“Umuco mubi wo guhana umwana kuko akoresha imoso ukwiye gucika”

Yanditswe na Kanamugire Emmanuel
Kuya 27 Nyakanga 2016 saa 09:28
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Ubwanditsi:Ibikubiye muri iyi nkuru ni ibitekerezo bwite bya Tujalibu Claude, impirimbanyi iharanira uburenganzira bw’abavutse bakoresha imoso.Agaragaza ko hari ubwo abana bakoresha imoso bahohoterwa agatanga n’inama z’uburyo iki kibazo cyakemuka.

Umwana ni umutware, akwiye icyubahiro n’uburenganzira busesuye burimo kwitabwaho n’ababyeyi, akabona uburere n’uburezi biboneye.

Igihe cyose Perezida wa Repubulika y’u Rwanda iyo asuye abaturage abashishikariza kujyana abana mu mashuri no kubafasha kugira ubuzima bwiza.

Abanyarwanda bakwiriye kumenya umugisha bafite, aho umuyobozi w’igihugu abibutsa ibyo bakwiriye gukorera abana babo bwite.

Benshi mu babyeyi bubahiriza inshingano bafite zo kurera abana babo bagakura bafite uburere kandi bakiga neza.

Hari abandi bana ariko batabona ayo mahirwe kuko baba bacikirije amashuri bitewe n’impamvu zinyuranye.

Aho u Rwanda rugeze, ndizera ko ntawe uzatanga impamvu y’ubukene gusa ko ari yo ntandaro y’uko abana bava mu ishuri bakajya gushaka akazi nk’uko mbisoma mu binyamakuru. Niba binariho si yo mpamvu yonyine ituma umwana ava mu ishuli, kuko no mu baturanyi babo hari abafite ubukene bakomeza amashuli.

Abana bari mu ishuri ntibakunze guhabwa uburenganzira bumwe iyo harimo abandikisha ukuboko kw’imoso barahohoterwa

Navukiye kandi niga mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari, hari ibyo nagiye numva, mbona, kandi bikiriho n’uyu munsi nyuma y’imyaka mirongo ine, bigaragaza ko muri Afurika abantu bamwe na bamwe bifuza ubuzima bworoshye no kwirengagiza zimwe mu nshingano zirimo n’izo kuvugira abana barenganywa mu mashuri cyane cyane abana bandikisha imoso. Ibi na byo bitera ingaruka ku burezi bw’abana.

Ese gukoresha imoso bibe intandaro y’itotezwa n’ihungabana mu ishuri?

Nubwo impavu ari nyinshi mu zituma umwana yata ishuri, akaba abuze bwa burenganzira bwe bwo kwiga, reka turebere hamwe uko abana bakoresha imoso mu ishuri iyo batotejwe bituma bacika intege bakaba bata ishuri kandi barikundaga.

Mu by’ukuri, muri Afurika no mu Rwanda by’umwihariko, hari abana bakoresha ukuboko kw’iburyo, abandi bagakoresha ukw’ibumoso. Uko ni ko bavutse bameze.

Abandikisha imoso bakunze gufatwa nabi haba mu rugo cyangwa ku ishuri, ariko kandi abo bantu ntabwo ari abafite ubumuga kuko bafite ubushobozi nk’ubw’abandi.

Kubera ko abarezi n’ababyeyi batabafasha, harimo abata amashuli kubera kubahohotera, ariko usibye no guta ishuli, bamwe mu bana bibagiraho ingaruka mu mitekerereze no kumva biyanze.

Umwe mu bavutse bandikisha imoso yifuje kudusangiza ubuhamya bwe

Tuyizere Elie, umusore w’imyaka 22 yatangiye amashuri abanza ku Kacyiru muri Nzeri 1999. Avuga ko mu myigire ye byamugoraga cyane gukurikira amasomo kubera ahanini uko mu ishuri yafatwaga kubera gukoresha ukuboko kw’imoso.

