Uko FPR yahoze niko iri ni na ko izahora (Igice cya 9)

Yanditswe na Tom Ndahiro
Kuya 21 Nzeri 2017 saa 07:07
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Mu mbwirwaruhame ya Perezida w’u Rwanda, Kagame Paul, ku itariki ya 18 Kanama 2017 hari aho yagize ati “Ubu, nta muntu u Rwanda rwita umwanzi, yaba uwo mu gihugu cyangwa hanze yacyo. Buri munyarwanda afite igihugu...” (Today, Rwanda defines no one as an enemy, whether domestic or foreign. Every Rwandan has a country…)

Uko kutagira uwitwa umwanzi yavuze, ntekeraza ko hari benshi batumvise uburemere bw’iryo jambo. Ahanini bitewe no kutamenya ibyabaye muri iki gihugu cyacu cy’u Rwanda.

Iryo jambo ry’Umukuru w’Igihugu ryatumye nsubiza amaso inyuma imyaka 25. Ryanatumye numva hari ibintu abashinzwe uburezi mu Rwanda, batagomba kubura mu nyigisho z’amateka bigisha kubera akamaro ka byo mu mibereho no mu mibanire y’Abanyarwanda.

Ku itariki 21 Nzeri 1992, Colonel Nsabimana Déogratias wari Umugaba mukuru w’Ingabo za Leta ya Juvenal Habyarimana yoherereje ubutumwa n’amabwiriza by’ “IBANGA RIKOMEYE” ba Komanda bo mu turere twose twa gisirikare.

Iyo nyandiko yari ikubiyemo icyo bise “KUMENYA NO GUSOBANURA UMWANZI”. Col. NSABIMANA yasabye kuzayisomera no kuyicengeza mu basirikare babo bose bayobora bakibanda cyane ku gisobanuro cy’“Umwanzi” bagomba kurwanya, n’aho “Umwanzi akura abayoboke.

Iyo nyandiko yoherejwe na Col. Nsabimana yasobanuye ko umwanzi w’u Rwanda wa mbere ari Abatutsi. Barabisobanuye ‘Abatutsi bo mu gihugu cyangwa hanze yacyo, b’abahezanguni kandi bafite inyota yo gusubirana ubutegetsi, batigeze bemera ibyagezweho n’impinduramatwara ya rubanda yo mu mwaka wa 1959 bakaba bataranabyemera, kandi bakaba bashaka gusubirana ubutegetsi mu Rwanda bakoresheje uburyo bwose, burimo n’intwaro’.

Byari gupfa kumvikana gato iyo bavuga ko ‘Umwanzi’ ari FPR-Inkotanyi kuko yarwanyaga leta. Ariko, muri iyo nyandiko y’impapuro 14, nta hantu na hamwe ubona batandukanya FPR n’Umututsi kimwe n’uko aho ijambo umwanzi riri barihuza n’Umututsi.

Banenze ikintu cy’Abahutu kutagira ubumwe kimwe n’amashyaka menshi. Uko kubura ubumwe kw’Abahutu babishinja Abatutsi bitwa ko bafite ingengabitekerezo imwe y’ubwikanyize (Tutsi Hegemony).

Ayo mashyaka batavuga mu mazina bayashinja gucengerwa no gukorera “umwanzi”. Banayashinja kuyobya rubanda “ku kibazo cy’amoko” bakagihindura icy’imibereho n’ubukungu bitera ubusumbane hagati y’abakire n’abakene.

Ni inyandiko yanasobanuye aho “umwanzi” akura afite cyangwa akura abayoboke• Ari naho usanga ‘abanzi’ bo mu gihugu no mu mahanga. Abashyizwe ku rutonde ni: Abatutsi b’imbere mu gihugu; Abahutu batishimiye ubutegetsi buriho; abashomeri bo mu bihugu no hanze yacyo; abanyamahanga bafite abagore b’Abatutsikazi; aba Nilo-Hamitic bo mu karere; n’Abanyabyaha bahunze ubutabera.

Muri Jenoside yatangiye muri Mata 1994, hari abazungukazi bazwi bishwe bazira ko bashatswe n’Abatutsi cyangwa se bashatswe n’Abahutu batari bashyigikiye umugambi wa Jenoside. Ntibababariye kuko batari mu cyiciro cy’abanyamahanga bashatse Abatutsikazi. Kugira isano n’abo bari barise “Umwanzi” byari icyaha gikomeye.

