Inama ku bihugu bya EAC byafashe umwanzuro wo guca caguwa

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 9 Kanama 2017 saa 07:13
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Impaka ziyoboye izindi kuva umwaka ushize mu bihugu bigize Umuryango wa Afurika y’Iburasirazuba harim icibwa n’imisoro ihanitse by’imyenda n’inkweto bya caguwa.

Muri EAC ikibazo gikomeye kiri ku baturage baguraga iyo myenda yari ihendutse kurusha iyindi ndetse n’abacuruzi baciriritse babeshwagaho no kuyicuruza bagatunga imiryango yabo.

U Rwanda na Uganda nibyo byafashe iya mbere bica iyo myenda, hakurikiraho Kenya na Tanzania n’u Burundi butarabyumva neza.

Imibare igaragaza ko mu mwaka wa 2015 wonyine muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba hoherejwe imyenda ya caguwa ifite agaciro ka miliyoni 151 $. Ibihugu bya Kenya, Uganda biza muri 15 bya mbere ku isi byoherezwamo caguwa nyinshi ku isi.

Icibwa rya caguwa ryahereye ku cyerecyezo cy’Umuryango wa Afurika y’Iburasirazuba cyo kuba nibura mu mwaka wa 2050 ibyo bihugu bizaba biri mu by’amikoro aringaniye (Middle income economy),aribyo byatumye abakuru b’ibihugu bigize uwo muryango bafata umwanzuro wo guca iyo myenda, hakongererwa ubushobozi inganda zikora imyenda n’inkweto zo muri byo bihugu imbere.

Ubushakashatsi “The Impact of Second Hand Clothes and Shoes in East Africa” bwakozwe na Esther Katende –Magezi abitewemo inkunga n’abanya-Suwede, akabifashwamo n’Ubunyamabanga bwa Afurika y’Uburasirazuba, bwagaragaje ko guca imyenda ya caguwa muri EAC bifite ingaruka nziza n’imbi zikwiye kwigaho.

Bugaragaza ko ikibazo gikomeye ari imyumvire y’abatuye ibyo bihugu bagomba kumvishwa impamvu yo guca iyo myenda. Hanerekanywe ko caguwa muri ibyo bihugu yagurwaga ahanini n’abafite amikoro ya ntayo, aboroheje ndetse na bake bishoboye.

Guca iyi myenda, bizateza ikibazo kuko hari abantu batazabona amafaranga yo kwigurira imyenda cyane cyane abo mu cyiciro cy’amikoro ya ntayo, byorohere abifite baguraga caguwa kuko n’ubundi nta kibazo cyo kugura imyenda mishyashya ivuye i Burayi bazaba bafite.

Hagaragajwe impungenge ko hari igice cy’abantu batabasha kwigurira imyenda, inganda z’imbere muri ibyo bihugu nazo zo kunguka kuko n’ubusanzwe abafite amafaranga bazajya kwigurira imyenda mishyashya izwiho gukomera ivuye i Burayi no muri Amerika.

Abakoreweho ubushakashatsi bavuze ko ahubwo ibyo bihugu bikwiye guca n’indi myenda mishyashya ihendutse itari caguwa iza muri EAC, kugira ngo ibikorwa n’inganda z’imbere bidakomeza kugira uwo bahangana ku isoko ubirusha ubwiza no guhenduka.

Mu guca caguwa hari abantu bazicuruzaga bazabura akazi, Leta zagiriwe inama yo gukora ibishoboka byose ngo akazi katakajwe gahangirwe mu nganda nshya zikora imyenda kugirango hatabaho kwivumbura kw’abaturage cyangwa bikongera ibyaha.

Gukemura ibibazo wateje iwawe mu rugo biroroha ariko gukemura ibyo wateje ahandi ni ingorabahizi. EAC igiye guhagarika caguwa yavaga mu bihugu bikomeye nka Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, Ubwongereza, Canada n’ahandi.

EAC ubu yinjirizaga Amerika miliyoni z’amadolari 147 avuye mu nkweto n’ibijyana nazo byakoreshejwe.Hari abanyamerika 40 000 byabeshagaho n’indi mirimo 150 000 izatakara yanyuzwaga mu miryango y’abagiraneza ari nayo yarundanyaga caguwa zo koherereza abababaye mu bihugu bikennye.

Ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko ibyo bihugu bizatambamira nta kabuza uwo mwanzuro kandi koko byaratangiye muri Amerika hatangiye gusabwa ko ibihugu bya EAC bifatirwa ibihano mu masezerano y’Ubucuruzi hagati ya Afurika n’Amerika (AGOA).

Ibihugu bya EAC biri mu muryango mpuzamahanga w’Ubucuruzi (World Trade Organization).Amategeko awugenga avuga ko nta munyamuryango wemerewe guca burundu igicuruzwa cy’ikindi gihugu kinyamuryango uretse gushyiraho imisoro wenda ihanitse, icyakora ayo mategeko anavuga ko ku mpamvu z’ubuzima bw’abaturage bw’igihugu, cyemerewe guca icyo gicuruzwa.

Aha ibihugu bigize EAC bishobora kwitwaza iyo ngingo kuko caguwa byagaragaye ko hari izishobora gutera uburwayi nk’ubw’uruhu cyane cyane imyenda y’imbere.

Ubushakashatsi bw’amapapaji 41 buvuga ko guca caguwa kandi bizagira ingaruka ku bukungu bw’ibihugu byayiciye. Icya mbere hari imisoro izo caguwa zatangaga zinjira itazongera kuboneka, inganda z’imbere mu gihugu nazo zoroherejwe imisoro igihe zigiye kohereza ibikorwa byazo hanze.

Haziyongera kandi ubucuruzi bwa forode ya caguwa ari nako bihombya ibyo bihugu kuko bamwe bazaba bacuruza badasora cyangwa ikiguzi cyo gukurikirana ibyo byaha bishya byavutse kikiyongera.

Hagaragajwe ko ikibazo gikomeye cyo kudatera imbere cyangwa kutabasha guhatana ku isoko mpuzamahanga kw’inganda zo muri Afurika atari caguwa gusa ahubwo hari n’ibindi bibazo by’ibikorwa remezo.

Ibihugu bya EAC byagiriwe inama yo kongera ibikorwaremezo nk’umuriro kandi ukagabanyirizwa ibiciro, amazi, imihanda n’ibindi inganda zikenera.

Inama nyamukuru ibihugu byagiriwe ni ukwitegura guhangana n’ingaruka ku rwego mpuzamahanga no gushaka ibisobanuro byumvikana.

Ku bijyanye na caguwa, ubushakashatsi bwasanze irimo ibyiciro bitatu ari nabyo bikwiye guherwaho, hari icyiciro cya mbere ni caguwa zisa n’imyenda mishyashya, nta bizinga bikabije zifite; ikindi ni icya caguwa iza ihumura nabi, yaracitse kandi irimo ibizinga naho icya gatatu kikaba iza yaratobaguritse, ihumura nabi kandi ifite n’ibizinga byinshi.

Ubushakashatsi bwasabye ko caguwa icyiciro cya kabiri n’icya gatatu arizo zacibwa burundu, noneho icyiciro cya gatatu kigashyirirwaho imisoro myinshi hirindwa ingaruka zikomeye ku baturage ndetse n’izishobora kugera ku bihugu byoherezaga izo caguwa.

Kuva Nyakanga 2016, u Rwanda rwabimburiye ibindi bihugu rushyiraho imisoro ihanitse kuri caguwa. Kugera mu Ukuboza 2016 ikilo kimwe cya caguwa cyasoreshwaga amadolari y’Amaerika 2.5; kugera muri Nyakanga 2017 ikilo cyasoreshwaga amadolari 4; muri Nyakanga 2018 ikilo kizaba kigura amadolari atanu.

Ubushakashatsi bwasabye ibihugu bya EAC kwigira ku Rwanda kuri zimwe mu ngamba rwafashe nko kongera imisoro, koroshya ibiciro by’amazi n’umuriro, kongera inganda zikora imyenda n’inkweto n’ibindi.

Umwaka wa 2019 niwo EAC yihaye wo kuba nta caguwa ikirangwa mu bihugu biyigize.

Caguwa yahawe akato mu bihugu bya EAC

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