Uko Balladur yabanje kwanga ko ingabo z’u Bufaransa ziza mu Rwanda muri 1994 ngo kuko "bamenyereye kwicana"

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 11 Mutarama 2021 saa 07:25
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Kuva mu myaka 26 ishize umubano w’u Rwanda n’u Bufaransa wakomeje kuba gatebe gatoki kubera uruhare iki gihugu cyo mu Burayi gishinjwa muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, nyamara abari bakiyoboye muri icyo gihe bakomeje kubyihunza.

Niba u Bufaransa bwaragize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, ab’ibanze bakwiye kubiryozwa ni François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand wari Perezida icyo gihe ariko waje gupfa mu 1995 azize kanseri ya "prostate" yibasira ubugabo. Undi mu b’ibanze bakwiye kubiryozwa ni Edouard Balladur wari Minisitiri w’Intebe mu 1994, kugeza n’ubu ugihumeka uw’abazima ku myaka 91.

Inyandiko zitandukanye zigaragaza ko Édouard Balladur atifuzaga ko ingabo z’u Bufaransa zoherezwa mu Rwanda muri Mata 1994 nubwo bamenye ibyahabereye kuva rugikubita mu ijoro indege ya Habyarimana Yuvenali yahanuriwe ndetse n’uburyo Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yahise itangira tariki ya 7 Mata 1994.

Gukomeza gushwana kwa Mitterrand na Balladur niko kwatumye u Bufaransa butinda kohereza ingabo mu Rwanda gutera ingabo mu bitugu ingoma y’Abatabazi ku buryo byaje kurangira bwohereje ingabo muri Kamena 1994, zihutira gutabara Guverinoma y’Abatabazi yarimo ikora Jenoside ndetse n’abaturage barimo kuyishyira mu bikorwa.

Kuki Balladur yabanje gushwana na Mitterrand?

Édouard Balladur yabaye Minisitiri w’Intebe w’u Bufaransa kuva mu 1993 kugeza mu 1995.

Inyigo yakozwe ndetse iza gushyirwa hanze mu nyandiko yiswe "Great friends, they stand by you in difficult times" yakorewe muri Kaminuza ya King’s College y’i London, ishami ryigisha amateka, igaragaza ko ubwo mu Rwanda habaga Jenoside, mu Bufaransa naho muri politiki byari bikomeye.

Ishyaka Parti socialiste rya François Mitterrand ryari rimaze iminsi ribuze ubwiganze mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko nyuma y’amatora y’abadepite yabaye mu mwaka wa 1993. Kuva icyo gihe abadepite benshi bari abo mu mpuzamashyaka Union pour la France (UPF) yabarizwagamo Édouard Balladur.

Muri politiki yo mu Bufaransa, ishyaka rifite ubwiganze mu nteko ishinga amategeko riba rifite ijambo rikomeye kuko nta mwanzuro Perezida yafata Inteko itabishaka. Kugira ngo imishinga ya Mitterrand itambuke mu nteko, byabaye ngombwa ko agirana imishyikirano n’ihuriro rya Balladur ritavugaga rumwe na we.

Iryo shyaka ryamusabye imyanya muri Guverinoma kugira ngo ryemere ko imishinga azanye mu nteko bazajya bayishyigikira. Nguko uko Balladur yisanze ayoboye Guverinoma ya Mitterrand, nubwo amashyaka yabo bombi atavugaga rumwe.

Nubwo bari bari muri Guverinoma imwe, ibitekerezo bya Mitterrand n’abo mu ishyaka rye cyane cyane kuri politiki mpuzamahanga, byari bitandukanye n’ibya Balladur n’abambari be.

Leta ya Mitterrand yari imaze igihe ifasha iya Yuvenali Habyarimana wayobora u Rwanda. Guhera mu 1990 ubwo ingabo za FPR Inkotanyi zatangizaga urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu, u Bufaransa bwohereje abasirikare bo gutabara Habyarimana mu cyiswe "opération Noroît". Abo basirikare batangaga ubufasha ku ngabo za Leta haba mu myitozo n’ibindi ndetse ni nabo batozaga Interahamwe zakoze akantu muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Balladur yabaye Minisitiri w’Intebe adahuza kuri byinshi na Mitterrand. Mu mpera za 1993 nibwo ingabo z’u Bufaransa zari muri Opération Noroît zasubiye iwabo. Balladur avuga ko yabigizemo uruhare.

Kubera imyitwarire mibi yari imaze iminsi iranga ingabo z’u Bufaransa zagiye mu mahanga, Balladur wari ufite akayihayiho ko kwiyamamaza ku mwanya wa Perezida mu matora yo mu 1995, ntiyifuzaga icyemezo cyose yafata kikangiza isura ye mu maso y’Abafaransa. Ni nayo mpamvu ivugwa yatumye arwanya cyane ibyo kohereza ingabo mu Rwanda mu gihe cya Jenoside.

