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Inama 15 zagufasha kwirinda indwara ya diyabete

Inama 15 zagufasha kwirinda indwara ya diyabete


Yanditswe kuya 15-04-2012 - Saa 08:04'

Bavandimwe basomyi ba IGIHE, tunejejwe no gufata umwanya ngo tuganire ku ndwara ya diyabete mu buryo bwimbitse, kugirango tubashe kuyirinda ku batarayirwara ndetse n’abayirwaye barusheho kugirwa inama zibafasha kubana nayo. Ku mugereka w’iyi nkuru kandi murabona ibitabo twifashishije.

Tuboneyeho gushimira impuguke mu by’imirire Maniraguha Martin wadufashije gutegura iyi nkuru. Nk’uko inkuru twanditse tariki ya 27/06/2010, ku ndwara ya Diabète, nta muti iragira wayivura ngo ikire. Ariko reka turebere hamwe inama 15 zadufasha kuyirinda :

1. Buri gihe ni ngombwa kugenzura uko wiyongera ibiro

Umubyibuho ni yo mpamvu ya mbere y’indwara ya diyabete y’ubwoko bwa 2. Hari ibintu bibiri rero umuntu akwiye gukora ngo ayirinde :

a) Kugenzura uko wiyongera ibiro wifashishije urutonde
rw’impuzandengo (BMI). Ibi bitanga ingaruka nziza mu kwirinda indwara ya diyabete n’izindi. Aha rero ni ngombwa kugenzura ibyo urya kandi na none ukarya ku rugero rukwiriye.

b) Niba ubona ibiro byawe bimaze kurenga, ni ngombwa kugira
gahunda yo kubigabanya. Kugabanya umubyibuho rero si ikintu cyoroshye, bisaba kwiyemeza ndetse n’ubufasha bw’inshuti n’abavandimwe.

Hari uburyo bwinshi umuntu yakoresha agabanya umubyibuho ukabije. Urugero:

1° Kwasa inkwi ukoresheje ishoka (indyabiti).

Ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko iyo wasa inkwi igihe cy’isaha uba utakaje kilokalori 400 zishobora kubyarwa n’amagarama 44 y’ibinure. Ibi rero bigenda bigabanya umubyibuho kandi ku buryo budahenze.

2. Kumara nibura isaha yose woga mu kidendezi cy’amazi (piscine)

Bituma utakaza ingufu zingana na kilokalori 200 arizo zihwanye n’amagarama 22 y’ibinure byibitse mu mubiri. Ubu nabwo ni uburyo budahenze bwo kugabanya umubyibuho.

3. Kunywa amazi menshi akonje

Iyo unyoye amazi akonje, ni ngombwa ko umubiri utanga ubushyuhe kugira ngo ya mazi agere ku rugero rw’ubushyuhe bw’umubiri, ni ukuvuga dogere 37. Ubu bushyuhe buva mu gutwikwa kw’amasukari cyangwa urugimbu byibitse mu mubiri. Ibi bituma ya mavuta yatumye umubyibuho wiyongera agabanuka ari nabwo buryo bwo kugabanya uwo mubyibuho.

Urugero : Niba umuntu afashe ibirahuri 6 by’amazi akonje (kimwe gipima garama 250). Hazakoreshwa ibinure bingana iki ngo ubushyuhe bw’amazi buzamuke kuva kuri dogere 0 bugere kuri degere 37 z’ubumubiri ?

Igisubizo : Hakoreshejwe impine izwi mu butabire q = Mw x C x DT dusanga hazakoreshwa karoli 55 500 arizo zingana na kilokalori 55,5.

Izi kilokalori rero zitangwa n’amagarama 6 y’amavuta. Niba ibi ubikoze kabiri ku munsi umuntu atakaza garama 12. Ubu buryo tubonye bugabanya umubyibuho. Ariko ni ngombwa kugenzura ibyo urya kugira ngo udakuraho kandi usubizaho. Ni ukuvuga kugabanyaho 1/3 ku byo wari usanzwe urya, kugabanya umunyu wari usanzwe urya, kunywa litiro 2 z’amazi ku munsi ndetse no gufata ibyo kurya bikize ku myunyu ya potasiyumu, kalisiyumu na manyeziyumu.

2. Ni ngomwa kwitondera amavuta turya

Amavuta arakenewe mu mubiri. Atanga ubushyuhe kandi afasha mu iyubakwa ry’umubiri ndetse n’itembera ry’intungamubiri zimwe na zimwe. Aboneka cyane mu biribwa biva ku bihingwa n’ibiva ku nyamaswa nk’inyama n’amata.

