Kwamamaza

‘Umwuga wo kwamamaza mu Rwanda ukeneye amategeko awugenga’

Yanditswe kuya 13-08-2015 saa 08:43' na Maurice Munyentwari


Ibikubiye muri iyi nkuru ni ibitekerezo bwite bya Maurice Munyentwali (MM), Impuguke mu by’amategeko, akora muri Commission y’u Rwanda ishinzwe kuvugurura amategeko, Afite impamyabumenyi ya Kaminuza mu mategeko, akaba ari no gusoza icyiciro cya gatatu cya Kaminuza (LLM), aha akaba agaragaza imbogamizi ziri mu kutagenzurwa kw’umwuga wo kwamamaza, ingaruka bigira, agatanga n’igitekerezo ku cyakorwa.

Kwamamaza akenshi bikunze kumvikana mu buryo bw’ubucuruzi hagamijwe gukangurira abantu kugura ikintu cyangwa serivisi runaka, kwamamaza bishobora no gukorwa mu buryo bwo gukangurira abantu kwitabira gahunda zitandukanye cyangwa kujya mu murongo runaka w’ ibitekerezo, amatwara, amahame n’ibindi.

Kwamamaza bikorwa hifashishijwe uburyo butandukanye ariko ubukunze gukoreshwa cyane ni Itangazamakuru (Radio, television, Internet, ibinyamakuru).

Hakoreshwa kandi uburyo bwo kwandika ku bintu bitandukanye nk’ibyapa, amamodoka, amazu, imyenda n’ibindi. Ikoranabuhanga na ryo rigenda rizana ubundi uburyo bushya bwo kwamamaza nko gukoresha ubutumwa bugufi (SMS), imbuga nkoranyambaga nka Facebook, WhatsApp, youtube, twitter,…

Umurimo wo kwamamaza umaze igihe kitari gito ukorwa mu Rwanda nyamara kugeza ubu umuntu yavuga ko nta mategeko ahagije agenga uyu murimo dufite mu Rwanda ndetse nta n’ikigo dufite mu Rwanda kugeza ubu gishinzwe kugenzura ibirebana no kwamamaza.

Cyakora itegeko No.32/2012 ryo kuwa 21/09/2012 rigenga ihiganwa mu bucuruzi no kurengera abaguzi rifite ingingo ebyiri gusa (iya 38 n’iya 39) zikomoza ku iyamamaza ribujijwe n’uko iyamamaza rigereranya rigomba gukorwa.

Uko ubucuruzi butera imbere mu Rwanda ni na ko umurimo wo kwamamaza ugenda waguka

Icyegeranyo cya Banki y’Isi mu birebana no gukora ubuzuruzi cyo muri 2015 (World Bank Doing Business Report 2015) cyerekana ko u Rwanda ruza mu bihugu 3 bya mbere muri Afurika, byorohereza abashaka gukora ubucuruzi (ku Isi u Rwanda ruri ku mwanya wa 46). Ibi bikagendana ahanini n’amavugurwa atandukanye cyane cyane ashingiye ku mategeko na politiki y’ubucuruzi akomeza kugenda akorwa mu Rwanda.

Uko ubucuruzi bugenda burushaho gukura mu gihugu ni nako umurimo wo kwamamaza ugenda urushaho gufata indi ntera dore ko kwamamaza ari imwe mu nzira zikomeye kandi zizewe zituma ubucuruzi bukura ndetse bukanatera imbere. Kuri ibi kandi hiyongeraho ko n’inzira zinyuzwamo ubutumwa bwo kwamamaza nazo zigenda zaguka.

Ingero twatanga ni nk’umubare w’ibitangazamakuru udasiba kwiyongera. Imibare iva mu Nama Nkuru y’Itanganzamakuru no mu Rwego rw’Abanyamakuru bigenzura (Rwanda Media Commission) igaragaraza ko ubu mu Rwanda habarirwa Radio 35, Television 7, ibinyamakuru byandika (Newspapers) bikabakaba 45 na Websites zirenga 100.

