Andrew Mwenda: Ibimenyetso birivugira

Yanditswe na Dick Mugabe
Kuya 12 Kamena 2019 saa 09:26
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Mu nkuru aheruka kwandika mu kinyamakuru The Independent yahaye umutwe ugira uti “u Rwanda na Uganda bigeze mu manga inyerera”, ku wa 3 Kamena 19, Mwenda yifashishije ikibazo giheruka ubwo abantu babiri binjije magendu mu Rwanda, Umunyarwanda n’Umunya-Uganda, bagasagarira inzego z’umutekano bakarasirwa ku mupaka w’u Rwanda na Uganda, bagapfa.

“Mu cyumweru gishize Uganda yavuze ko Ingabo z’u Rwanda zambutse umupaka zikinjira muri Uganda zikarasa abantu babiri bagapfa. U Rwanda rwavuze ko byabereye ku butaka bwarwo.”

Mwenda agaruka kuri icyo gikorwa inshuro esheshatu. Mu bitekerezo agenda atanga, nta kindi gikorwa cyabaye agarukaho.

Yashingiye kuri ibyo avuga ko “bitewe n’ibyabaye, ibimenyetso ntabwo bihagije.”Ashyigikira igitekerezo cye ko “mu bihe nk’ibi by’umwuka mubi, igikorwa cyose kizamura ubushake bwa buri ruhande rushaka kwerekana ko ari rwo rubangamiwe cyane.”

Mwenda asoza avuga ko intambara hagati ya Uganda n’u Rwanda bigoye kuyikumira. Muri iyo nkuru avuga uburyo intambara yatutumbye hagati y’u Rwanda na Uganda, inshuro esheshatu.

Ati “Bitewe n’ibintu nk’ibi, intambara hagati ya Uganda n’u Rwanda irashoboka kandi ahanini ni uko no kuyihagarika bigoye.”

Niba intambara idashobora gukumirwa hagati y’ibihugu by’abavandimwe kandi byahoze ari inshuti nka Uganda n’u Rwanda, hagomba kuba hari ibibazo bikomeye bigomba kugaragazwa.

Icya mbere, ni akahe kababaro ka buri gihugu kagomba gutuma intambara nta kiyihagarika? Icya kabiri, ni nde ushotora undi? Icya gatatu, ese ibyo bibazo bishobora gukemurwa mu zindi nzira hatabayeho intambara? Ibyo ni ibibazo bimwe Mwenda yananiwe gusubiza muri iyo nkuru.

Igitangaje, muri imwe mu nkuru za Mwenda yasohotse ku wa 12 Werurwe 2019 ifite umutwe ugira uti “Isesengura: Mu mwuka mubi hagati y’u Rwanda na Uganda,” agaruka kuri ibyo bibazo mu buryo burambuye kandi bufite igisobanuro.

Ubwo nasomaga iyo nkuru, natekereje ko ashobora guhamagazwa agasubizwa mu byicaro bye. Nkeka ko ari byo byabaye. Yifashishije ibimenyetso bifatika n’amakuru aba afite ku mutekano w’igihugu, Mwenda yagaragaje neza Uganda nk’umushotoranyi. Ntibyumvikana uburyo Mwenda azwi hamwe n’ikinyamakuru cye baje kugera ku mwanzuro w’uko “aho wicaye hagaragaza aho uhagaze.”

Munyemerere nkoreshe amagambo ye bwite mu nkuru ya mbere (muri Werurwe) mu kugaragaza uko yivuguruje mu nkuru iheruka (Kamena).

Nk’uko nabivuze, hari ibibazo bikomeye uba ugomba kugarukaho niba ibihugu nta kabuza bigiye mu ntambara. Icya mbere, ni iki gihangayikishije buri gihugu gituma intambara idakumirwa? Mwenda yibanda ku kibazo cy’abambutsaga magendu mu kumvikanisha ko intambara nta kizayibuza.

Mu kuri, niba ikintu gishobora kuganisha mu ntambara, ibyo bivuze ko imigambi y’intambara iba ihasanzwe ku buryo icyo kintu kiza gikoma rutenderi. Nk’urugero, Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ntabwo yatewe n’ihanurwa ry’indege ahubwo wari umugambi wateguwe mu myaka myinshi.

Ibibazo bihari nk’uko byagaragajwe na Mwenda

Reka mfatemo bike mu bibazo bikomeye byagaragajwe na Mwenda muri Werurwe, ubundi nerekane ukwivugururza yagaragaje mu nkuru yo muri Kamena.

