Imyaka 20 yo kwigaranzura ubukene mu Rwanda!

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 17 Ukwakira 2020 saa 04:53
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Uwageze mu Rwanda mu 1994 ugakomeza ukageza za 2000, ahagarutse uyu munsi nta kabuza ko yatungurwa aho yakwinjirra hose haba mu mujyi cyangwa mu cyaro. Impamvu ni uko u Rwanda rwo muri iyo myaka n’u Rwanda rwo mu 2020 bitandukanye cyane, haba mu migaragarire no mu mimerere y’abaturage.

Nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi kugeza mu myaka ya 2000, inzego zose z’ubuzima bw’igihugu zari zarashegeshwe na Jenoside yakorwe Abatutsi, ubukene bunuma mu mijyi no mu byaro ku buryo hari n’ababonaga u Rwanda nk’igihugu cyapfuye.

Hari abumvaga ko ibyiza n’iterambere nk’amashanyarazi, amazi meza, kwiga no kwivuza hari abo byagenewe, abandi bitabareba kubera imyaka bari bamaze mu bukene, nta cyizere cyo kuzabuvamo.

Kuri uyu wa 17 Ukwakira 2020, ni umunsi wahariwe kurwanya ubukene ku Isi. Ni umwanya wo gusubiza amaso inyuma tukareba aho u Rwanda rwavuye mu kurwanya ubukene mu myaka 20 ishize.

Mu 1994, umusaruro mbumbe w’u Rwanda wari miliyoni 753.6 z’amadolari, mu 2000 wageze kuri miliyoni 1735. Umusaruro w’umuturage ku mwaka ubariye mu madolari mu 1995 wari 185.6, mu 2000 uba 227.7

Ubushakashatsi ku mibereho y’ingo mu Rwanda bwakozwe mu mwaka wa 2000, bugaragaza ko icyo gihe ikigero cy’ubukene cyari kuri 60.4% kivuye kuri 77.8% mu mwaka wa 1994, icyizere cyo kurama kiri ku myaka 49.

Abana bagwingiye bari 42,7%, naho abana bagaragazaga ibimenyetso bikabije by’imirire mibi ari 29%.

Mu 2000, ubushakashatsi ku bipimo by’imibereho myiza y’abaturage bwagaragaje ko 90% by’Abanyarwanda bakoraga ubuhinzi naho 89% bakaba bari mu cyiciro cy’abadakorera umushahara cyangwa abikorera ibyabo.

Nubwo abenshi bari abahinzi, ubuhinzi bwabo ntibwari ubuteza imbere igihugu mu buryo bufatika ahubwo bwari ubw’amaramuko kandi bukorwa mu kajagari.

Muri icyo gihe kandi, mu Rwanda umubare w’abana bapfa batarageza ku myaka itanu wari hejuru ku buryo hafi umwana umwe kuri batanu yapfaga atarageza ku myaka itanu. Umubare w’abanduye agakoko gatera SIDA wari kuri 11,2% ku rwego rw’igihugu.

Kubona amazi meza nabyo byasaga nk’inzozi, cyane cyane mu byaro. Imibare igaragaza ko ababonaga nibura amazi meza mu byaro bari kuri 44%. Mu mijyi bari kuri 60%. Imiryango igera kuri 98% yatekeshaga inkwi cyangwa amakara.

Impinduka mu myaka 20 gusa

Impinduka za mbere zihera mu bitekerezo n’igenamigambi. Kubera ibibazo byari byarasizwe na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, igihugu cyari mu rusobe rw’ibibazo bitashoboraga gukemuka abantu baticaye hasi ngo basase inzobe.

Inyandiko yiswe ‘Icyerekezo 2020 cy’u Rwanda’ ikubiyemo ibyari byiyemejwe mu cyerecyezo 2020, ivuga ko intandaro y’icyo cyerecyezo yabaye uruhererekane rw’ibiganiro ngishwanama byabereye muri “Village Urugwiro” mu 1998 kugeza mu wa 1999 bigamije kureba ku hazaza h’u Rwanda.

Abari muri ibyo biganiro bemerenyijwe ku bwumvikane busesuye ko hakenewe gutanga isura iboneye y’u Rwanda rw’ejo hazaza.

Ku isonga mu byo inama zo mu Rugwiro zemeje harimo kugabanya ubukene bukava kuri 60% bukagera munsi ya 25% mu 2020. Hari harimo no kongera umusaruro mbumbe w’umuturage ukava ku 250$ ku mwaka akagera ku madolari 900$ mu 2020. Ibyo byasabaga ko ubwiyongere bw’ubukungu buzamuka nibura kuri 7% buri mwaka.