Inama ni uko amavuta umuntu afata ku munsi atagombye kurenza 30 ku ijana ya za kalori zikenewe n’umubiri ku munsi. Kugirango ugere kuri iyi ntego rero ni ngombwa kugabanya amavuta ava ku nyamaswa n’ibiribwa bindi bikize ku mavuta (amafiriti, shokola, amandazi n’ibindi). Na none kandi ni ngombwa kwimenyereza ibiryo bidatekeshejwe amavuta.

3. Gabanya urugero rw’isukari icishijwe mu ruganda ufata

Hari inkomoko nyinshi y’amasukari. Ariko isukari icishijwe mu ruganda niyo ifata umwanya munini mu kongera indwara ya diyabete. Iyi sukari rero iboneka mu biribwa bimwe na bimwe n’ibinyobwa (imigati, amabombo, ibisuguti, fanta, imitobe, byeri n’ahandi) cyangwa abana bakayirya uko iri (kurigata). Ibi rero byongera kwigaragaza kwa diyabete y’ubwoko bwa 2. Ikindi kandi ni uko isukari yongera urugero rw’amavuta mu mubiri bigatera umubyibuho. Ni ngombwa rero gusimbuza iyi sukari ubuki, umutobe utongerewemo isukari cyangwa ibisheke bidaciye mu ruganda.

4. Ihatire kurya ibisukura umubiri (fibres)

Ibisukura umubiri (fibres) bifasha umubiri mu buryo bunyuranye :

- Bikora nk’ umweyo mu rwungano ngogozi ku buryo byirukana imyanda yihisha mu mara ikaba yatera kanseri y’urura runini.

- Bigabanya urugero rw’isukari yakagombye kugera mu maraso ivuye mu byo turiye (limiter l’absorption). Ibi bikagabanya ibyago byo kurwara diyabete.

- Bigabanya urugero rw’amavuta yakagombye kugera mu maraso avuye mu byo turiye;

- Bituma umwanda mukuru usohoka neza bigatuma twirinda indwara yitwa hémoroïde (soma emoroyide);

- Bigabanya umubyibuho kuko bigabanya urugero rw’ibyo turya bigera mu maraso.

Ni ngombwa rero gukunda kurya imboga, imbuto ndetse n’ibinyampeke bidahinduye kugira ngo twunguke ibyiza by’ibi byo kurya. Ni ngombwa kutarenza garama 25 za fibres ku munsi.

5. Hagarika kunywa itabi

Guhagarika itabi bigabanya cyane kanseri n’indwara ya diyabete y’ubwoko bwa 2 byuririra ku itabi.

Ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko abantu bahagarika itabi mbere y’imyaka 50 bagabanyaho icya kabiri ibyago byo gupfa mu myaka 15 ikurikiyeho. Ni ukuvuga ko abantu bahagarika itabi babaho igihe kirekire ugereranyije n’abakomeza kurinywa. Ikindi kandi umuntu umwe kuri babiri afite ibyago byo kurwara diyabete ugereranyije n’abatarinywa. Guhagarika itabi ntibikunda koroha bitewe n’akamenyero. Niyo mpamvu bisaba kwiyemeza ndetse n’ubufasha bw’inshuti, abavandimwe n’ab’umuryango.

6. Iga guhangana n’ikibazo cyo kunaniza ubwonko (stress)

Umunaniro w’ubwonko uterwa n’intekerezo kubera ibibazo, imiruho n’imihati duhura nabyo buri munsi. Uyu munaniro utera indwara ya diyabete akaba ari yo mpamvu ari ngombwa kumenya uburyo bwo guhangana n’uyu munaniro.
Uburyo bwiza rero bwo guhangana n’uyu munaniro ni ukugira umuntu uganiriza ibyawe wumva wisanzuyeho. Kugerageza gukora uturimo two kukurangaza no kukwibagiza nko gusenga, kuririmba, gutembera.

Na none kandi bisaba gukora imyitozo ngororamubiri : kugendagenda, kwiruka, kugenda ku igare, gusimbuka umugozi, koga mu mazi menshi (piscine), gukina umupira w’intoki. Ariko ikiruta byose ni ikiruhuko.

Ubu buryo bwo guhangana n’umunaniro bukoreshwa n’abantu birinda indwara ya diyabete. Ariko kandi n’abamaze kuyirwara bakeneye gukoresha ubu buryo ngo babane neza n’indwara.