Inzira z’ikoranabuhanga na zo zikomeza kwaguka kandi zikoroshya ikwirakwizwa ry’ubutumwa bwamamaza. By’umwihariko mu Rwanda, umubare w’abantu bakoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga ntusiba kwiyongera. Mu kanya nk’ako guhumbya ubutumwa bwamamaza bushobora kuba bumaze kugera ku bantu benshi cyane kandi baherereye ahantu hatandukanye.

Umurimo wo Kwamamaza ugomba kugenzurwa

Kwamamaza biteza imbere ubucuruzi kandi bituma umuguzi agira amahitamo mu bicuruzwa cyangwa serivisi ashaka. Ubutumwa bwo kwamamaza bugomba kugenzurwa kugira ngo hirindwe amakosa akunze gukorwa n’abamamaza kandi afite ingaruka zikomeye cyane cyane mu birebana n’ihiganwa riciye mu mucyo mu bucuruzi (Fair competition).

Abahanga n’abanditsi mu by’amategeko bagaragaza amakosa arenga 20 akunda gukorwa n’abakora umurimo wo kwamamaza cyakora muri iyi nkuru ndabasangiza gusa zimwe mu ngero z’amakosa akunze gukorwa n’abakora umurimo wo kwamamaza mu Rwanda ariko ndirinda kuvuga amazina yabo kuko atari cyo kigamijwe muri iyi nkuru y’igitekerezo:

Kuyobya abantu (Misleading Advertising)

Ni kenshi usanga abamamaza bitirira ikintu (product) runaka ibintu kidafite. Akenshi usanga batanga imibare irimo gukabya, kugaragaza ko ikintu gikomeye mu buryo burimo gukabya, kugaragaza ko ibiribwa runaka ari umwimerere kandi atari byo, kwizeza abantu ibitangaza, kubwira abakiriya ko service runaka ari ubuntu kandi hari amafaranga bacibwa ariko ntibayabwire (ibi ahanini bikorwa na za banki n’ibigo by’imari), Kwamamaza ubwira abantu ko ufite imiti yongera igikundiro,...

Kugereranya ibintu bitagereranywa cyangwa kubigereranya mu buryo butari bwo (unfair comparison):

Ubusanzwe itegeko rigenga ihiganwa mu bucuruzi no kurengera umuguzi mu Rwanda riteganya ko umuntu wamamaza agereranya ibintu 2 agomba kubikora mu buryo butabeshya cyangwa bwatuma umuguzi yibeshya. Igereranya kandi rigomba gukorwa ku bicuruzwa cyangwa serivisi zitanga igisubizo ku bikenewe bimwe cyangwa bigamije ikintu kimwe ndetse bigakorwa nta marangamutima.

Gusebya ibikorwa n’abandi bakeba (denigration) :

Iri ni ikosa rikunze kumvikana cyane mu butumwa bwamamaza hano mu Rwanda. Urugero ni nka Radio ikunze kumvikana yamamaza pampers (utwambaro tw’imbere) z’impinja n’abana bato hanyuma uwamamaza akavuga ko abandi bacururiza “pampers” i Nyabugogo ibyabo ari “Ibyamvagara”.

Urundi rugero ni aho imwe muri companies zicuruza amatelefone ifite ubutumwa bugira buti “Igihe kirageze ngo muve kuri za gatoroshi”, nyamara bizwi ko “Gatoroshi” ari bumwe mu bwoko bwa telefoni zicuruzwa mu Rwanda kandi zifite n’abazirangura.

Kwamamaza ukoresheje ubuhamya (testimonies):

Ni kenshi usanga mu butumwa bwo kwamamaza hakoreshwa ubuhamya ariko nyamara ugasanga nk’umuntu utanga ubwo buhamya ntarakoresha na rimwe iyo product yamamaza ahubwo akaba agamije gusa gukurura abakiriya. Mu Rwanda akenshi bikunze kugaragara nko ku bacuruza amavuta y’imisatsi nayo kwisiga (Cosmestics).