"Raporo Mucyo" igaragaza uruhare rw’Abayobozi b’u Bufaransa n’abasirikare bakuru muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, ivuga ko “kwanga guhita batabara kwa Guverinoma ya Balladur, byari ukwitandukanya n’uburyo Mitterrand yakunze kwitwara mu kibazo cy’u Rwanda cyangwa se bikagendera ku buryo bafataga iby’amoko muri Afurika.”

Kuri Balladur, Raporo Mucyo ivuga ko gupfa kw’Abatutsi mu Rwanda atabibonaga nk’ikibazo cyatuma ingabo z’u Bufaransa zijya gutabara. Ngo yigeze kuvuga ati “Nta gihe baticanye, bagiye bicana na mbere kuriya. Ubundi kuki mushaka kubahagarika?”

Mitterrand wari urembejwe na kanseri yari yaribasiye ubugabo bwe muri icyo gihe, yifuzaga guhita atabara Guverinoma yakoraga Jenoside nk’uko byagenze mu 1990, gusa akomwa mu nkokora n’uko ibyemezo bye byagombaga guhabwa umugisha na Balladur na Guverinoma ye ndetse n’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko.

Mitterrand kandi yashakaga ko ingabo z’u Bufaransa zoherezwa ako kanya kuko u Rwanda n’u Bufaransa byari bifitanye amasezerano y’ubufatanye mu bya gisirikare, ariko Balladur arabyanga avuga ko Loni igomba kubanza kubyemeza ngo hatazagira ikibazo kiba u Bufaransa bukakibazwa.

Mitterrand (ibumoso) na Balladur bamaze igihe batarumvikana ku kohereza ingabo mu Rwanda

Bamaze amezi abiri bajya impaka, Mitterrand yifuza ko ingabo z’u Bufaransa ziza muri Kigali zigafasha iza Leta guhashya ingabo za FPR Inkotanyi yari iri kubotsa igitutu. Balladur we sibyo yashakaga kuko ngo yifuzaga ko zijyanwa kure ya Kigali kugira ngo mu maso y’amahanga bidafatwa nk’aho baje gukoloniza igihugu. Ikindi yashakaga ko ingabo zabo ziza mu bikorwa by’ubutabazi mu kandi gace katari Kigali, kandi zikavangwamo abo mu bindi bihugu by’amahanga.

Muri Kamena 1994 nibwo bemeranyije icyiswe “Opération Turquoise’ kigizwe n’abasirikare b’Abafaransa 2500 barimo abo muri Sénégal, bari bafite inshingano zo gushyiraho agace katarangwamo imirwano mu burengerazuba bw’u Rwanda.

Ingabo z’u Bufaransa zaje mu Rwanda icyo gihugu gishinja iza Loni zari zihari ko ntacyo ziri gukora, dore ko zari zimaze kugabanywa zivanye ku zisaga 2500 zisigara ari 270.

Abasirikare bamaze kugera mu Rwanda muri Opération Turquoise, ibikorwa by’ubutabazi byabaye bike ugereranyije n’ibikorwa by’imirwano n’ibya politiki. Aba basirikare b’u Bufaransa bashinjwa kuba barahaye icyanzu n’inzira yo guhunga ku bari bagize Guverinoma yakoze Jenoside kugira ngo ibone uko ihungira muri Zaïre ikomeze kwisuganya igaruke kwisubiza ubutegetsi i Kigali hifashishijwe imirwano.

Izi ngabo kandi zishinjwa ibindi byaha birimo gufata abagore n’abakobwa b’Abatutsikazi ku ngufu.

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yari yarafatiwe ibihano byo kutagira igihugu cyongera kuyigurishaho intwaro, nyamara ingabo z’u Bufaransa zifashishije ibirindiro byazo i Goma hari inyandiko zitandukanye zagiye zerekana ko bagiye batumiriza intwaro iyo Leta.

Balladur ubwo yari imbere ya Komisiyo yashyizweho n’Inteko y’u Bufaransa ku ruhare rw’icyo gihugu mu Rwanda, yavuze ko tariki 8 Mata Guverinoma ye yafashe umwanzuro wo kutongera guha u Rwanda intwaro, nyamara ’Raporo Mucyo’ igaragaza ko nta hantu na hamwe uwo mwanzuro ugaragara mu nyandiko ko koko waba warafashwe.

Balladur yakiriye abagize Guverinoma yakoraga Jenoside

Umunsi umwe Jenoside itangiye, u Bufaransa bwari buzi neza ibiri kubera mu Rwanda. Ni raporo zageraga kuri Balladur umunsi ku munsi nk’ukuriye Guverinoma.