Uko kwibasira ubwoko mu gihugu no hanze yacyo byarakozwe nyuma ya Jenoside cyane cyane mu gihugu cya Repubulika iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo. N’ingengabitekerezo yabo yo kwibasira icyo bita Hima-Tutsi ni muri iyo nzira kandi baracyayigisha na n’ubu.

Jenoside yari yaratangiye yemejwe ubwo

Uhakana itegurwa rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi azi iby’iyi nyandiko ya Habyarimana na Nsabimana, yakozwe igakwizwa mu basirikare b’igihugu nk’inyigisho n’amabwiriza, ntaho aba atandukaniye n’abicanyi nyirizina.

Niba umusirikare w’igihugu ashinzwe kukirinda abanzi, muri abo banzi uwa mbere akaba abo ashinzwe kurinda, biba bivuga ko igihe cyose ahuye n’uwo mwanzi akamwica aba yujuje inshingano ye yo kurinda umutekano n’ubusugire bw’igihugu. Nta n’ubwo aba yemerewe kumutabara mu gihe hari umuhohoteye.

Professor Peter Uvin ni umwe mu banyamahanga bakoze ubushakashatsi kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda. Mu mwaka w’ 1997 yigeze kwandika ko ubuzima bw’Abatutsi bo mu Rwanda, kimwe n’Abayahudi mu gihe cy’aba Nazi mu Budage, mu mibereho bari abantu bapfuye, kuko kubica byari ibintu byemewe kandi bisanzwe. (Tutsi in Rwanda, much like Jews in Nazi Germany, were ’socially dead’ people, whose murder was as acceptable as it became common.) Wabisanga aha : Uvin, P. I997. ‘Prejudice, crisis and genocide in Rwanda’, African Studies Review 40, 2: 9I-II5.

Uhereye ku itariki ya 21 Nzeri 1992, Umututsi, Umuhutu utavuga rumwe na Leta y’u Rwanda rw’icyo gihe n’umunyamahanga washakanye n’Umututsi nta kivurira bari bafite. Bariho batariho.

Inyigisho nk’iyi y’urwango yohererejwe abasirikare yari imaze iminsi itangwa n’abanyapolitiki bayivugiraga mu mbwirwaruhame, mu binyamakuru byabo ndetse n’inyandiko zitagaragaza ba nyirazo.

Urugero rwa mbere ni ibyavuzwe na Perezida Habyarimana byo guhashya “abagome n’abagambanyi” muri Mata 1992. Abagome yavugaga bari Abatutsi, abagambanyi ari Abahutu bafatanya n’Abatutsi.

Ndetse no ku wa 28 Mata 1991 ubwo Habyarimana yavugaga ko bagomba kuzashaka uburyo batsirika ikibazo cy’intambara n’umwanzi. No ku wa 28 Gicurasi 1992 akavuka ko bagomba guhashya ibyitso kuko ‘nta mpongano y’umwanzi’.

Prof. Uvin wavuze ko Abatutsi babagaho basa n’abapfuye, si ugukabya. Mu Ukuboza 1990 ni bwo ikinyamakuru Kangura No 6 cyahaye itegeko ‘Abahutu’ ko ntawe ugomba kugirira impuhwe Umututsi. Cyanatanze n’irindi tegeko ko Umuhutu uzabuza undi kwigisha cyangwa gukwiza ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside azafatwa nk’umugambanyi. Mu Ugushyingo 1991, icyo kinyamakuru, Kangura No 21, cyashushanyije umuhoro n’ibisobanuro biwuherekeje ko ari bumwe mu buryo buzakoreshwa ‘gutsinda inyenzi’ burundu.

Ayo mabwiriza y’Ingabo avuye kuri Perezida w’Igihugu yari afite icyo agamije. Icy’ingenzi cyari ukumara abantu ubwoba bwo kuvugira ku mugaragaro ibya Jenoside yategurwaga. Hari abari barabushize kera. Abantu bibaza ko ibyo Mugesera Leon yavugiye ku Kabaya ku itariki ya 22 Ugushyingo 1992 byo gukata Abatutsi amajosi no kubohereza muri Ethiopia banyujijwe muri Nyabarongo byari bishya. Ntibyari bishya!

Hari abatabaje

Ku itariki ya 1 Nzeri 1992, ishyaka PL boherereje dosiye Minisitiri w’Ubutegetsi bw’Igihugu n’Amajyambere ya Komini (MININTER) bamusaba guhagarika cyangwa gusesa ishyaka rya CDR. (Faits qui militant pour la suspension et dissolution du Parti CDR).

