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Amakosa akomeye Loni yakoze yemera guha ubwigenge u Rwanda rutiteguye

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 1 July 2022 saa 02:41
Yasuwe :

Imyaka 60 irashize u Rwanda rubonye ubwigenge ariko mu bigaragara mu myaka isaga 30 ya mbere rwabayeho rusa nk’urugikolonijwe, atari kubw’amahitamo y’abaturage barwo ahubwo ari ubushake bw’Umuryango Mpuzamahanga.

U Rwanda rwahawe ubwigenge tariki 1 Nyakanga 1962, rumaze indi myaka isaga 40 mu maboko y’u Bubiligi, byitwa ko ari indagizo. Ni ukuvuga ko u Rwanda rwagengwaga na Loni (byatangiye yitwa SDN) ariko ikaruha u Bubuligi ngo buyireberere.

Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa yatanze mu 1959 yaratangiye kuvuganira u Rwanda hirya no hino ngo rubone ubwigenge ariko uburyo yashakagamo ubwigenge, ntabwo bwashimishaga Ababiligi ari nabyo bikekwa ko byamuhaitanye.

Rudahigwa yashakaga ubwigenge bwuzuye, Ababiligi bagataha burundu ibintu byose bigashyirwa mu maboko y’Abanyarwanda bakikemurira ibibazo. Ababiligi bo siko babishakaga, ari nayo mpamvu bashyize imbaraga mu gushyigikira amashyaka nka Parmehutu ya Grégoire Kayibanda na Aprosoma ya Gitera Joseph, basabaga ubutegetsi ubundi bakabanira neza Ababiligi.

Rudahigwa n’abari bamushyigikiye, bagaragazaga ko ikibazo cy’Abanyarwanda ari Ababiligi banagize uruhare mu kubacamo ibice, Parmehutu yo ikavuga ko ikibazo cy’u Rwanda ari Abatutsi, badahari u Rwanda rwaba paradizo.

Kuba politiki ari umukino w’inyungu, ibyo ntibije ubu. Ababiligi ntibashoboraga gushyigikira umuntu ubasaba ubwigenge akabasaba no gutaha, niyo mpamvu imbaraga nyinshi bazihaye Parmehutu na Aprosoma, bakora ibishoboka byose ngo ubwami babuce intege.

Rudahigwa amaze gutanga, Ababiligi bagiye ku itabarizwa rye bazi ko barasiga batangaje umuyobozi mushya w’u Rwanda, bagashyiraho uwo bashaka ariko siko byagenze kuko Abiru bahise bagena Kigeli V Ndahindurwa, murumuna wa Rudahigwa nk’umwami mushya.

Byarakajae Ababiligi ndetse uwo munsi bashaka kurwanira ku itabaro, ariko babona ko ubwinshi bw’Abanyarwanda bahari, butaraza gutuma hari icyo bakora.

Bapfuye kwemera Kigeli V ariko banga kumufasha mu nshingano ze. Muri Kamena 1960 ubwo Kigeli yari yagiye mu bwigenge bwa Congo no guhura n’Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa Loni ngo baganire ku kibazo cy’ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda, Ababiligi batangarije kuri radiyo ko Kigeli atemerewe kugaruka mu Rwanda.Habayeho ibiganiro bitandukanye ngo agaruke mu Rwanda biba iby’ubusa, Loni iraruca irarumira.

Ubusanzwe aboroye amatungo barabizi, iyo waragije umuntu inka yawe akayifata nabi, urayimwambura nta yandi mananiza. Loni yigiraga nk’aho itari kubona ibibera mu Rwanda kuko iyo ibibona, yari gufata inshingano, u Rwanda rukavanwa mu maboko y’u Bubiligi cyangwa se ikibazo cyarwo kikigwa mu buryo budatuma hazamo u Bubiligi kandi nabwo ari nyirabayazana.

Guhera mu 1959 kandi ya mashyaka ya Parmehutu na Aprosoma, yatangiye gifashwa n’ubutegetsi bw’Ababiligi mu Rwanda, atangira kumenesha no kwica Abatutsi hirya no hino mu gihugu. Umwaka wa 1960 warangiye abasaga ibihumbi 300 bamaze guhunga, ariko Loni yari iragiriwe ntacyo byari biyibwiye.

Muri Mutarama 1961, i Gitarama abayoboke ba Parmehutu bemeje ko u Rwanda rubaye Repubulika, ko ubwami bukuweho ndetse Mbonyumutwa Dominique aba Perezida naho Kayibanda amubera Minisitiri w’Intebe.

Ibyo byose byakozwe byateguwe n’Ababiligi dore ko ari nabo batanze imodoka n’ibyuma by’indangururamajwi byakoreshejwe muri uwo muhango. Muri Guverinoma ya mbere ya Kayibanda, hari harimo Ababiligi batandatu!

Mu mateka y’u Rwanda uwo munsi ufatwa nka Coup d’Etat y’i Gitarama kuko ubwami bwakuweho nta matora abayeho. Amakuru yose y’ibyaberaga mu Rwanda Loni yarayamenyaga ariko ntacyo yakoze ngo ibihagarike.

