Imyaka 132 irihiritse abakoloni babibye akaga Afurika icyirwana na ko

Yanditswe na David Eugène Marshall
Kuya 19 Ukuboza 2017 saa 09:15
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Tariki 26 Gashyantare 1885, ni umunsi utazibagirana mu mateka y’isi, by’umwihariko kuri Afurika kuko aribwo yashyizwe ku meza nk’umugati, Abanyaburayi bakayigabagabana uko bishakiye mu isura yuje impuhwe nka za zindi za bihehe, zasize uyu mugabane mu kaga ukomeje guhangana na ko.

Uyu murage mubi w’ubukoroni wemerejwe mu nama ya Berlin, yahereye kuwa 15 Ugushyingo 1884 igeza kuwa 26 Gashyantare 1885, yahuje u Budage, Autriche-Hongrie, u Bubiligi, Danemark, icyari Ubwami bwa Ottoman ubu ni Turikiya, Espagne, u Bufaransa, u Bwongereza, u Butaliyani, u Buholandi, Portugal, u Burusiya, Suède, Norvège na Leta Zunze Ubumwe yari ihari nk’indorerezi.

Iyo ushakishije mu bitabo bitandukanye, usanga iyi nama yarahawe irindi zina ryo mu Kidage rya ‘Kongo-Konferenz’,ukibaza impamvu yabyo ikakuyobera.

Ku mpamvu z’ubutumire uwari Umuyobozi w’u Budage icyo gihe, Chancelier Otto Von Bismarck yoherereje ibi bihugu uko byari 14, harimo ko iyi nama yagombaga kwiga ku buryo bwo kugabanyamo Afurika ibice byinshi no kugena imipaka, byakuruye amakimbirane n’ubu agikurikirana uyu mugabane.

Ikibabaje ariko ni uko mu batumire bose, nta munyafurika n’umwe wari urimo yaba abami n’abandi batwaraga ibihugu bya Afurika nta wahakandagiye.

Uretse ingingo yo gutera imirwi Afurika, mu bindi byagombaga kwigwaho, hariho ‘guca burundu ubucakara’ bwakorerwaga abirabura bakurwaga muri Afurika bajyanwa gukoreshwa imirimo ivunanye muri Amerika, bacishijwe ku byambu byo muri Liberia n’ahandi ku nyanjya ya Atlantique.

Iyo umuntu asesenguye neza iby’uku kwigabanya Afurika kwakorewe mu Budage, asobanukirwa neza ukuntu kwigabanya Afurika byajyanaga no gushaka uko Abanyaburayi bayisahura.

Muri icyo gihe, u Bubiligi bwihutiye kuzamura ibendera muri Congo Kinshasa, u Bufaransa bubibonye gutyo na bwo buba bwateye amatako hakurya muri Congo Brazaville, byasaga no gucungana ku jisho cyangwa gucuranwa.

Umwami w’u Bubiligi Leopord II yari afite inyota yo kwigarurira Congo-Kinshasa

Umwami w’u Bubiligi Leopord II, yaje kugaragaza neza inyota yari afite yo kwigarurira Congo-Kinshasa yari imaze kugaragazwa n’umwe mu bahanga mu by’ubumenyi bw’isi witwaga Stanley, nka kimwe mu bihugu byari bikungahaye ku rwego ruhanitse ku mugabane wa Afurika.

Mu 1908, Congo-Kinshasa, yagizwe umwe mu mitungo bwite y’Umwami Leopord, ari na ho havuye ko Kinshasa yitwa Leopordville, bityo umwami w’u Bubiligi aba abaye Umwami uganje mu gihugu gikubye icye inshuro hafi 80.

Uyu Mwami yabeshyaga ko ashaka gushyira hamwe Abanyafurika ariko ari mu buryo bwo kujijisha ko abafitiye impuhwe zidasanzwe. Ibi bishimangirwa n’uko mu gihe cyose u Bubiligi bwatwaye akarere bwategekaga, hari higanje ibikorwa byo gukandamiza abirabura, kuko ikiboko cyabaye ikiboko, imirimo y’agahato mu birombe by’amabuye y’agaciro iyo za Katanga ku birabura iba ndanze karahava.

Ukwigabanya Afurika kw'Abanyaburayi ni kimwe mu bigifite ingaruka mu bihugu bitandukanye kuri uyu mugabane

Icyakora muri uku kwigabanya Afurika hari ibihugu byasigaye bidakozweho, birimo Liberia yari ituwe n’ubundi n’abirabura babaga barahonotse ubucakara bw’Abanyamerika ndetse na Ethiopia yari yarahakanye burundu gukolonizwa n’uwo ari we wese, harimo n’Abataliyani babigerageje bagatsindwa .

