Kwamamaza

Ibitangaje kuri ‘Fort Jesus’ inzu y’umutamenwa imaze imyaka isaga 400 muri Kenya(Amafoto)

Yanditswe kuya 12-10-2016 saa 14:26' na Munyengabe Murungi Sabin


Fort Jesus, ni inzu ifite amateka yihariye yubatse ku nkombe z’inyanja y’Abahinde ahitwa Malindi ku nkengero z’ikirwa cya Mombasa muri Kenya, imaze imyaka 423 ikiri umutamenwa.

- Fort Jesus, inzu idasanzwe yubatswe mu 1593
- Yubatswe ahitwa Malindi ku kirwa cya Mombasa
- Yuzuye ku ngufu z’abacakara barenga 40,000
- Ishyinguwemo umusirikare wapfiriyemo mu 1729
- Mu 1895 abakoloni bayihinduye Gereza ya mbere ya Kenya
- Yahindutse inzu ndangamurage isurwa n’abantu amagana buri munsi
- Ibitsemo ibimenyetso by’abakirisitu Gatolika byo mu myaka magana atanu ishize

Inyubako ya ‘Fort Jesus’ yubatswe n’Abanya-Portugal bisabwe n’umwami wariho icyo gihe witwa Philippe II le Prudent. Iyi nzu ni umutamenwa wubatswe mu myaka itatu kuva kuwa 11 Mata 1593 kugeza mu mwaka wa 1596. Umutaliyani witwa Giovanni Battista Cairati ni we wakoze igishushanyo mbonera cyayo gusa ngo yapfuye atarayimaramo kabiri.

Abanya-Portugal bayubatse nk’ibirindiro bikuru byabagaho abasirikare ba Portugal barindaga icyambu cya Mombasa no kurinda umutekano w’ubwato bwabo bwatwaraga ibicuruzwa bubijyana mu Buhinde.

Iyi nyubako yari umutamenwa, yubatse mu buryo budashobora kwinjirwamo n’igisasu cya kirimbuzi uko cyaba kingana kose, yabaye isibaniro mu ntambara zabereyemo mu myaka irenga magana atatu hagati y’Abanya-Portugal n’ingabo za Oman zashakaga kwigarura icyambu.

Abongereza na bo baraharwaniye mu gihe cy’ubukoloni ni na bo bahashinze gereza ya mbere ya Kenya bakigera muri iki gihugu. Iyi nzu yarashweho ibisasu bitabarika ariko ntiyigeze ivaho akamanyu.

Umunyamakuru wa IGIHE yasuye iyi nyubako kuwa 8 Ukwakira 2016 atemberezwa ibice bine by’ingenzi igabanyijemo byose bikoze ishusho y’umuntu uryamye agaramye hasi.

Umuryango mugari wa ‘Fort Jesus’ uri mu marembo y’agace kagizwe n’inyubako zishaje mu Mujyi wa Mombasa ka ‘Old Town’ ahatuwe n’abiganjemo Abarabu b’abanyabukorikori ndetse n’Abahinde b’abimukira batunzwe n’ubucuruzi.

Ni inyubako ijya gusa n’ubutaka bw’inombe uyirebeye inyuma wayinjiramo ugasanga irajya gusa n’ikigina kivanzemo umukara mwinshi. Umuryango mugari wayo urareshya na metero eshanu, uriho ibyuma bishinyitse nk’amahembe y’inzovu ku buryo uwakoraga ku rugi ari inyuma rwatangaga intabaza.

Inzu y’amateka yagabweho ibitero bitabarika

Mu 1583 , Mateus de Mendes de Vasconcelos umugaba mukuru w’ingabo za Portugal zabaga i Mombasa yahaye iyi nyubako izina rya "Fortaleza de Jesus de Mombaça"[Fort de Jesus de Mombasa]. Abakoloni b’Abongereza bahageze bayihaye izina rya ‘Fort Jesus’ ari nako yitwa kugeza ubu.

Yari igabanyijemo ibice bine bikoze ishusho y’umuntu uryamye agaramye umutwe ureba mu Nyanja y’Abahinde. Ibyo bice bine birimo icyitwa S. Felipe, S. Alberto, S. Mathias na S. Mateus.

Mu 1626, Mateus de Mendes umugaba w’ingabo za Portugal yasubiye iwabo umubano w’ingabo n’abaturage ba Mombasa utangira kuba mubi cyane. Muhammad Yusif yahise atorwa nka sultan wa Mombasa aherekejwe n’ingabo ze bibye umugono abarindaga Fort Jesus bayinjiramo ndetse bayifata bugwate ijya mu maboko y’ubutegetsi gakondo bwariho icyo gihe.