Ubwami bwahiritswe Umwami akiri mu mahanga yarabujijwe kwinjira mu gihugu. Hari n’igihe yabigerageje, babimenye bamusanga i Nyamirambo bamupakira indege bamusubiza mu mahanga. Loni yarabirebye ikomeza kwinumira.

Mu kwiyerurutsa, Loni yaje kwanga ibyo guhirika ubwami mu Rwanda, ivuga ko kugira ngo byemerwe hakorwa amatora ya kamarampaka, abaturage bose bakabitorera. Amatora yabaye muri Nzeri 1961 ariko abagize uruhare mu kuyategura ni Parmehutu yari ku butegetsi n’Ababiligi bari babashyigikiye.

Ni gute Kayibanda n’ishyaka rye bari gutegura amatora bafashijwe n’u Bubiligi bugikeneye kuguma mu Rwanda, hanyuma bagatsindwa ubutegetsi bugahabwa UNAR yasabaga ko u Rwanda ruhabwa ubwigenge busesuye? Ibyo nabyo Loni yarabirebereye, 80 % batora bemeza ko ubwami bukuweho.

Nyuma y’ukwezi kumwe Kamarampaka n’amatora y’inzego z’ibanze abaye, Kayibanda yatorewe kuba Perezida. Hatangijwe inkundura yo kubona ubwigenge, Parmehutu ikayobora nta yindi nkomyi.

UNAR , Umwami n’ibihumbi by’impunzi z’Abanyarwanda ntibasibaga kwandikira Loni bayereka ko ibintu byadogereye mu Rwanda. Ibinyamakuru bitandukanye byavugaga ko mu Rwanda hari kuba Jenoside n’ivangura ryibasiye Abatutsi, ariko bikaba kugosorera mu rucaca.

Muri Gashyantare 1962 muri Loni habereye Inteko rusange yigaga ku kibazo cy’ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda n’u Burundi. Hemejwe ko hashyirwaho Komisiyo yihariye yiga ku bibazo biri muri ibyo bihugu by’umwihariko impunzi, itahuka ry’umwami w’u Rwanda, umutekano n’ibindi byatuma bahawe ubwigenge ibintu bizajya ku murongo aho kuba bibi.

Komisiyo yashyizweho ariko mu myanzuro yashyikirije Loni, ntaho yigeze igaragaza ko mbere yo guha u Rwanda ubwigenge ibihumbi by’impunzi z’Abatutsi biri mu mahanga bigomba kubanza gutahuka. Ntaho bategetse ko umwami Kigeli agaruka mu gihugu cyangwa se ngo amatora ataraciye mu mucyo asubirwemo. Nta na hamwe yigeze isaba ko abagize uruhare mu bwicanyi bwari bumaze igihe bwibasiye abatutsi bahanwa.

Mu kwerekana igihunga cyari kiri muri iryo tangwa ry’ubwigenge, itariki ntarengwa yo guha u Rwanda n’u Burundi ubwigenge yagizwe iya 1 Nyakanga 1962, nyamara inama iyemeza Burundi yabaye kuwa 28 Kamena 1962, habura iminsi ibiri gusa ngo ubwigenge butangwe.

Ubusanzwe ibihugu byahabwaga ubwigenge, byagombaga kuba bimaze igihe bitoza ingabo zabyo ku buryo umutekano zari kubashaka kuwicungira.

U Rwanda rwo rwahawe ubwigenge umutekano ucunzwe n’ingabo z’u Bubiligi ndetse muri Loni barubajije niba izo ngabo zizataha nyuma y’ubwigenge, ruvuga ko bazabyigaho nyuma babonye ubwigenge.

Mu kwerekana ko Kayibanda yashimye uruhare u Bubiligi bwagize mu kumuha ubutegetsi, mu ijambo yavuze ku munsi w’ubwigenge yashimye cyane Col Guy Logiest wari Rezida w’u Bubiligi mu Rwanda, amusaba gukomeza kubaba hafi.

Guy Logiest mu gitabo cye yise Mission au Rwanda, yavuze ko umunsi afasha Kayibanda guhirika ubwami, akazi ke yari yamaze kukarangiza.

Ati “N’iyo bari kunyirukana ariko akazi kanjye nk’umukoloni nari nkarangije kuko ubutegetsi nari maze kubushyira mu maboko y’abahutu, ndetse n’igisirikare gishyashya nari maze kubaka cyari kigizwe n’abahutu gusa.”

Ubwo Loni yirengagizaga ibyo bibazo byose birimo impunzi, igitugu n’itotezwa ryakorerwaga Abatutsi, yabaye nk’itanze umurongo ko ‘Umugabo yigira yakwibura agapfa. Mu buryo bundi yari imaze guha uburenganzira Abanyarwanda bahejejwe ishyanga, bwo kwirwanaho byanze bikunze, uburenganzira bavukijwe bakabwisubiza.

Tariki ya 1 Nyakanga 1962 ubwo u Rwanda rwahindukaga Repubulika ku mugaragaro
Kayibanda, Mbonyumutwa n'abandi bari ibikomerezwa muri MDR Parmehutu ubwo hemezwaga ko ubwami buvuyeho
Ku munsi w'amatora ya Kamarampaka tariki 25 Nzeli 1961, abaturage bari benshi bitabiriye

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