Mu byumvikanyweho rero muri iyi nama ya Berlin, kwari uko u Bufaransa bwagombaga kwiharira cyane agace gaherereye mu Burengerazuba bw’umugezi wa Oubangui ndetse n’ ahazengurutse umugezi wa Niger, bukaba bwaragombaga kungukira mu kwikubira ubutunzi bwose bubarizwa muri icyo gice.

Portugal yo yatahiye agace gakungahaye kuri peteroli ka Kabinda hamwe n’igihugu cyose cya Angola uko ingana umunsi wa none, muri make buri gihugu cyashakaga uko cyakwikeberaho kuri Afurika nubwo hari ibyatahiye aho nta cyo bibonye.

U Budage bwari buyoboye iyi nama, bwahariwe akarere ka Afurika y’Amajyepfo ashyira Uburengerazuba, ahari igihugu cya Namibia kuri ubu. Nyuma y’icyo gihugu, haniyongeragaho u Rwanda, u Burundi, Tanzania ndetse na Uganda mu Burasirazuba bwa Afurika.

Abadage kandi ngo bari banafite umushinga wo kubaka Gari ya moshi izajya iva mu mujyi wa Cap muri Afurika y’Epfo, ikagera i Cairo mu Misiri iciye muri Afurika yo hagati, u Bufaransa na bwo bukaba bwari kubaka indi nk’iyo yagombaga guturuka Dakar muri Senegal ikagera muri Djibouti.

Gusa ibyo byose byabaye nk’inzozi kuko intambara ya Mbere n’iya Kabiri z’isi zasize igihugu cy’u Budage kimeze nk’igishegeshwe, imishinga cyari gifite iburiramo gutyo.

Ingabo z’u Budage kandi ngo zigeze muri Namibia, zakozanyijeho n’abaturage baho batashakaga ubukoloni; uko bakaza umurego mu kuzirwanya ni ko Abadage baberekezaga ku bushake mu karere gaherereye ku butayu bwa Karahari buherereye mu majyaruguru y’icyo gihugu, aho bageze bagapfa bagashira bazira inyota.

Muri ubu butayu ngo haba haraguye abaturage basaga 20.000 ari na ho havuye inyito y’uko Jenoside ya mbere y’ikinyejana cya 20 ari iyakozwe n’Abadage, bayikoreye abanya-Namibia bazwi ku izina rya Héréros.

Ubwoba ni bwose ku bihugu by’i Burayi bitinya kuzasabwa impozamarira

Nk’uko tubikesha ikinyamakuru The Guardian, ubwicanyi bwakozwe n’izo ngabo z’u Budage, buherutse gusanishwa na Jenoside aba Nazi bakoreye Abayahudi mu ntambara ya kabiri y’isi yose.

Namibia kandi ikomeje kwotsa igitutu u Budage ngo butange impozamarira ku baturage b’aba Héréros n’aba Nama baguye muri ubwo bwicanyi ,gusa u Budage n’Umuryango Mpuzamahanga bikica amatwi ,kubera gutinya ko ibihugu bitari bike by’Afurika byahita bikurikira uru rugero rwa Namibia, kubera amabi byakorewe n’Ababikolonije.

Ku isonga ry’ibihugu bifite ubwoba bwo kuba byatanga izo mpozamarira hari u Bubiligi bushinjwa kuba bwarahitanye abaturage bakabakaba miliyoni 10 muri Congo Kinshasa ndetse n’imitungo itabarika u Bubiligi bwasahuye icyo gihugu.

Mu mwaka wa 2013 kandi u Bwongereza bwakoloneje Kenya bwatanze akayabo k’ama Pounds [Amafaranga akoreshwa mu Bwongereza ]2,600 ku baturage b’aba Mau Mau bagize uruhare mu rugamba rwo guharanira ubwigenge bw’igihugu cya Kenya ,kubera iyicarubozo abasirikare b’Abongereza bakoreye imfungwa z’aba Mau Mau ahagana mu 1950.

Uku kwigabanya ibihugu bya Afurika byavuyemo ko hari abantu bagiye batakaza ubwenegihugu bw’ibihugu byabo by’inkomoko, bakisanga baherereye mu bindi bihugu.

Urugero ni nk’imwe mu miryango y’Abanye-Congo bavuga Ikinyarwanda bakatiweho imipaka muri iyi nama ya Berlin bagashyirwa muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo

Mu gace katari gato kandi k’u Burengerazuba bwa Uganda hagendeye ubutaka butari buto bw’u Rwanda, kugeza magingo aya, abahatuye bakoresha ikinyarwanda n’imico ijya gusa neza neza n’iyo mu Rwanda.

Iby’uku kwigabanya Afurika abaturage bamwe bakaburagizwa ntibireka guteza amakimbirane ya hato na hato kuriuyu mugabane.

Bamwe mu barokotse ubwicanyi bwakorewe abo mu bwoko bw'aba Herero bari barishwe n'inzara

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