Yahise yica ingabo za Portugal n’umugaba mukuru wazo wabaga muri Fort Jesus icyo gihe witwa Pedro Leitão de Gamboa. Mu bo yishe harimo abagabo 45, abagore 35 n’abana babo 70.

Yayoboye Fort Jesus kuva kuwa 10 Mutarama 1632 kugeza kuwa 19 Werurwe 1632. Nyuma yaje guterwa agira ubwoba arahunga ingabo za Portugal zari ziyobowe na Pedro Rodrigues Botelho zirongera zigarurira iyi nyubako.

Mu 1696 ingabo nyinshi z’abarabu bo muri Oman zateye Mombasa zigarurira inyubako ya Fort Jesus gusa nazo zavanwe mu birindiro mu Kuboza 1696. Ingabo za Portugal zagabweho ibitero mu bihe bitandukanye kugeza ubwo zacitse intege zinanirwa kongera kujya gushaka ibyo kurya hanze. Icyorezo kitamenyekanye cyateye muri Fort Jesus gihitana abasirikare bose ba Portugal.

Ingabo za Oman zongeye gutera zasanze abasirikare bose bashize zihita zihigarurira nta ngorane. Kuwa 13 Ukuboza 1698 Abarabu ni bo bacungaga ubucuruzi bwose bukorerwa muri Zanzibar, Kenya ndetse na Pemba.

Umwami wa Portugal ntiyaviriyemo aho kuko mu 1728 yongeye kohereza ingabo mu gitero simusiga zica abarabu bose zirongera zigarurira inyubako yazo. Kuwa 26 Ugushyingo 1729 abaturage i Mombasa bakoze imyigaragambyo ikomeye banga gukurikiza amategeko bagenderagaho aturutse ibwami muri Portugal.

Ni gereza ya mbere mu mateka ya Kenya

Abashoje imyigaragambyo benshi bafungiwe muri Fort Jesus abandi baricwa kugeza ubwo Mombasa yongeye kugarukamo umutuzo iyoborwa n’Abanya-Portugal kugeza kuwa 1 Nyakanga 1895 ubwo Abongereza bafashe Fort Jesus.

Iyi nyubako ya Fort Jesus yahinduwe gereza ya mbere ya Kenya muri Nyakanga 1895. Mu 1935 yagizwe inzu ndangamurage ya Kenya ariko ikiyobowe n’Abongereza kugeza ubwo kuwa 12 Ukuboza 1962 Kenya yabonye ubwigenge ibintu byose birahinduka.

Hejuru y'aho captain yabaga hari hateretse imbunda zitunze mu nyanja

Fort Jesus ni inyubako idasanzwe ifite amateka yihariye ku Isi nk’imwe mu nzu zigaragaza imyubakire y’Abanya-Portugal mu kinyejana cya 16. Ubu yagizwe inzu ndangamurage ya Kenya ndetse muri 2011 Unesco yayishyize mu bice byihariye bibitse amateka n’umuco ku Isi.

Ibyihariye muri Fort Jesus

Umukozi w’ingoro z’umurage wa Kenya, Maneno David watembereje umunyamakuru wa IGIHE muri Fort Jesus yamusobanuriye ko iyi nzu yubatswe n’abacakara bakoreshwaga uburetwa mbere y’ubukoloni buzwi. Yavuze ko abagera kuri 40,000 ari bo bayubatse mu gihe cy’imyaka itatu.

Yagize ati “Abakoraga neza bahembwaga ibintu biryohera, isukari, biscuits, ibiryo; hari n’abo bahaga imyambaro bakirirwa bacukura […] Aba bose harimo abakoraga ku manywa abandi bagakora ijoro ryose.”

Abanya-Portugal bakimara kuzuza Fort Jesus ngo hari igihe bakoraga urugomo bakinjizamo abagore b’Abanyakenya bo mu bwoko bwa ‘Mijikenda’ bakabasambanyiriza mu kibuga rwa gati muri iyi nyubako.

Iyi nyubako irimo ibice bidasanzwe bigaragaza aho umugaba w’ingabo yabaga n’ibyo yakoreshaga. Iyo winjiye muri iyi nzu kandi usangamo ibisigazwa by’intwaro za Cannon Fire zizwi mu myaka magana ishize n’ibindi bishushanyo bigaragaza imibireho y’ab’icyo gihe.