Kwamamaza bimwe mu bicuruzwa cyangwa serivisi zitemerewe kwamamazwa:

Ibi ahanini bikunze gukorwa n’abantu bakora mu by’ubuganga cyane cyane abakora ubuvuzi gakondo bacuruza imiti na serivisi aho bagenda bayamamaza ku maradiyo na Televisions, nyamara iyo usomye amahame ngengamyitwarire (Code of Ethics) agenga abakora umwuga w’ubuvuzi, usanga bitemewe kwamamaza serivisi z’ubuvuzi. (Amakuru aturuka mu nzego z’ubuvuzi avuga ko ibirebana n’amabwiriza arebana no kwamamaza serivisi z’ubuvuzi ari kuvugururwa no kunozwa.)

Kutubahiriza ibirebana n’uburenganzira ku mutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge (Intellectual Property rights):

Ibi bikunze gukorwa cyane mu Rwanda aho usanga amatangazo yamamaza akoreshwamo indirimbo z’abahanzi batandukanye kandi nta burenganzira ba nyir’indirimbo babitangiye.

Urugero ni nk’aho umwe mu bahanzi nyarwanda (simuvuga izina) yigeze kurega mu rukiko imwe mu ma companies akomeye mu Rwanda kubera gukoresha ibihangano bye mu butumwa bwamamaza ibikorwa byayo.

Gukoresha amafoto n’amashusho mu butumwa bwamamaza ba nyirayo batabitangiye uburenganzira:

Ibi byo bikunze kugaragara mu kwamamaza cyane cyane aho abamamariza ku byapa cyangwa ku bindi bikoresho bikenera amafoto n’amashusho usanga bakoresheje amafoto n’amashusho y’abantu kandi ba nyirabyo batabibahereye uburenganzira.

Ibi ni na byo byatumye umwe mu banyeshuri bize muri imwe muri Kaminuza zo mu Rwanda agirana ikibazo n’ubuyobozi bwayo kubera gukoresha ifoto ye ku nyandiko (flyers cyangwa depliant) z’iyo kaminuza, zari zigamije kumenyakanisha amasomo iyo kaminuza itanga no gukangurira abantu kuyigamo. Icyakora impande zombi zabashije kumvikana uwo munyeshuri agira icyo agenerwa, ikibazo kirangira bidasabye ko bajya mu nkiko.

Gusakaza ubutumwa bugufi (SMS) ku matelefoni y’abantu kandi batabisabye:

Iki ni ikibazo gikunze kugaragara ku sosiyete akora mu by’itumanaho rikoresha telefone zigendenwa, aho usanga izi sosiyete zamamaza serivisi zazo zikoresheje uburyo bwo kohereza ama SMS ku bakiriya bazo, nyamara ugasanga birabangamye cyane dore ko usanga benshi banabyinubira cyane ko izo SMS nta n’izo baba basabye.

By’umwihariko ubu ni bumwe mu buryo bushya bwo kwamamaza buri kugenda bwaduka bugomba kugenzurwa no kugira amategeko abugenga.

Hakwiye kujyaho amategeko n’amahame ngengamyitwarire (Advertising Code) agenga abakora umurimo wo kwamamaza mu Rwanda

Kimwe n’indi mirimo yose yiyubashye kandi yubahisha ikanateza imbere abayikora, umurimo wo kwamamaza na wo ukwiye kugira amategeko (Laws) n’amahame ngenganyitwarire (Advertising Standards and Ethics Code) agenga abawukora.

Kugeza ubu twavuga ko mu Rwanda nta mategeko ahagije agenga ibirebana no kwamamaza ahari ndetse na make adahagije yari ahari yavanyweho ariko ntihagira andi ashyirwaho yo kuyasimbura.