Icyizere cyo kubaho cyagombaga kuva ku myaka 49 kikagera ku myaka nibura 55.

Icyo gihe hatangiye gushyirwaho gahunda zitandukanye zigamije kuvana abaturage mu bukene zirimo Ubudehe, kuvugurura ubuhinzi, guteza imbere ubukerarugendo n’ibindi.

Kuva ubwo gahunda zitandukanye zo kuzamura imibereho myiza zarimakajwe. Harimo nka Girinka na VUP zimaze kuba ikimenyabose, mituweli yatumye ntawe ukirembera mu rugo, nta mwana w’umunyarwanda ukibuzwa kwiga amashuri yifuza n’impamvu iyo ari yo yose kuko intego ari ‘uburezi kuri bose’.

Mu 2008, hatangijwe gahunda y’Imbaturabukungu ya Mbere (EDPRS I) yahereye mu 2008 ikageza mu 2012. Iyo gahunda yasize u Rwanda rwesheje umuhigo mu iterambere ry’ubukungu, kugabanya ubukene ndetse n’ubusumbane mu bukungu.

Iterambere ry’ubukungu ryari ku mpuzandengo ya 8.2% muri iyo myaka, ubukene bwaragabanyutse buva kuri 56.7% bugera kuri 44.9%, bituma abarenga miliyoni imwe bava mu bukene mu myaka itagera kuri itanu.

Mu 2012 hatangijwe gahunda y’Imbaturabukungu ya kabiri (EDPRS II) yo yasize ubukene bugeze kuri 38.2%, mu gihe ubukene bukabije ari 16 % nk’uko biri mu mibare yatangajwe n’Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ibarurishamibare mu 2018.

Ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bwakomeje kuzamuka ku mpuzandengo ya 7.5%, ubucuruzi buzamukaho 23.9%, hagati ya 2014 na 2017. Kuri ubu umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu ugeze kuri miliyari 9105 Frw, mu gihe uw’umuturage ugeze hafi 788$ ku mwaka.

Abakoresha internet mu rugo bavuye ku 9% mu 2014 mu 2017 bagera kuri 17%. Abakoresha amashanyarazi mu gucana yaba akomoka ku miyoboro migari cyangwa imirasire y’izuba, bamaze kurenga 50 %, amazi meza ni 86%, abatunze telefoni ngendanwa ni 67% bavuye kuri 64% mu 2014.

Kuba ibyo n’ibindi byinshi byaragezweho, byavuye mu ngamba zitandukanye nko mu ishoramari ry’ibikorwa remezo bigamije kugeza amashanyarazi kuri bose, amahoteli, ibitaro, amavuriro, amashuri n’ibindi.

Ingano y’ibyoherezwa mu mahanga yariyongereye ahanini bigizwemo uruhare na gahunda ya Made in Rwanda no kwaguka kwa RwandAir, hajyaho ibigega byo kwigira no kwiteganyiriza by’igihe kirekire kandi iterambere ry’imijyi yunganira Kigali rishyirwa mu mutima w’ibikorwa bya guverinoma.

Imihanda yarubatswe mu mijyi no mu byaro, ikoranabuhanga ririmakazwa muri serivisi no kwihangira imirimo ku buryo rimaze guhindura no koroshya ubuzima bw’abanyarwanda ku buryo bufatika.

U Rwanda rukomeje kandi politiki yo guhanga imirimo nibura ibihumbi 200 buri mwaka idakomoka ku buhinzi.

Muri Gahunda ya Guverinoma igamije kwihutisha iterambere (NST1) izageza mu 2024, bimwe mu byashyizwe imbere harimo nko kugeza amazi meza n’amashanyarazi kuri bose.

Minisitiri w’Ubutegetsi bw’Igihugu, Prof Shyaka Anastase, kuri uyu munsi wo kurwanya ubukene ku Isi, yasabye abanyarwanda gukomeza inzira yo gukoresha imbaraga, baharanira kugera ku mibereho myiza.

Ati “U Rwanda ruzazamurwa n’amaboko n’imbaraga, ubwenge n’umutima by’abana barwo […] Mwe mwese mukora mushishikaye ngo mwiteze imbere, mwiyuha akuya muharanira kugira imibereho myiza, ntimucogore!”.

