Icya kabiri cy’amashanyarazi u Rwanda rutunganya yabonetse mu myaka itandatu

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 12 Kamena 2017 saa 08:50
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U Rwanda rukomeje kwesa umuhigo wo kongera ingufu z’amashanyarazi, ari nako ruzamura umubare w’abayakoresha kandi akaboneka mu buryo buhoraho, hagamijwe korohereza abikorera bo musingi urambye w’iterambere ry’igihugu.

Mu 2009 u Rwanda rwatunganyaga Megawatt (MW) 89, ku bw’imbaraga nyinshi zakoreshejwe, mu 2016 akaba yari ageze kuri MW 190 bingana n’ubwiyongere bwa 46.8%, ndetse umubare w’ingo zifite amashanyarazi uva ku 142,497 zigera ku 617, 250 muri iyo myaka.

Izingiro rya byose ryabaye imiyoborere myiza y’igihugu, kuko nk’ikiyaga cya Kivu cyatangiye kubyazwa MW zisaga 25 guhera ejo bundi mu 2016, cyari kimaze imyaka irenga 40 bizwi ko gishobora kubyazwa ingufu z’amashanyarazi.

Mu gihe mu 2010 abaturage bari bafite amashanyarazi batarengaga 10% ubu bari kuri 28% ndetse Ikigo gishinzwe ingufu (REG Ltd) kigaragaza ko amashanyarazi igihugu gifite ahagije abayakeneye, kuko bakeneye MW 120 mu gihe mu mpera z’umwaka ushize igihugu cyari gifite MW 190, ubu ziragera muri MW 208.

Si inzozi zapfuye kuba impamo

Hari imishinga myinshi y’amashanyarazi yubatswe, ndetse byinshi biri gukorwa intego ari ukwesa umuhigo wa MW 563 bitarenze 2018.

Kuva ku ngomero z’amashanyarazi, kubyaza ingufu Gaz Methane iri mu kiyaga cya Kivu yari iteye inkeke ku buzima bwa muntu, nyiramugengeri iganje mu Majyepfo y’u Rwanda kugeza no ku kubyaza ingufu imirasire y’izuba, ni imfuruka zitaweho cyane muri iyi myaka.

Urugomero rwa Nyabarongo ya I rwatashywe muri Werurwe 2015 rutanga Megawatt 28, Uruganda rwa KivuWatt rutanga megawate 26.4 rwafunguwe umwaka ushize kimwe na Giciye II itanga megawate 4.

Aha hiyongeraho uruganda rw’ingufu z’imirasire y’izuba rutanga megawate 8.5 ruherereye mu karere ka Rwamagana rwatashywe muri Gashyantare 2015, n’umushinga wa Gishoma wo kubyaza ingufu nyiramugengeri, utanga MW 15, wahujwe n’umurongo mugari w’amashanyarazi muri uyu mwaka.

Aho amashanyarazi anyura na ho harongerewe ndetse n’imiyoboro yayo iravugururwa, kuko ubu hamaze kuzura ibirindiro (substations) by’amashanyarazi birimo icya Ntendezi gituma uruganda rwa CIMERWA rubasha gucanirwa n’ingufu ziturutse ku murongo munini w’amashanyarazi.

Hari na ‘substation’ ya Rukarara, ituma Umujyi wa Huye, Nyamagabe na Nyaruguru ihabwa amashanyarazi ahagije.

Uyu munsi u Rwanda rufite inganda zikomeye zibyara amashanyarazi menshi nka Nyabarongo I itanga MW 28.0; Jabana 2 itanga MW 20.0; umushinga wa Kivu Watt utanga MW 26.4 n’indi mishinga mito mito, ku buryo ahazaza h’u Rwanda mu birebana n’amashanyarazi hatanga icyizere.

Mu zindi ngomero zatangiye gukora nibura nyuma ya 2010 harimo Rukarara I itanga MW 9.16 yatashywe mu Ukuboza 2010 na Mukungwa II rutanga MW 2.5 rwatangiye gukora mu 2012.

Uruganda rwa Gishoma rutanga megawatt 15 zikomoka kuri Nyiramugengeri

Imihigo irakomeje

Nubwo mu gihugu abantu bakoresha amashanyarazi ari 28%, abakoresha amashanyarazi adashamikiye mu muyoboro munini w’amashanyarazi (National grid) ari munsi gato ya 3%.

Leta y’u Rwanda iteganya ko abakoresha imirasire y’izuba bazamuka bakagera kuri 22%, naho abakoresha imiyoboro y’insinga bakagera kuri 48%, ndetse iheruka kugirana amasezerano n’ibigo by’ubucuruzi 20 mu gukwiza amashanyarazi akomoka ku mirasire y’izuba.

Birimo nka “Mobisol” izaha amashanyarazi ingo 49.000 kugeza mu mwaka utaha; naho “Ignite Power” ikazaha amashanyarazi ingo 250,000 mu myaka ibiri.

U Rwanda rubarura nyiramugengeri ingana na toni miliyoni 155 ziri mu butaka bwa hegitari 50,000, igera kuri 77% ikaba iri mu bishanga bya Akanyaru na Nyabarongo no mu kibaya cya Rwabusoro. Ubu hari kubakwa umushinga wo kubyaza nyiramugengeri MW 80 muri Gisagara.

Runateganya kubyaza amashanyarazi menshi Gaz Methane iri mu kiyaga cya Kivu, bamwe bafataga nk’uburozi u Rwanda rubitse babikomoye ku kiyaga cya Nyos muri Cameroon, aho ku mugoroba wo ku wa 21 Kanama 1986, iyi gaz yasandaye igahitana abaturage basaga 1,700.

Ubu mu Rwanda ni isoko y’amashanyarazi agera kuri MW 26.4, ndetse azagenda yongerwa. Iyi Gaz iri mu Kivu ifatwa nk’ishobora gutanga MW 700 z’amashanyarazi mu myaka 55.

REG iteganya ko mu 2021-2022 u Rwanda ruzaba rumaze kubona amashanyarazi ahagije ku buryo naba adakoreshwa mu gihugu, ashobora gucuruzwa mu mahanga.


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