitabira imirimo y’agahato n’imisoro.

Mu gice gikurikira tuzareba uko imikorere y’abakoloni na Kiliziya Gatolika mu kuyobora u Rwanda byakomeje kwenyegeza urwango mu baturage kugeza ku mvururu zo mu 1959.

Ibihe by'ingenzi bigarukwaho mu mateka y'u Rwanda hagati y'umwaka wa 1885-1931
Musenyeri Hirth washinze Misiyoni ya mbere ya Kiliziya Gatolika mu Rwanda
Tariki ya 19 Ukwakira 1913, intore zibyinira umwami Musinga ataramburwa ububasha
Umwami Musinga ubwo yari mu birori mu mwaka 1930
Umwami mu Musinga mu birori yateguye byo kwakira abanyaburayi mu 1930
Umwami Musinga aramutsa igikomangomakazi Elena d'Aosta wo mu Butaliyani

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