Intego u Rwanda rufite ni ukuba igihugu cy’amikoro aringaniye mu 2035, no kuba igihugu cyateye imbere bitarenze 2050. Ibyo bizagerwaho mu gihe gahunda zo guteza imbere no kuvana abaturage mu bukene zizaba zagezweho uko bikwiriye.

Aho Kigali Convention Center yubatse, mu myaka 13 ishize hari indiri y’ibihunyira

Ahari Kigali Convention Center uyu munsi, mu 2007 hari ishyamba
Ahari icyapa cya MTN kuri iyi foto, hakurya yaho mu gihuru gihari niho hubatse Kigali Convention Center
Kimihurura muri Rond Point, mu 2007 nta nyubako zigezweho zari zihari. Aha hari inzu ifite amabati y'ubururu hakoreraga iposita, ubu hari Kigali Heights ndetse uwo muhanda w'igitaka waho ubu urimo kaburimbo ikomeza i Remera
Ku Kimihurura ahari Kigali Convention Center, mbere hari ibihuru byiberamo ibihunyira
Imihanda igera ahari Kigali Convention Center usibye uza mu Mujyi n'ujya Kacyiru, indi yose yari itaka mu gihe uyu munsi irimo kaburimbo

Kigali City Tower mu 2007 ikiri mu isiza

Iki kibanza nicyo cyubatsemo Kigali City Tower ya none. Igice cyari kimaze kubakwa ni Parikingi y'imodoka
Kigali City Tower mu 2007 nibwo yari itangiye kubakwa. Habanje Parikingi mbere yo kugera ku nyubako nyir'izina

Inyubako ya Makuza mu Mujyi rwagati yari itarubakwa mu myaka 13 ishize

Umanutse uturuka ku musigiti wo mu Mujyi rwagati ni uku hari hameze mu 2007
Mu mujyi rwagati uharebeye mu cyerekezo kiva i Nyamirambo, uku niko hari hameze mu 2007. Ahari ikibanza niho hubatse Makuza Grand Passion Plaza
Mu 2007, inyubako yo kwa Makuza yari ikiri mu mishinga
Inyubako ya Banki ya Kigali (indende ibanza iburyo) n'iya Ecobank (igaragara mu ibara rijya gusa n'ubururu bwerurutse) nizo zari ndende muri Kigali mu myaka 13 ishize
Uhagaze ku Rya nyuma i Nyamirambo, ubona izindi nzu ndende ziri muri Kigali zitari zagatekerejweho mu 2007
Uri mu Gatsata, ubona inzu zose ziri mu Mujyi rwagati

I Nyabugogo muri Gare uhereye uko yari imeze mu 2007 na nyuma y’imyaka icumi

Gare ya Nyabugogo ni uku yabaga imeze muri aya mezi ya nyuma y'umwaka
Nyabugogo ya 2007 ni uko yasaga. Yari yiganjemo imodoka nyinshi zizwi nka Twegerane none ubu zabaye amateka muri Kigali
Nyabugogo ya 2017 uyirebeye mu nzira zo ku Ruyenzi itandukanye cyane n’iya 2007 mu bikorwa remezo

Mu 2007 ahazwi nko mu Gakinjiro hari ibarizo gusa ariko ubu ni imiturirwa ihambaye

Mu Gakinjiro ni uku hari hameze. Ubu huzuye imiturirwa y'abacuruzi bishyize hamwe
Mu 2007, ku Gisozi ahazwi nko mu Gakinjiro hari ibarizo gusa ariko ubu huzuye imiturirwa igezweho
Izi nyubako zigezweho zo mu Gakinjiro zubatswe n’abahakoreraga bishyize hamwe
Ku Kimihurura ahazwi nko ku Kabindi ni uko hari hameze mu 2007
Ahazwi nka Poids lourds ubu harahindutse kuko ku gice cyo haruguru hari kubakwa inzu nshya kuko inzu z'akajagari zari zihari mu 2007 zose zarasenywe
Inyubako ya Banki ya Kigali (indende ibanza iburyo) n'iya Ecobank (igaragara mu ibara rijya gusa n'ubururu bwerurutse) nizo zari ndende muri Kigali mu myaka 13 ishize