Mu Itegeko ry’Itangazamakuru ryo mu 2009 (ryavuyeho risimburwa n’iryo mu 2013), hari harimo ingingo zivuga ku iyamamaza rikoreshejwe Itangazamakuru (Ingingo ya 2, 32, 33, 34, 35 na 51) nubwo na zo zitari zihagije ngo zizibe icyuho cy’amategeko mu birebana no kwamamaza muri rusange.

Muri 2013, nyuma y’amavugurura yakozwe mu Itangazamakuru, itegeko rishya rigenga Itangazamakuru (Itegeko No. 02/2013 ryo kuwa 08/02/2013) ryaje risimbura irya 2009, ariko riza ntacyo rivuga ku birebana no kwamamaza.

Inama Nkuru y’Itangazamakuru (MHC) yari yaratangiye gutegura imishinga y’amabwiriza agenga ibirebana no kwamamaza, ariko itegurwa ryayo ntiryarangiye kuko hahise hazamo amavugurura, maze inshingano zimwe za MHC zihabwa Urwego rw’Abanyamakuru bigenzura(RMC) izindi zihabwa RURA. Ari RMC ari na RURA ntawigeze akomeza itegurwa ry’ayo mabwiriza agenga ibirebana no kwamamaza mu Rwanda.

Inyandiko y’agateganyo (Draft) ikubiyemo Politiki izagenga Itangazamakuru mu Rwanda kuva muri 2014 – 2020 (Media Policy 2014-2020) ,ku rupapuro rwayo rwa 27, igaragaza ko hazashyirwago urwego rwa Leta (Public Institution) ruzaba rushinzwe kugenzura no gutanga impushya ku bifuza gukora umurimo wo kwamamaza ndetse no gukora za Films. Kugeza ubu urwo rwego ntirurajyaho.

Abakora umwuga wo kwamamaza bakwiye kwigenzura (Self regulgation)

Nubwo Politike y’Itangazamakuru mu Rwanda ivuga ko hazashyirwago urwego rwa Leta (Public Institution) ruzaba rushinzwe kugenzura no gutanga impushya ku bifuza gukora umurimo wo kwamamaza, abashakashatsi n’abanditsi batandukanye mu by’amategeko berekana ko uburyo bwiza bwo kugenzura umwuga cyangwa umurimo runaka ari ubukozwe na benewo (Self Regulation) kurusha ibikozwe na Leta (Statutory Regulation).

Ingero z’aho byakozwe kandi bigatanga umusaruro ni nyinshi ariko muri nke twavugamo nko mu gihugu cy’u Buhinde aho bafite urwego rushinzwe kwigenzura mu birebana no kwamamaza rwitwa “Advertising Standards Council of India”.

Twavuga kandi no muri Canada aho bafite Urwego rushinzwe kwigenzura mu birebana no kwamamaza rwitwa “Advertising Standards Canada”. Mu bwongereza (U.K.) ho bafite urwego rwitwa “Advertising Standards Authority” n’aho mu gihugu cya Ireland kwigenzura mu birebana no kwamamaza bikorwa n’ikigo “Advertising Standards Authority for Ireland”.

Muri rusange mu bihugu byose bigize Umuryango w’ibihugu by’ubumwe bw’Uburayi (European Union) ibyo kwigenzura bikorwa n’abanyamwuga ubwabo (Self Regulation).

Kureka abakora umwuga wo kwamamaza bakigenzura bo ubwabo nk’uko bikorwa no mu itangazamakuru birimo inyungu nyinshi, cyane cyane ku birebana no gukemura amakimbirane avuka mu kwamamaza.

Dufatiye nko ku bihugu twavuze hejuru, usanga bafite urwego rushinzwe kwigenzura (Self Regulatory body) rushyiraho akanama nkemurampaka gakemura amakimbirane arebana no kwamamaza bidasabye ko abafitanye ikibazo bahita birukankira mu nkiko.