Ati “Mwarimu yakoreshaga ikiganza cy’iburyo ariko jyewe nakoreshaga icy’ibumoso, kugirango byorohere mwarimu yamfataga ikiganza cy’iburyo. Ariko icyo si cyo cyari ikibazo kuko n’aho twamenyeye kwandika twabaga twarigiye ku ndyo ariko tukiyiba ikaramu tukayishyira ibumoso kuko ari byo byabaga bitworoheye.”

Akomeza agira ati “Icyo gihe rero twarakubitwaga, bakadupfukamisha, ubundi tugahanishwa kujya kuvoma amazi. Muri make twakubitiwe gukoresha imoso kuva dutangira ishuri na nyuma y’aho. Twigishijweko umunyeshuri mwiza ari uwandikisha indyo. Nta mahitamo twari dufite twagombaga gukoresha indyo cyangwa tugashyirwa mu kato. Ibyo ariko ntibyarangiriraga ku ishuri kuko no mu rugo ntitwari tworoherewe. Iyo wahabwaga ibiryo ukarisha imoso, ubwo ntiwabaga ubishaka, warabyakwaga ukicwa n’inzara, nyamara twabaga turengana.”

Tuyizere akomeza agaragaza ko kwandikisha imoso byamubereye ikibazo gikomeye kuko nk’ababyeyi be bamubonaga nk’umwana ufite ubumuga bwo mu mutwe kubera ko batiyumvishaga ukuntu bamubuza kwandikisha imoso we akabikomeza.

Kubera gushyirwa ku nkeke byabaye ngombwa ko Tuyizere Eric yihata kwandikisha ukuboko kw’iburyo, ariko binamuviramo ibindi bibazo byo kuvuga adidimanga cyangwa kuvuga yihuta cyane, ariko ibi byaje gushira ageze mu mwaka wa gatandatu w’amashuri abanza.

Asanga ntawe ukwiye kuvutswa uburenganzira bwe bitewe n’uburyo yahawe n’Imana bwo kwandikisha imoso cyangwa indyo.

Ati “Nta muntu ukwiye kuzizwa uko yaremwe cyane cyane iyo ntawe abangamiye uko yaba ameze kose, uburenganzira bwe bugomba kubahirizwa”.

Niba abakoresha imoso muri Amerika hari aho bangana na 30% nk’uko bigaragara mu bitabo, kuki batazwi muri Afurika?

Bamwe mu barezi ntibashobora gufasha umwana ukoresha imoso kuko na bo ntabwo baba bazi impamvu akoresha imoso. Ikizwi ni umuco ndetse n’amadini ababuza, ariko nta na rimwe hatangwa impamvu nyakuri ibibuza.

Uyu muco ukwiye gucika usa n’uwo guha akato abana bitewe n’uko bavutse bagasanga bakoresha imoso.

Uwafasha abana si umubyeyi cyangwa umwarimu gusa, ahubwo buri wese yatanga umusanzu we bakitabwaho nta kubatandukanya gushingiye ku miremere n’imikorere y’umubiri wabo.

Ntawe utazi ukuntu umwana avuka ntacyo azi. Umubyeyi cyangwa abamukuriye ni bo bagomba kumufasha, ni bo bamuha umurongo w’ibyo azaba byo ejo. Ntawe utazi intege nke umwana uri mu gihe cyo kwiga aba agaragaza akeneye kwitabwaho no guhumurizwa.

Amagambo mabi umuntu mukuru avugira imbere y’umwana atuma atakaza icyizere muri we, atuma ubuzima bwo mu ishuli n’ahazaza he buhungabana, agacika intege, ariko amagambo amukomeza yo atuma yigirira icyizere.

Umubiri w’umuntu ufite ukundi kuri ugenderaho bitewe n’uko yavutse cyangwa abantu n’ibintu ahura na byo.