Tariki ya 27 Mata 1994, ni ukuvuga ibyumeru bitatu Jenoside itangiye, intumwa ebyiri za Leta y’Abatabazi yakoraga Jenoside zirimo Jérôme Bicamumpaka wari Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga na Jean Bosco Barayagwiza wari Umuyobozi ushinzwe ubutegetsi n’imari muri minisiteri y’ububanyi n’amahanga, bakiriwe i Paris.

Bagiranye ibiganiro n’abategetsi b’Abafaransa, harimo Minisitiri w’Intebe Edouard Balladur, minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’amahanga Alain Juppé na Bruno Delaye wategekaga ibiro bishinzwe Afurika mu biro bya Perezida wa Repubulika.

Imiryango iharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu yokeje igitutu u Bufaransa, igaragaza ko bitumvikana ukuntu bwakwakira abantu bafite amaraso mu biganza. Mu kwisobanura, Guverinoma ya Balladur yatangaje ko bakiriye izo ntumwa z’u Rwanda kugira ngo bakomeze kugirana ibiganiro n’impande zombi. Nyuma baje kuvuga ko rwari uruzinduko "rwihariye".

Komisiyo y’Igihugu ishinzwe kurwanya Jenoside (CNLG), yagaragaje ko u Bufaransa bwari buzi neza abo baganiraga abo aribo, n’inkunga ya politiki bagombaga kubaha kugira ngo jenoside ikomeze.

Nko ku matariki ya 9-13 Gicurasi 1994, u Bufaransa bwakiriye intumwa z’u Rwanda zari ziyobowe na Lt Col Ephrem Rwabarinda bagiye gushakisha inkunga y’intwaro.

Raporo y’ubutumwa yakozwe na Lt Col Rwabarinda, igaragaza ko u Bufaransa bwemeye guha u Rwanda ubufasha mu bya gisirikare kandi butanga inama ko Guverinoma igomba gukora ibishoboka ikanoza isura yayo mu mahanga.

Tariki 22 Gicurasi 1994, Perezida Théodore Sindikubwabo yandikiye ibaruwa Perezida Mitterrand amushimira ku nkunga yose u Bufaransa bwahaye u Rwanda kuva muri 1990, anamwinginga ko iyo nkunga ikwiriye kwiyongera, cyane cyane ko kuri uwo munsi Ingabo za FPR Inkotanyi zari zamaze gufata ikibuga mpuzamahanga cy’indege cya Kigali.

Nubwo ibihamya byose bigaragaza ko Guverinoma ya Balladur yagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, uwo mukambwe w’imyaka 91 ntarava ku izima ngo abyemere.

Mu kiganiro yagiranye na AFP mu 2014 yagize ati “U Bufaransa nta ruhare bwagize muri Jenoside. Ahubwo mu bihugu byose by’isi nibwo bwafashe iya mbere butangiza ibikorwa by’ubutabazi hirindwa ubwicanyi bwo ku rwego rwo hejuru.”

Kuri we ngo kuvuga ko u Bufaransa bwayigizemo uruhare ni “Ikinyoma cyambaye ubusa. Guverinoma nari nyoboye kuva yajyaho yahise ihagarika iby’iyoherezwa ry’intwaro ku Rwanda ndetse ivanayo ingabo z’u Bufaransa. Byari ngombwa ko u Bufaransa butivanga mu ntambara yatutumbaga kandi butashoboraga guhagarika.”

Balladur aherutse gutanga uburenganzira bwemerera buri wese kwinjira mu nyandiko ze ku Rwanda mu gihe cya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994. Biteganyijwe ko izo nyandiko zizashyirwa hanze muri Mata uyu mwaka nyuma yo gushyirwa hanze kwa raporo y’abashakashatsi ku ruhare rw’u Bufaransa muri Jenoside.

Nubwo izi nyandiko zizajya hanze, hari benshi bagaragaje impungenge z’ikidasanzwe kizaba kirimo dore ko ntawe uzi niba nyirubwite ashobora kwemera ko hashyirwa hanze inyandiko zimugaragaza nabi. Kuba hashize imyaka 26 izi nyandiko zitagaragazwa nabyo ni ibyo kwibazwaho!

Balladur amaze igihe atemera uruhare rw'igihugu cye muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, nubwo ari we wakiriye abayobozi ba Guverinoma yakoraga Jenoside
Ingabo z'u Bufaransa zageze mu Rwanda zikererewe kubera kutumvikana hagati ya Mitterrand na Balladur
Aho gutabara abari mu kaga nk'uko ubutumwa bwabo bwavugaga, Abafaransa bihutiye gufasha no gutabara Leta yakoraga Jenoside
Ingabo z'u Bufaransa zaje mu Rwanda zitwaje intwaro zihambaye nyamara zari zije mu bikorwa by'ubutabazi
Ingabo z'u Bufaransa zafashije Interahamwe mu myitozo ya gisirikare ari nabyo Interhaamwe zifashishije muri Jenoside

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