7. Ni ngombwa gukora imyitozo ngororamubiri

Imyitozo ngororamubiri irakenewe mu kwirinda indwara ya diyabete y’ubwoko bwa 2 n’izindi ndwara ziyuririraho. Imyitozo ni ingenzi cyane kubera impamvu zikurikira :

- Ifasha umubiri kugumana ibiro bikwiriye;

- Yongera imikoreshereze y’umusemburo wa insuline kubera ko igabanya ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri kuri uwo musemburo;

- Ifasha kugira ubuzima bwiza bw’umutima no kumva umubiri umerewe neza muri rusange;

- Imyitozo irinda kwiyongera kwa kolesiterole (ibinure byinshi mu mitsi itembereza amaraso mu mubiri);

- Imyitozo ngororamubiri igira akamaro ko kurinda kanseri y’amabere n’iy’urura runini.

Ubushakashatsi bwa Finnish Diabetes Prevention bwerekanye ko imyitozo ngororamubiri igabanyaho 58 % ibyago byo kurwara diyabete y’ubwoko bwa 2. Imyitozo yakagombye gukorwa nibura iminota 30 buri munsi kandi hashingiwe ku miterere y’umuntu (ubukuru cyangwa uko amerewe mu mubiri).

8. Ni ngombwa kwisuzumisha

Abantu benshi usanga babana n’indwara ya diyabete batabizi. Kuyisuzumisha bituma tumenya urugero rw’isukari iri mu maraso yacu bigatuma dukora ibishoboka byose ngo igume ku rugero rudateje umubiri ikibazo.

Ikindi kandi, kwisuzumisha bituma dutangira kwivuza hakiri kare igihe dusanze twaragize ibyago byo kurwara. Ibi bituma tuyifatirana bikadufasha kwirinda kurembywa nayo hakiri kare.

Ibi rero bireba buri wese ariko cyane cyane ba bantu bafite ibyago byinshi (haut risque) byo kurwara indwara ya diyabete.

9. Itondere inzoga (boissons alcolisées)

Inzoga zigira uruhare runini mu kwangiriza umubiri wacu. Inzoga zirabujijwe ku buryo budasubirwaho ku bantu :

- Batwite;

- Barwaye igifu, umwijima, impindura;

- Ku bantu bakoresha umuti bita chloropromide igihe barwaye diyabete.

Kubera ko rero inzoga ishobora kongera umubyibuho, gutera indwara z’umutima, indwara z’umwijima, diyabete y’ubwoko bwa kabiri, n’izindi. Ni byiza rwose ko umuntu areka inzoga.

10. Konsa igihe kigenwe

Konsa igihe kirekire birinda umwana indwara ya diyabete y’ubwoko bwa mbere. Naho guha umwana amata y’inka igihe kitaragera bimwongerera ibyago byo kurwara diyabete y’ubwoko bwa mbere. Ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko 50 % by’abana bahawe amata batarageza ku mezi ane y’ubukure barwara diyabete y’ubwoko bwa mbere.

Ni ngombwa rero uko bishobotse kose konsa umwana kugira ngo tumurinde ibyago byo kwandura iyi ndwara.

11. Ni ngombwa kwikingiza

Kwikingiza ni imwe mu nama zo kwirinda diyabete y’ubwoko bwa mbere. Hari ubwo diyabete y’ubwoko bwa mbere iterwa na virusi zishobora kwinjira mu mubiri zigatuma ubutaraga bwawo bwangiza ingirabuzima zikora umusemburo wa insuline.

Indwara zimwe na zimwe nk’umwijima uterwa na virusi, imbasa, iseru, amashamba n’izindi ziterwa na virusi zishobora gutuma turwara indwara ya diyabete y’ubwoko bwa mbere. Mu rwego rwo kuyirinda ni ngombwa kwikingiza izo ndwara.

12. Irinde ikintu cyose cyangiza umwijima

Bizwi neza ko umwijima ariwo kigega cy’umubiri. Mu mwijima hatunganirizwa ibintu byose bizanywe n’amaraso bivuye mu mara. Ni ngombwa :

- Kudafata ibyo kurya bigora umwijima mu mirimo yawo : ibinyamavuta n’ibyubaka umubiri byinshi;

- Kwirinda inzoga;

- Kwirinda imiti imwe n’imwe, itabi, ndetse n’ibyo bongera mu byo turya (additifs chimiques).

Nitudakurikiza aya mabwiriza, inshingano zimwe na zimwe z’umwijima zizatakara kubera kunanizwa. Muri izo nshingano twavuga nk’iyo kubika isukari. Niba iyi nshingano y’umwijima idakozwe nk’uko bikwiriye, indwara ya diyabete ihita yigaragaza.

13. Hitamo neza

Kugira ubuzima bwiza bisaba guhitamo neza. Kuko ingaruka zo guhitamo kwacu ku by’ubuzima ntizigera kuri twe ubwacu gusa, ahubwo zigera no ku bana bacu. Ibintu by’akoko (hérédité) bigira uruhare mu kwanduza indwara ya diyabete. Niba rero tubayeho ubuzima bwiza bidufasha kwirinda indwara nka diyabete na none kandi tukaba tunayirinze abana bacu.