U Rwanda

-  “U Rwanda rwagaragarije Uganda inshuro nyinshi haba mu buryo bweruye n’ubuteruye, ko hari abantu bagamije kugirira nabi ubutegetsi bwarwo. Ruvuga ko abo bantu bitwikira ubuhunzi bafite muri Uganda bakivanga mu bikorwa bya politiki bibangamiye guverinoma ya Kigali.”

-  “U Rwanda kandi rwakomeje kuvuga ko abo bantu (abenshi rwanagaragaje amazina yabo) bafashwa n’inzego z’iperereza za Uganda mu kwinjiza mu barwanyi impunzi z’Abanyarwanda mu nkambi zinyuranye, bakajyanwa muri RDC mu myitozo y’imitwe yitwaje intwaro.”

-  “Kagame yabwiye Museveni ko Urwego rw’Ubutasi rwa Gisirikare (CMI) rukorana bitaziguye n’abahunze Leta y’u Rwanda.”

-  “CMI yafungiye Abanyarwanda muri kasho zitemewe, ibakorera iyicarubozo ndetse abandi birukanwa ku butaka bw’icyo gihugu.”

-  “Kigali yinubiye iryo fungwa haba mu buryo bweruye n’ubundi bwose bushoboka.”

Uganda

-  “CMI ishinja aba bantu kuneka ariko ntabwo ibageza imbere y’urukiko. Ndetse Uganda ntabwo yigeze ibishinja u Rwanda mu buryo bweruye.”

-  “Uganda ishinja u Rwanda gushimuta Abanyarwanda muri Uganda no gushaka guhindura ubutegetsi, ariko ntiyigeze igaragaza amazina cyangwa ibimenyetso ngo ibyerekane mu buryo bwemewe.”

-  “Kigali yakomeje gusoma mu binyamakuru bya Uganda no ku mbuga nkoranyambaga ko Guverinoma y’u Rwanda iteganya gukuraho ubutegetsi bwa Kampala. Imbuga zikorana na perezidansi ziyoboye isakazwa ry’ibyo birego.”

Mwenda atanga ibisubizo byose ku kababaro ka Uganda, ariko iby’u Rwanda bigasigara nta na kimwe gisubijwe.

Ku kwinuba k’u Rwanda, Mwenda yemera ko Kigali yagaragaje ikibazo kuri Uganda haba mu buryo bwemewe n’ubusanzwe. Ku rundi ruhande, Uganda ntiyigeze igaragariza u Rwanda ikibazo irufiteho mu buryo ubwo ari bwo bwose.

Ku birebana n’ikirego cyo kuba CMI ikorana n’abarwanya ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda, Museveni yijeje kubigenzura, ari nabyo yakoze agasubiza umuntu (Rugema Kayumba) muri Norvège. Icyo cyari ikimenyetso ko CMI ikorana na RNC. Rugema Kayumba ni we wafashe Gatsinzi Fidèle amushyikiriza CMI.

Ku bijyanye no gukuraho ubutegetsi, Mwenda yagize ati “Nzi ko igihe cyose Museveni yahuye na Kagame, atigeze azamura ikibazo cyo kuba Kigali ishaka gukuraho ubutegetsi bwe.”

Mwenda ni umuntu ubasha kugera kuri Museveni n’inzego ze z’umutekano, bityo afite amakuru yuzuye. Biratangaje rero kumva avuga ko “bitewe n’ibyo, ibimenyetso bidahagije.’ Mu bihe nk’ibi by’umwuka mubi, igikorwa cyose kizamura ko buri ruhande rushaka kwerekana ko ari rwo rubangamiwe cyane.”

Ibimenyetso byonyine nibyo bishobora guhinyuza icengezamatwara rifutamye kuko Mwenda yemera ko rikwirakwizwa na CMI n’Ibiro by’Umukuru w’Igihugu.

“Birashoboka ko Uganda nayo ifite ibyo itishimiye ku Rwanda. Ariko mu myaka myinshi nkurikirana umubano w’u Rwanda na Uganda, nta na kimwe nigeze ngaragarizwa. Ahubwo bamwe mu bagize inzego z’umutekano n’abakwiza ibihuha muri Kampala bashinje Kigali ibintu byinshi, ibintu ariko batashatse gutindaho cyangwa ngo babigaragarize u Rwanda beruye. Ku kigero icyo aricyo cyose, niba bafite ibintu barega u Rwanda, bakwiye kubigaragariza Guverinoma ya Kigali.”