Ikindi cyiza cya “Self Regulation” nuko gutanga ikirego no kugikurikirana biba bidahenze kandi bigatwara umwanya muto ugereranyije n’igihe byamara biramutse bigiye mu nkiko.

Umwanzuro

Mu gusoza iyi nkuru ndende y’igitekerezo: “Nsanga igihe kigeze ngo abakora umwuga wo kwamamaza mu Rwanda bishyire hamwe bashinge urugaga bahuriyemo, banashyireho amategeko arugenga ndetse banashake n’impuguke zibafashe gutegura amategeko n’amahame ngengamyitwarire abagenga akanagenga umurimo wabo wo kwamamaza.

Leta na yo ikwiye kurekera ubwo bubasha abakora umurimo wo kwamamaza bakigenzura ahubwo ikabafasha mu ishyirwaho ry’urugaga rubahuza kandi rubagenga, ikanabaha ubufasha bushoboka mu nyigo z’amategeko azagenga urwo rugaga ndetse n’azagenga ibirebana no kwamamaza muri rusange.

Leta kandi ikwiye no kubafasha mu bishoboka ngo ayo mategeko atangazwe mu igazeti ya Leta nk’uko byakozwe no ku mategeko agenga izindi ngaga nk’urw’ abaganga, urugaga rw’abavocat, n’abandi banyamwuga.

Rubanda rugezwaho ubutumwa bwo kwamamaza na bo bakwiye kumenya uburenganzira bwabo ntibemere kubeshywa cyangwa kuyobywa n’ubutumwa bwo kwamamaza ndetse abo bigizeho ingaruka bakamenya kwiyambaza amategeko n’izindi nzego zishinzwe kurengera abaguzi kugira ngo barenganurwe.

Muri rusange Kwamamaza bigomba gukorwa mu buryo butabangamiye ituze rusange, inyungu z’ubucuruzi n’ihiganwa ritagize uwo ribangamira (Fair competition).

Maurice Munyentwali (MM)

Ibikubiye muri iyi nkuru ni ibitekerezo bwite bya Maurice Munyentwali (MM), Impuguke mu by’amategeko, akora muri Commission y’u Rwanda ishinzwe kuvugurura amategeko. Afite impamyabumenyi ya Kaminuza mu mategeko, akaba ari no gusoza icyiciro cya gatatu cya Kaminuza (LLM), mu mategeko mpuzamahanga y’ubukungu n’ubucuruzi (International Economic and Business Law).

Email: [email protected]


Kwamamaza
IZINDI NKURU WASOMA
TANGA IGITEKEREZO

ANDIKA ICYO UTEKEREZA KURI IYI NKURU

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE:
Witandukira kubijyanye n'iyi nkuru; wikwandika ibisebanya, ibyamamaza cyangwa bivangura; wikwandika ibiteye isoni,
Wifuza kubona byihuse ibivugwa/ibisubizo ku gitekerezo cyawe, andika email yawe ahabugenewe.
Igitekerezo cyawe kigaragara nyuma y'isuzuma rikorwa na IGIHE.com
Ibi bidakurikijwe igitekerezo cyanyu gishobora kutagaragara hano cyangwa kigasibwa, Murakoze!
ANDIKA ICYO UTEKEREZA KURI IYI NKURU
Kwamamaza
IBITEKEREZO
Join Us

Socialize with Us
Contacts

Location: Ndamage Building 4th floor
P.O Box: 3477 Kigali- Rwanda
Phones:
+250 788 74 29 08, +250 788 49 69 15, +250 725 94 66 08
Email:
[email protected], [email protected]

Website Developped by

Uru Rubuga Ruheruka Gushyirwaho Amakuru Monday 8 August 2016
Copyright © 2009 -2014 - IGIHE Ltd - All Rights Reserved