Amoko y’umutungo agena imibereho ya buri wese ku Isi

Yanditswe na Dr. Gasana Sebastien
Kuya 12 Kamena 2018 saa 04:23
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Ku bantu benshi iyo uvuze ijambo “umutungo” bahita bumva mu buryo butaziguye ko ushaka kuvuga amafaranga (monnaie/money) cyangwa se ibindi bintu bifatika ushobora guhereza ugahita ufata amafaranga.

Muri iyi nyandiko ngufi, duhereye kubyanditswe n’umwe mu bahanga mu bumenyi bwerekeye imibanire y’abantu muri sosiyete (Sociologie), Umufaransa witwa Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002), turashaka kwerekana ko uretse amafaranga, umutungo (capital) ushobora no gushingira ku bindi bintu bibiri nk’uko yabigaragaje.

Byose hamwe rero uko ari bitatu akaba ari byo, buri cyose ukwacyo cyangwa bikomatanye, mu by’ukuri uwo muhanga yerekana ko bishobora kugaragaza umutungo (capital) w’umuntu muri rusange.

Nibyo tugiye kwerekana, mu magambo magufi, mu mirongo ikurikira.

Umutungo (capital) ushingiye ku mafaranga (Capital économique)

Umutungo wo muri uru rwego ushingiye ku bintu byose umuntu aba atunze kandi akaba ashobora kubigurisha akabona amafaranga, cyangwa se inyungu mu mafaranga ibyobintu bishobora kubyara. Urugero ni nko kuba ufite inzu, ukaba wayigurisha cyangwa se ukayikodesha ukajya ubona amafaranga.

Nk’uko byumvikana neza kandi biboneka mu buzima busanzwe, hari uburyo bwinshi bunyuranye, tutagambiriye kurondora muri iyi nyandiko, bushobora gukoreshwa mu kumenya ingano cyangwa kubara uwo mutungo w’amafaranga umuntu ashobora kuba afite mu gihe iki n’iki. Ikindi kandi, nyiri uwo mutungo ashobora no kuwuraga abo ashaka, ugakomeza gukoreshwa n’abasigaye, kabone niyo nyirawo yaba atakiriho.

Umutungo ushingiye ku bumenyi (Capital culturel/intellectuel)

Uyu mutungo ushingiye ku bumenyi bunyuranye umuntu aba afite ariko cyane cyane ugashingira ku bumenyi akura mu mashuri aba yarize.

Nk’uko byumvikana rero, umutungo ushingiye ku bumenyi ugaragazwa cyane n’impamyabumenyi (diplômes) umuntu aba afite.

Biranumvikana kandi ko uyu mutungo atari ikintu umuntu yafata, mu buryo butaziguye ngo agihe cyangwa akirage abo ashaka. Dipolome y’umuntu ntishobora kuragwa undi ngo nawe azayikorereho.

Umutungo ushingiye ku mibanire (Capital social)

Umuntu yavuga ko uyu mutungo ushingira ku mibanire myiza cyangwa ubushuti umuntu aba afitanye n’abandi, akaba yashobora kuwubyaza inyungu, zifatika cyangwa zidafatika, mu gihe bibaye ngombwa.

Urugero ni nk’uko umuntu ashobora gukenera amafaranga kugira ngo akemure ikibazo kandi we bwite atayafite muri icyo gihe, ariko inshuti ye ikaba yakwemera kuyamuguriza.

Icyo tutabura kuvuga kandi ni uko, muri rusange, usanga bigoye cyane gushobora kugaragaza mu buryo bubarika ikigero cy’uyu mutungo ushingiye ku mibanire (relation). Ikindi kandi uretse umutungo umuntu ashobora kwishakira ubwe, akaba ashobora no kugendera kuw’umuryango we. Urugero ni nk’uko wakoresha ibirori (nk’ubukwe cyangwa ikindi) ukabitumiramo inshuti zawe bwite, ariko ugatumira n’inshuti z’umuryango wawe uvukamo.

Mbere yo gusoza iyi nyandiko, icyo twavuga ni uko iyo urebye muri sosiyete zose muri rusange, usanga hari isano ikomeye ndetse no kuzuzanya hagati y’ayo moko y’umutungo yose ndetse no mu byerekezo (sens/direction) binyuranye.

Birumvikana ko umuntu ufite umutungo mwinshi ushingiye ku mafaranga ashobora, we ubwe cyangwa abe, kwiga neza kandi mu mashuri meza akabona dipolome zifite agaciro ku isoko ry’umurimo, ibyo bigashobora gutuma abona akazi keza kandi kakamuha umushahara mwiza. Ubutunzi bw’amafaranga n’ibintu nabyo bishobora gutuma ugira ‘‘inshuti’’ nyinshi. Baravuga ngo « ukize baraza.»

Kuri buri muntu cyangwa se umuryango uyu n’uyu, iyo urebye iyo mitungo yose uyihurije hamwe nibyo byerekana icyiciro cy’imibereho uwo muntu cyangwa se umuryango uba uriho, mu gihe runaka.

Urugero rufatika, turebe hano mu gihugu cyacu ikigenderwaho kugira ngo umuntu cyangwa umuryango uyu n’uyu ushyirwe mu cyiciro cy’Ubudehe iki n’iki.

Dr Gasana Sebastien, Umwarimu muri Christian University of Rwanda (CHUR)

Dr Gasana Sebastien, Umwarimu muri Christian University of Rwanda (CHUR)


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