Mu nkuru ye yo muri Werurwe, Mwenda agaragaza uburyo ashingiye ku byo azi, Uganda yananiwe kugaragaza ibyo ishinja u Rwanda, mu gihe ibibazo by’u Rwanda rwabyerekanye mu buryo bwose bushoboka. Nyamara mu nkuru yo muri Kamena, yamaganye ibimenyetso kubera ko, “…ibikorwa nk’ibi bizamura ubushake bwa buri ruhande bwo kwerekana ko ari rwo rubangamiwe cyane.” Uku ni uguhindukira cyane kuri dogere 180.

Ku bw’ibyo, bitandukanye n’ibyo Mwenda avuga, ibimenyetso birivugira mu bihe nk’ibi by’icengezamatwara rifutamye n’igihe intambara iba itutumba.

Ubushotoranyi

Ntabwo ushobora kuvuga ku ntambara bigoye gukumira utagaragaza umushotoranyi n’uwarenganye. Mu nkuru ye yo muri Kamena, Mwenda avuga ko intambara hagati ya Uganda n’u Rwanda bigoye kuyihagarika.

Nyamara avuga ko intambara izaba nk’impanuka itewe n’umwuka mubi uri hagati y’ibihugu byombi. Ibi bivuguruza inkuru yo muri Werurwe aho yagaragaje neza ko Uganda ari yo mushotoranyi. Niyo mpamvu ntekereza ko ashobora kuba yarahatiwe guhindura intekerezo.

Mu nkuru ye yo muri Werurwe, Mwenda agaragaza inzego zitandukanye z’ubushotoranyi bwa Museveni.

-  “Ikibazo hagati y’u Rwanda na Uganda cyakemuka Museveni akomeye ku bitekerezo bye bya mbere, ko ukwishyira hamwe kw’Akarere ari ingenzi ku hazaza ha Afurika, ndetse ko ibidutandukanya ari bito cyane ugereranyije n’inyungu ndetse zabyo n’uburyo bikenewe.”

-  “Ikibazo hagati ya Uganda n’u Rwanda - uko nkizi ni uko Kampala yanze kumva impungenge za Kigali ndetse ngo ibishyire ku meza biganirweho.”

-  “Kigali yahoze ishaka kandi yaharaniye ko habaho ibiganiro kuri ibyo bibazo na Kampala. Nyamara igisubizo cyabaye kwicecekera.”

-  “Ibibazo byagombaga kuba byarahagaritswe kera. Ariko, imbaraga zose zashyirwagamo hashakishwa ibiganiro hagati y’ibihugu byombi byasubizwaga inyuma na Uganda. Inshuro imwe ikomeye ni hagati mu 2018 ubwo nakoranaga na Gen Salim Saleh ngo twohereze itsinda i Kigali cyangwa dutumire itsinda ry’u Rwanda mu biganiro i Kampala, twageze n’aho twemeranya ku itsinda rizahagararira Uganda.

Navuganye na Kagame na we wagennye itsinda ry’abayobozi bagombaga guhura n’abo ku ruhande rwa Uganda. Ku munota wa nyuma, Museveni ubwe yahagaritse uwo mugambi avuga ko azabyikemurira we na Kagame.”

-  “Ubwanjye nagerageje inshuro nyinshi gushishikariza Museveni kuza mu kibazo u Rwanda rwagaragazaga ariko ntiyabyitaho, avuga ko azabyiganirira na Kagame, ibintu atigeze akora.”

-  “Nzi ko inshuro zose Museveni yahuye na Kagame, atigeze azamura ikibazo gishinjwa Kigali cyo gushaka guhindura ubutegetsi bwe.”

-  “Mu byo nabayemo mu gukorana n’abayobozi b’u Rwanda, by’umwihariko Kagame ubwe, nakozwe ku mutima n’ubushake bafite mu kubaka umubano mwiza na Uganda. Kagame ubwe afata Uganda nk’igihugu cy’ingirakamaro…ntiyigeze adohoka mu bushake bwo gutsura umubano mwiza na Kampala. Muri make yakomeje gutekereza ko yakora ibishoboka ngo umubano umere neza. Ariko ntateganya gupfukama ngo umubano mwiza ukunde uboneke.”