Hano niho hari ikibazo, ni ho hakwiriye kwitonderwa. Umwana si we kibazo, ikibazo ni ubufatanye bunoze bw’abarezi n’ababyeyi, umwana uva mu ishuri na we si ko aba abyifuza.

Umwana umufasha kugira ubuzima bwiza ubanje kumenya uwo ari we, imico, ibyo akubaza n’ibindi, ibi bikagufasha kumenya aho afite intege n’aho akeneye ubufasha budasanzwe.

Kubera kutabyitaho bamwe mu barezi cyangwa ababyeyi mu Rwanda bazi ko kubona amafaranga y’ishuli, kwambika umwana no kumuvuza,bihagije kugira ngo umwana akunde ishuli yige neza.

Ku mwana “équilibre” mu buzima bwo mu mutwe igomba guhuza na “équilibre” y’umubiri muri rusange, kugira ngo hirindwe ibyo bibazo.

Mu 1937 hashyizweho amategeko mpuzamahanga areba ibyo bita "psychologie infantile" kugira ngo usibye kwigisha umwana kwandika, kubara no gusoma, uzaba agaragaza intege nke azafashwe by’umwihariko.

Umufaransa ukomoka mu Burusiya, Kovarsky, yasabye ko habaho uburenganzira bw’abakoresha imoso kuva 1930, ariko byemerwa mu rwego mpuzamahanga mu 1949, ariko hakomeje kwibazwa impamvu ibi bititabwaho henshi muri Afurika.

Tujalibu Claude, impirimbanyi iharanira uburenganzira bw’abavutse bakoresha imoso

Abana bazira uburangare bw’abarezi batita kuri ibi bazabazwa nde ?

Mu burezi hakwiye kubamo inzego zifasha mu guharanira no kubaha uburenganzira bw’abana, kuko iyo hari ubangamiwe bitewe n’uburyo akoresha mu kwandika bitera ingaruka mbi ku bana, ibi bidakozwe hari abana benshi bakomeza gucika intege kubera ingaruka bibagiraho ziterwa n’ihohoterwa bikaba byatuma habaho gucikiriza amashuri kandi bibagiraho n’ingaruka mu buzima.

Igitekerezo ntanga ni uko inshingano za mwarimu n’umubyeyi zagira ahantu zandikwa zikajyanwa mu mashuli mu gihugu hose, maze zikajya zigenzurwa.

Mwarimu wakira umwana ku munsi wa mbere agomba kugira ikaye yandikamo amakuru y’ibanze ku mwana atanzwe n’umubyeyi we, ajyanye n’ubuzima bw’umwana muri rusange, harimo uburyo akoresha yandika cyangwa se niba afite uburwayi cyangwa indi mikorere yihariye.

Iyo kaye ikajya yuzuzwa na mwarimu na we ku byo abona umwana agenda agaragaza yakwitondera cyangwa yagishaho inama abandi mu nama bakora, ariko bikazajya bimenyeshwa n’umubyeyi.

Ukurikije icyo gukoresha imoso bivuga mu bitabo n’ibishyirwa mu bikorwa, usanga inzira ikiri ndende. Usanga abantu benshi bafite abana bandikisha imoso bavuga ko kubakubita babiretse, ariko usanga ibyo bavuga batabikurikiza kuko nta nyandiko zibibuza.

Mu bihugu byamaze gutera intambwe ziha uburenganzira abo bana bandikisha imoso, ubu bageze mu gihe cyo kubaha ibikoresho bifasha ukuboko kwabo.

Mu gihe isi yose yiteguwe kwizihiza umunsi mpuzamahanga ngarukamwaka w’abakoresha ukuboko kw’imosoro ku itariki ya 13 Kanama, umuco wo kubangamira umwana ngo ni uko akoresha ukuboko kw’imoso ukwiye kuranduranwa n’imizi kuko kwandikisha imoso cyangwa indyo byose ni uburenganzira busesuye bw’umwana.


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