Kuli PL ishyaka CDR ryari iry’ivanguramoko rikagira ingengabitekerezo y’aba Nazi. (CDR= Parti ethniste avec idéologie nazie). Beretse Minisitiri Munyazesa Faustin ko CDR idakwiye kubaho nk’ishyaka kubera ko ibyo ishingiyeho byari binyuranyije n’Itegeko Nshinga, itegeko rigenga amashyaka n’amategeko mpuzamahanga akumira ivangura iryo ariryo ryose.

Muri iyo dosiye bibukije ko hari mitingi y’iryo shyaka CDR yabereye ku Gisenyi ku itariki ya 28 Kamena 1992, Mugesera Leon akabwira abari bayirimo ko “Kugirango intambara irangire mu Rwanda ni uko Abatutsi bashira mu gihugu”. Ibyo yavugiye ku Kabaya ku wa 22 Ugushyingo, byari ugushimangira gusa.

PL yerekanye ko hari indi mitingi yabereye i Nyamirambo ku wa 20 Mata 1992, Perezida wa CDR, Bucyana Martin akabaza bagenzi be ngo: “Muzi ibyo twakoze mu Bugesera?” Nko kwigamba ko bishe bakanatwikira Abatutsi. Muri iyo mitingi CDR yashimangiye ko “Inyenzi-Inkotanyi zateye u Rwanda ari Abatutsi gusa kandi ibyitso byazo aribo Batutsi bari mu gihugu, bigomba guhumbahumbwa.”

Nta mahoro bigeze bashaka

Iryo tangazo ry’ingabo risohoka, imishyikirano y’amahoro i Arusha muri Tanzania hagati ya Leta ya Habyarimana na FPR-Inkotanyi yarakomezaga. Cyabaye ikimenyetso gikomeye cya mbere ko Leta Leta itashakaga amahoro ahubwo yatyazaga umuhoro wo gutema “Abagome n’Abagambanyi”.

Intumwa z’Inkotanyi zari Arusha zabibwiye Umuhuza ndetse n’ibihugu byari aho nk’indorerezi. Ntabwo babimonyemo ikintu gikomeye cyane. Basabye FPR kwihangana, iremera ariko uko byagendaga bikomera bamwe babonaga ko hari ikibazo.

Uko kwihangana kw’Inkotanyi kwaterwaga ahanini no kumenya icyo barwanira n’icyo barwanya. Inkotanyi ziswe Inyenzi, Inyangarwanda, Imburagasani n’andi mazina mabi ariko ntibyazibuzaga gutsinda no kubanira n’ababatukaga. Iyo urwanya amafuti ntuyahunga,urayamenya ukayarwanya uko ari, amaherezo ukayatsinda.

Umuryango FPR-Inkotanyi ntiwigeze wigana imvugo nk’iyo itandukanya Umunyarwanda n’igihugu cye. Abari muri ALIR yaje kwitwa FDLR bateraga u Rwanda ariko ntawabise “Inyangarwanda” biswe abacengezi gusa. Ntibyabujije kubanesha, abenshi muri bo bagahitamo kuza gufatanya n’abandi kubaka no kurinda igihugu cyabo.

Umunyarwanda gukora amafuti n’ubugome bimugira ikigarasha n’umucengezi ariko ntibimwambura ubunyarwanda. Iyo Perezida Kagame avuga ko buri munyarwanda afite igihugu, ni uko ari byo. Ni uko aho Umunyarwanda ari hose, igihe cyose u Rwanda nk’ingobyi iduhetse ruba ruhari.

Twongere twibaze ku itangazo rya Habyarimana na Nsabimana rirema abanzi mu Rwanda. Iyo nyandiko, nubwo ari Col. Nsabimana wayohereje, nyirayo mu by’ukuri yari Perezida Habyarimana kuko ari we wayifuje akanaha amabwiriza abayiteguye. Ku itariki ya 4 Ukuboza 1991, yashyizeho Komisiyo igizwe n’aba Ofisiye bakuru ba gisirikare icumi (10). Iryo tsinda ryahawe umukoro wo kwiga “Uburyo batsinda umwanzi mu rwego rwa gisirikare, itangazamakuru na politiki”.

Ni akaga n’ibyago bikomeye kugira ingabo zishingiye ku ngengabitekerezo nk’iriya. Byari ngombwa ko igihugu kigira abanyapolitiki n’ingabo zitica abo zishinzwe kurinda. U Rwanda ruba rumeze rute ubu, iyo ingabo zatojwe kuriya zitabona uzirwanya ngo azitsinde? Harya, wabuzwa n’iki gutsindwa ufite ibitekerezo bitanya abantu nka kuriya?

Biracyaza…

Umushakashatsi Tom Ndahiro

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