-  Icyo umuntu abona mu myitwarire ya Kampala kuri Kigali ni icyo Aba-Tooro bita Omugayo cyangwa agasuzuguro. Ariko imvugo zose za Museveni z’ukwishyira hamwe kwAkarere n’ibindi, ibikorwa bya Kampala kuri Kigali bigaragara ko adashaka gushyira mu ngiro ibyo avuga.”

Ibyo bibazo byose byagarutsweho na Mwenda muri Werurwe bigaragaza neza ko Museveni ari umushotoranyi, nubwo inshuro nyinshi Kagame yagiye agerageza kumwiyegereza.

Na Mwenda ubwe yaragerageje aratsindwa ndetse agaragaza ko byamubabaje. Ariko biteye ukwibaza kubona Mwenda muri Kamena avuga ko intambara itagira gisibya yaba ari impanuka.

“Dukunda kwibagirwa ko abantu ku giti cyabo bananirwa kugenzura ibintu bishobora kuganisha ku ntambara.”

“Intambara ishobora kuvuka igihe abayobozi ku mpande zombi biyemeje kubikumira. Ikibazo gito, nk’icyabaye mu cyumweru gishize, gishobora gutuma ubwumvikane buke burushaho gukomera.”

Mu kuri, ntabwo ari Mwenda wakabaye avuga ko abaperezida bombi biyemeje kwirinda intambara, nyuma yo kuvuga ko akababaro k’u Rwanda kagaragajwe mu buryo bweruye n’uko Uganda yananiwe kwerekana ikiyibabaje!

Nyuma yo kugaragaza ko ubushake bw’u Rwanda mu gushaka ibiganiro “kwasubijwe kwicecekera” kwa Museveni! Nyuma yo gushimangira ko Museveni adashaka gukora ibyo avuga! Nyuma yo kugaragaza imvugo yo mu Rutoro ya Omugayo, agasuzuguro ka Museveni ku Rwanda.

Mwenda anatira imvugo ya Carl Von Clausewitz, ko “intambara ari inkurikizi y’urujijo”. Anavuga ko “Ibintu byinshi bigeza ibihugu mu ntambara bishingira ku makuru atizewe; akenshi ugasanga abayobozi bakomeza gushidikanya ku cyo uwo bahanganye ashaka kugeraho.”

Mu gihe Mwenda atubwira ashize amanga ko intambara hagati y’u Rwanda na Uganda bigoye kuyihagarika, arongera akagerageza kutwumvisha ibyo avuga yuririye ku mucurabwenge wa gisirikare Clausewitz ko intambara ishobora kuba mu buryo bw’impanuka.

Ndamwibutsa nanjye nkoresheje amagambo y’uwo mucurabwenge ko “intambara atari ikintu gipfa kubaho, ahubwo aba ari ugukomeza mu bundi buryo kwa politiki iba yatangijwe.”

Intambara hagati ya Uganda n’u Rwanda ntabwo izaza nk’impanuka cyangwa ngo ive mu rwijiji nk’uko Mwenda ashaka ko tubyumva yifashishije amagambo ya Clausewitz ariko abanje kuyatesha igisobanuro cyayo. Niba Museveni yima amayira igisubizo giciye mu mahoro nk’uko Mwenda abimushinja; ubwo ashaka intambara, nta bindi. Intambara izaba ari ugukomeza politiki ye imaze igihe yo gukuraho ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda, ngo agere ku nzozi ze zo kuba hejuru.

Ba perezida n’abakuru b’ibihugu aba ari abagaba b’ikirenga b’ingabo zabo. Basinya intambara n’amahoro. Bityo rero, intambara ntabwo “ishobora kubaho igihe abayobozi ku mpande zombi baba bagerageje kuyikumira”nk’uko Mwenda ashaka kubitwumvisha ku bushake cyangwa ubumenyi buke.

Museveni ni we muzi w’ikibazo cy’uyu mwuka mubi n’amakimbirane hagati y’u Rwanda na Uganda kandi ni nawe mushotoranyi.

Hari igisubizo gishoboka ngo intambara yirindwe?

Mwenda muri Werurwe yagaragaje mu nkuru ye uburyo ingufu zose Perezida Kagame yakoresheje n’uburyo ubwe [Mwenda] yahuye n’uguceceka kwa Museveni. Mwenda yicara mu cyumba cy’intambara hamwe na Museveni na Gen Saleh nk’uko ubwe abyiyemerera.