Ubuzima bw’abaturage hirya no hino mu gihugu

Kubera ibikorwa remezo by'ubuvuzi, umubare w'abana bapfa bavuka n'abapfa batarageza ku myaka itanu waragabanyutse cyane
Igihugu cyihaye gahunda y'Uburezi kuri bose, aho kwiga kugeza mu mashuri yisumbuye ari ubuntu
Mu masoko yo mu cyaro, imineke ni kimwe mu bihaboneka ku bwinshi
Imijyi yunganira Kigali nka Muhanga,ikomeje kwaguka uko bwije n'uko bukeye
Inzego zishinzwe ubuhinzi zemeza ko u Rwanda rwihagije mu biribwa ku kigero cyo hejuru
Mu cyaro, umubare munini w'abaturage uracyakora ubuhinzi
Ubworozi bwongewemo ingufu, by'umwihariko nyuma y'aho hatangirijwe Gahunda ya Girinka mu mwaka wa 2006
Amasaka aracyari kimwe mu bihingwa abanyarwanda bahinga mu bice by'icyaro
Icyizere cyo kubaho ku banyarwanda cyavuye ku myaka 49 mu 2000, ubu kigeze ku myaka 65
Igare ni rimwe mu ryifashishwa mu mirimo itandukanye mu cyaro
Uburezi bw'u Rwanda kuri ubu bushingiye ku bumenyi n'ikoranabuhanga
Uburinganire bwarimakajwe mu nzego zose z'ubuzima bw'abanyarwanda
Isuku mu mujyi wa Kigali ituma uwo mujyi uza mu ihagaze neza ku rwego mpuzamahanga
Leta ikomeje gushora imbaraga nyinshi mu gukoresha ibicanwa bitangiza ikirere birimo gaz
Mu masoko yo mu Rwanda ibiribwa bihaboneka ibyinshi byera imbere mu gihugu

Ishusho y’Umujyi wa Kigali mu myaka ya vuba

Kubera umutekano no korohereza abashoramari, ibikorwa by'iterambere bizamurwa mu Rwanda uko bwije n'uko bukeye
Kigali Convention Center yatangiye kubakwa mu mwaka wa 2009, itahwa mu 2016 itwaye akayabo ka miliyoni 300 z’amadolari ya Amerika
Kigali Convention Centre imaze kuba ikirango cy'ishoramari mu gihugu, kigaragaza ko igihugu kiri gutera imbere kandi ko n'imishinga minini ishobora gushyirwa mu bikorwa
Inyubako ya Kigali Heights yatwaye miliyoni 30$ ni kimwe mu bikorwa bikomeye by'ishoramari mu gace kiswe Kimihurura Gateway
Mu duhigo u Rwanda rwihariye harimo no kugira isuku, aho nka Kigali ifite ubusitani udapfa gusanga ahandi
Inyubako ya MIC mu Mujyi wa Kigali rwagati, ni rimwe mu ishoramari rigaragaza icyerekezo cy'igihugu
Iyi nyubako ya CHIC yafunguwe na Perezida Kagame ku wa 5 Ukuboza 2016, nyuma yo kuzura itwaye miliyari 19 na miliyoni 800 z’ Amafaranga y’ u Rwanda
Mu gutwara abantu, hubatswe ibikorwa remezo byaciye akavuyo mu buryo bw'ingendo, gasigara mu bindi bihugu
Kigali City Tower yabimburiye izindi nyubako zikomeye mu mujyi rwagati, kuyubaka bisozwa mu 2011, ariko ubu imaze gukurikirwa n'imiturirwa ikomeye
Urebeye hejuru ubona inzu zisumba izindi nka Centenary House, Grand Pension Plaza na M Peace Plaza
Imbere y'Umujyi wa Kigali uhasanga ibibumbano by'ingagi, zimaze guhinduka ikirango cy'ubukerarugendo mu Rwanda
Kubera umutekano no korohereza abashoramari, imishinga y'ubwubatsi irazamuka ubutitsa
Iyi ni inyubako ya COGEBANQUE, imwe muri banki zashimye urubuga rwo gukoreraho ubucuruzi mu Rwanda
Banki ya Kigali ubu ni yo banki ya mbere mu Rwanda urebye ku mari shingiro no ku nguzanyo ishora mu bikorera
BPR Part of Atlas Mara nayo imaze kuzamura umuturirwa ukomeye, byose kubera inzira u Rwanda rurimo
Raporo zitandukanye zikomeza gushyira Kigali ku mwanya wa mbere mu kugira isuku
Kubera umutekano, ubu iterambere riraganje n'abana bose bagana ishuri
Ubu imihanda iri kubakwa, n'iyubakwa n'inguzanyo, u Rwanda rufitiwe icyizere n'ibihugu kimwe n'imiryango mpuzamahanga

Amafoto ya IGIHE: Niyonzima Moses na Muhizi Serge


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