Muri Fort Jesus harimo igice cyabikwagamo ibikoresho by’ingabo, cyo kiri ahantu mu mwobo ureshya na metero 17 z’ubujyakuzimu, harimo kandi aho babikaga ifu bifashishaga mu kohereza ibisasu, ubwiherero bwa gihanga buri mu kibuga rwagati n’ibindi.

Mu gihe kirimo ubwiherero hanacukuye umwobo wa metero 20 z’ubujyakuzimu wanyuzwagamo umuyoboro w’amazi y’inyanja ukayageza muri Fort Jesus byoroshye. Uyu mwobo wacukuwe n’abacakara mu gihe cy’imyaka itatu kuko bacukuraga ibuye barimanyuraho gato kugeza bahuye n’amazi mu kuzimu.

Ingabo za Portugal kandi zari zarubatse kiliziya muri Fort Jesus gusa iza Oman zimaze kuhafata zarayishenye zamagana iyamamazabutumwa ry’abakirisitu bashakaga kuzana Yezu muri Afurika.

Umukozi wa Fort Jesus akomeza agira ati “Ntabwo abarabu bashakaga ko Yezu amenyekana, byari nk’ihangana, nabo bahise bazana iby’Abayisilamu, basenye iyo kiliziya bakajya bahasengera, Abongereza baje na bo basenye ibyo bazana ibyabo…”

Umusirikare wa Portugal ashyinguwe muri iyi nzu

Muri Fort Jesus hashyinguwemo umusirikare bikekwa ko yapfiriyemo mu gitero cyo mu 1729. Abakozi b’iyi nyubako bavuga ko ari uwo muri Portugal bashingiye ku bimenyetso igikanka cye kigaragaza birimo kuba ari mugufi ndetse benewabo umubiri we bawushyinguye wakoze ikimenyetso cy’abakirisitu.

Fort Jesus niho hantu hasurwa cyane kurusha utundi duce muri Kenya, umunsi umwe bakira abakerarugendo babarirwa muri magana ane na magana atanu baza kureba aya mateka.

Inzira imanuka werekeza aho ingabo zabikaga intwaro
Fort Jesus uko igaragara uyirebye uhagaze muri Old Town
Uvuye aho babikaga intwaro
Hejuru y'aho babikaga intwaro niho hari inzira ijya ku icumbi ry'umugaba mukuru
Inzu babikagamo intwaro kirimbuzi
Umugaba Mukuru w’Ingabo ni hano yacaga agiye kuryama
Inkuta za Fort Jesus zari zifite imyenge ifite ishusho y'umwashi, urimo imbere yarebaga aho umwanzi aturuka ariko we ntabasha kumenya ibiri kubera muri iyi nyubako
Iriya nzu y'amabati atukura yabikwagamo ibikoresho bitandukanye ndetse n'ibiribwa
Mu nguni zose za Fort Jesus harimo inzu bacungiramo umwanzi
Hejuru y'aho umugaba w'ingabo yabaga hari inzu ureberamo aho umwanzi ageze
Umugaba Mukuru w’Ingabo ni hano hasi yabaga
Uhagaze hejuru y'aho umugaba w'ingabo yabaga wabashaga kureba neza aho ubwato bwahagararaga buzanye ibicuruzwa
Utereye ijisho hanze ya Fort Jesus uhasanga inzu nziza
Imbunda za Cannon Fire ziracyari aho ingabo za Portugal zazisize
Abakerarugendo basura Fort Jesus buri munsi
Nta wapfa kumenya ko izi nzu zubatswe mu 1593
Muri iyi nzu harimo ibishushanyo by'ingabo za Portugal
Imbunda za Cannon Fire muri Fort Jesus
Fort Jesus uyirebeye hejuru
Hagati muri Fort Jesus
Iyi yahoze ari kiliziya mu gihe ingabo za Portugal zari zicyubaka Fort Jesus
Umuyoboro w'amazi, urungurutsemo ubona amazi y'inyanja y'Abahinde hasi mu manga
Ubwiherero bwakoreshwaga mu myaka 400 ishize
Bwari ubwiherero nk'ubwa kizungu bwo muri iki gihe
Aba basuraga ahashyinguwe umusirikare bikekwa ko yapfuye mu 1729
Umusirikare wa Portugal ashyinguwe muri iyi nzu
Umusirikare wa Portugal ashyinguwe muri iyi nzu
Iyi nzu ni yo babikagamo ifu bifashishaga mu kurasa
Uhagaze munsi ya Fort Jesus uba wegereye neza inyanja
Fort Jesus uyirebeye ku gice cy'inyuma aherekeye ku nyanja y'Abahinde

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