Ariko n’ubwo twaba tudafite abana, tugomba kwiyitaho tukagira ubuzima bwiza maze tukagira umusanzu dutanga mu kubaka isi yacu.

14. Menya ko byose ari uburozi, ariko...

" Menya ko byose ari uburozi ariko biterwa n’urugero ubifasheho", byavuzwe na Palsales.

Twabonye ko bimwe mu byo kurya n’ubwo wabifata ku rugero rwo hasi bitera ibibazo bikomeye ku buzima. Ariko mu mitekerereze y’uyu muhanga tubonye haruguru, yerekana ko n’ibyo kurya byiza ufashe ku rugero rurenze bihinduka uburozi.

" Ushobora kuba ukoresha ibyo kurya byiza, nyamara kubera ko urya ibyo kurya byinshi, ushobora kugira ibiro birenze bigatera ingaruka ku buzima harimo n’indwara ya diyabete,... kurya ibyo kurya byinshi n’ubwo byaba ari byiza, nabyo bishobora kwangiza ubuzima... tugomba kumenya ko dukwiriye kurya amoko anyuranye y’ibyo kurya (indyo yuzuye), birimo intungamubiri za ngombwa dukeneye, kandi na none tukirinda kurya byinshi no kunaniza umubiri. Mu bintu byose birebana n’ubuzima, kutarenza urugero ni rwo rufunguzo".

15. Ibyo kurya byawe bibe umuti wawe

“ Ibyo kurya byawe bibe umuti wawe kandi umuti wawe ube ibyo kurya”, byavuzwe na Hippocrate. Uyu muhanga mu buvuzi ari nawe dukesha igitekerezo cy’ubuvuzi yerekana ko ibyo kurya byacu bigomba kuba imiti yacu. Ibi rero bisaba guhitamo mu byo turya ibigirira imibiri yacu akamaro, bikaturinda indwara cyangwa se bikaba byanazikiza.

Ariko kuko abantu badahuje ubumenyi ku byerekeye imirire, ni ngombwa ko udasobanukiwe yumva ko afite ikibazo akegera uwamufasha muri uru rwego.
Birashoboka ko umuntu yica amategeko y’imirire abizi cyangwa atabizi ariko ingaruka ziba zimwe. Niyo mpamvu rero tugomba kwita ku nshingano yacu yo gushaka amakuru ku buzima, maze ibyo kurya byacu bikaba umuti wacu.

Ibitabo byakoreshejwe :

1) OMS. Série de Rapports techniques n°916 (régime alimentaire, nutrition et prévention de maladies chroniques : rapport d’un groupe d’experts de l’OMS), Genève, Organisation mondiale de la santé, pp.73-96 (2003)

2) Diabète : Education et prévention, disponible sur le Website : www.worlddiabetesday.org/en/the-campain/diabetes-education-and-prevention,2009

3) Mc QUARRIE et al. Chimie générale, Bruxelles, De Boeck,p p243-281 (2003)

4) Dr Schneider Ernest. Santé par la nature : Traitement naturel des maladies, Madrid, Editorial Saféliz, 2è édition. Volume 2 pp. 235-236 (2004)

5) Elain Marieb. Anatomie et physiologie humaine, Bruxelles, De Boeck, 2eme édition, pp. 565-569 (2000)

6) Endocrinologie; compte rendu des conférences scientifiques de la division d’endocrinologie et du métabolisme de l’Hôpital St Michael’s (Univeristy of Toronto), disponible sur le website : www.endocrinologie_conférences.ca

7) Fédération internationale du diabète : Région Afrique, Manuel de formation pour les éducateurs sur le diabète pour l’Afrique subsaharienne, pp. 37-159 (2006)

8) Larousse médical/VUEF , 2006

9) CAIN et al.. Découvrir la Biologie, Bruxelles, De Boeck, 2ème édition, pp. 192 (2006)

10) Les causes du diabète, disponible sur : www.diabetnet.com

11) Dr Gomez, S.R. La santé par les plantes. Miami Florida, 1èreédition, pp.136-138 (2003)

12) Fédération Internationale du Diabète : Région Afrique. Guide de prise en charge du diabète de type 2 pour l’Afrique subsaharienne, pp.13-30 (2005)

13) Ministère de la santé. Guide thérapeutique standard du Rwanda, première édition, pp. 169-176 (2007)

14) SDA, Church, Health and Healing, 2010 p 72, 38,14

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