“Igihe gikomeye hari hagati mu mwaka ushize ubwo nakoranaga na Gen Salim Saleh ku kohereza itsinda i Kigali. “…ndetse tunemeranya ku itsinda ry’abayobozi ba Uganda.” Ni uko Mwenda ari umuntu wa hafi mu bafata ibyemezo hamwe na Museveni, by’umwihariko ku birebana n’u Rwanda.”

Ku bw’ibyo, niba Mwenda avuze ko intambara hagati y’u Rwanda na Uganda ari nta gisibya, arimo kubivuga nk’umuntu ufite amakuru yuzuye. Mu gihe abanditsi n’abandi basesenguzi ku bibazo hagati ya Uganda n’u Rwanda bagiye banzura ko intambara idashoboka; ubwanjye ndemeranya na Mwenda ko intambara nta kizayihagarika.

Icya mbere, kuva intambara ya Kisangani yarangira, Museveni yakomeje guhembera ubushotoranyi ku Rwanda.

Icya kabiri, guhindura politiki ikibazo cy’abantu binjije ibiyobyabwenge mu gihugu, bagakoresha umutambagiro uwapfuye ku badipolomate b’ibihugu by’abaturanyi n’ibiri mu Kanama k’Umuryango w’Abibumbye gashinzwe umutekano. Ibyo byarenze ku igenzura ryakozwe n’itsinda rihuriweho ryerekanye ko byabereye mu Rwanda.

Icya gatatu, guhindura politiki ikibazo cyo gufunga umupaka wa Gatuna nubwo hari ibihamya ko urimo kubakwa.

Icya kane, kuba Museveni yaranze ibiganiro by’amahoro ahubwo akibanda ku gutegura ibikorwa bya gisirikare n’inkeragutabara hitegurwa intambara.

Icya gatanu, imyitwarire ya gishotoranyi ya Museveni ku Rwanda igaragaza neza itegurwa ry’intambara. Mwenda yavuze mu nkuru ye yo muri Werurwe ko “ikibazo mu mitekerereze ya Kampala ni uko yumva ko kugaragaza ko wumva ibyo Guverinoma y’u Rwanda ivuga na Kagame by’umwihariko, bifatwa nko kudakunda igihugu mu bantu b’imbere mu Ngoro y’Umukuru w’Igihugu.”

Ntabwo byaba bitangaje rero, urwango nk’urwo rubyaye intambara.

Icya nyuma, ni uko Mwenda wicaye mu cyumba cy’intambara cya Museveni yemeje ko nta kizayisibya.

Nanzura, inkuru ya Mwenda muri Kamena inyuranye n’iyo yanditse muri Werurwe mu nzego zose. Iyo muri Werurwe, agaruka ku bibabaje u Rwanda na Uganda byombi akoresheje ibimenyetso, akanzura ko Uganda ari yo mushotoranyi, ariko mu yo muri Kamena, agerageza kutwumvisha ko nubwo intambara yabaho, ibimenyetso bidahagije, ku buryo yabaho by’impanuka.

Mwenda yibanda gusa ku kibazo cy’abarashwe binjije magendu ngo avuge ko hashobora kuba intambara, ibintu bigaragaza cyane uko yahinduye ibitekerezo.

Niba intambara hagati y’ibihugu kuyirinda bitagishoboka, abaturage bakwiye kumenya impamvu iyo ntambara ibaye kandi ibi bisaba ibimenyetso. Mwenda azwiho buri gihe gutanga ibimenyetso n’imibare mu bintu akunze kugaragaza, ariko kuri iyi nshuro yanditse ashaka kugusha neza mu murongo wo gutegura intambara.

Nemeranya na Mwenda ko intambara ishobora kudahagarikwa, ariko nzi ko umushotoranyi ari Museveni nubwo Mwenda yaje guhindura intekerezo. U Rwanda rwahuye n’ukwikuza kwa Museveni kandi ruzagira icyo rukora mu kwirwanaho.

Ndibutsa Mwenda undi mucurabwenge wa gisirikare, Sun Tsu, wavuze ko “imirwanire y’intambara itwigisha ko tutagomba kwiringira gusa ko umwanzi atarimo kudusatira, ahubwo ku buryo twiteguye kumwakira; bitari ukuba atagiye kudutera ahubwo ko twagize ibirindiro byacu ibitavogerwa.”

Museveni arimo gutegura gutera u Rwanda; nizeye ko u Rwanda rwagize ibirindiro byarwo ibidahangarwa.

Umwanditsi ni Impuguke mu bijyanye n’Umutekano mu Karere k’Ibiyaga Bigari


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