Ibura ry’abanyeshuri, imicungire mibi: Bimwe mu bibazo byashegeshe kaminuza zigenga

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 14 Nyakanga 2020 saa 07:57
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Abakurikiranira hafi imikorere ya kaminuza zigenga mu Rwanda, bashimangira ko ingaruka z’icyorezo cya COVID-19 cyatumye amashuri afungwa mu gihe gisaga amezi atandatu, zafashe indi ntera bitewe n’uburyo cyasanze izi kaminuza zihagaze, nubwo hari izikomeje kwirwanaho.

- Kaminuza zigenga zinengwa kudohoka

- Zisaba kujya zihabwa abanyeshuri bagenerwa ‘buruse’

- COVID-19 yasanze kaminuza nyinshi zugarijwe

- Minisiteri y’Uburezi yemeye uburangare mu gutinda gutanga ibyangombwa

Minisiteri y’Uburezi ivuga ko mu Rwanda habarwa kaminuza 40, harimo eshatu za Leta ari zo Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, Ishuri Rikuru ry’u Rwanda ry’Imyuga n’Ubumenyingiro (Rwanda Polytechnic) n’Ishuli Rikuru ryo Guteza Imbere Amategeko (ILPD). Bivuze ko izigenga ari 37.

Mu minsi ishize Mineduc yafunze Kaminuza ya Kibungo (UNIK/INATEK), Christian University of Rwanda na Indangaburezi College of Education kubera kutuzuza ibisabwa n’ibindi bibazo byari bizugarije bikabangamira ireme ry’uburezi.

Minisitiri w’Uburezi, Uwamariya Valentine, avuga ko kuba kaminuza zigenga zimwe zafungwa bitagaragaza ko leta itazikeneye, kuko ari zo zifite abanyeshuri benshi.

Yagize ati “Duhereye ku mibare yo mu 2019, usanga kaminuza zigenga zifite 58.6% by’abanyeshuri bose biga muri kaminuza, bivuze ngo uruhare rwa kaminuza za leta ni 41.4%. Mu magambo make, kaminuza zigenga zirakenewe kugira ngo zunganire kaminuza za leta.” Aha yari kuri Televiziyo y’Igihugu.

Kaminuza zimwe zaradohotse

Dr Jered Rugengande, Umushakashatsi wanakoze muri kaminuza zitandukanye, avuga ko izigenga zavutse zikenewe, nyuma y’igihe gufungura kaminuza byemererwaga gusa leta n’amadini.

Yakomeje ati “Izi kaminuza zavutse zikenewe, ariko ngira ngo byagiye bipfa mu mikurire. Navuga ko amakaminuza yagiye asa n’adohoka kuko mbere wabonaga hari afite ikibatsi cyo gutangira, ariko nyuma hari ayagiye agira ibibazo kandi wabonaga bishobora gukemuka.”

Mu gutangira ngo wasangaga abantu bashinze kaminuza bashyiramo amafaranga ndetse bakiyemeza n’ayo bazajya batanga buri mwaka yo kuyifasha, ariko bikagera nyuma ugasanga baradohotse, ishuri rigasa n’irisigaranwa n’umuntu umwe.

Yakomeje ati “Ugasanga wenda icyemezo kirafatwa nk’umuntu umwe yabanje kujya inama n’umuryango we cyangwa se n’agatsiko k’abantu bari kumwe. Bibaho rero, bene icyo ni nacyo cyica ishuri kuko iyo imiyoborere y’ishuri idahobora gufata ishuri ngo yerekane aho ibibazo biri, yerekane aho inkunga n’ubushobozi bushobora kuva, icyo gihe bitera ikibazo.”

Umuyobozi wa Kaminuza ya UTB akaba n’Umuyobozi w’Ihuriro ry’Abayobozi ba Kaminuza mu Rwanda, Dr. Callixte Kabera, avuga ko hari impamvu z’ingenzi zituma kaminuza zihura n’ibibazo, uhereye ku buryo zivuka.

Mbere y’uko kaminuza yemererwa gutangira ngo isabwa ibyangombwa birimo porogaramu zizigishwa n’ibikorwaremezo nk’aho gukorera, laboratwari n’ibindi, nyamara kwemererwa bigatwara igihe kinini.

Yakomeje ati “Ibyo rero iyo bitinze gutyo amafaranga umuntu aba yarateganyije, abo bashoramari bateganyije, usanga akoreshejwe. Ikindi cya kabiri, amakaminuza menshi iyo atangiye aba acungira ku mafaranga aturuka mu banyeshuri. Urebye rero ikiguzi cy’uburezi ubu ngubu uko kimeze, ukareba n’ibyo cyagasabye, mu by’ukuri za kaminuza zigenga zica amafaranga make ugereranyije n’ikiguzi cy’uburezi.”

“Bityo mu gihe kirekire ukazasanga batazashobora gukomeza ya kaminuza, ubukene bukabataha, bugatuma kaminuza yafungwa.”

Avuga ko bikwiye ko kaminuza zigenga zishyuza amafaranga yegereye aya kaminuza za leta, zigashyirirwaho igiciro fatizo nubwo hari igihe ubushobozi bw’abanyeshuri buba ikibazo. Gusa ngo baba bizeye gukora mu gihe kirekire, mu gihe ibibazo by’imiyoborere byaba bikemutse.

Minisitiri Uwamariya avuga ko nubwo kaminuza zigenga ari nyinshi, zose zidafite ibibazo bimwe kuko hari n’izihagazeho, ari nayo mpamvu hari izafunzwe n’izigikora.

Ati “Uko imyaka yagiye igenda hagiye habaho kudohoka mu bijyanye n’imyigishirize, hari zimwe ziyandikishije nk’imiryango itari iya leta izindi ziba ibigo by’ubucuruzi, iyo watangiye kuba ikigo cy’ubucuruzi uba ugomba no kubona inyungu, ariko ya nyungu yagombye gukomeza izamura ya kaminuza, ariko akenshi icyagiye kigaragara, za nyungu zakabonetse ahubwo zijya no mu bindi bitari ukuzamura rya reme.”

Igabanuka ry’abanyeshuri ryakomeje ikibazo

Dr Rugengande avuga ko Jenoside irangiye, hari abantu benshi batashoboye kujya muri kaminuza cyangwa bari barayicikirije, bisanze bakeneye kwiga kaminuza, kugeza ubwo kaminuza zigenga zasabwaga kwigisha amanywa n’ijoro.

Yakomeje ati “Abo rero nabo basa n’aho bagabanutse kubera ko ayo mahirwe yo kwiga buri wese yayagize, abari barananiwe kwiga barize, ubu noneho abantu barimo kujya muri kaminuza ni abantu barimo kurangiza amashuri yisumbuye. Ntekereza ko ari naho ayo mashuri yagiriye ibibazo, bano banyeshuri bagabanutse cyane.”

Ibyo ngo byatumye na porogaramu zimwe z’amasomo zisigaramo abanyeshuri nka batanu, amashami amwe afungwa burundu.

Ikibazo cy’igabanuka ry’abanyeshuri gishimangirwa na Minisitiri Uwamariya, aho cyasonze kaminuza zari zifite imikorere mibi.

Yakomeje ati “Inyinshi rero zatangiye gutyo, n’umubare w’abanyeshuri ugenda ugabanuka. Buriya abantu bashakaga kwiga mu myaka yashize ntabwo aribo bacyinjira muri za kaminuza, iyo turebye mu mibare dufite uyu munsi, umubare w’abinjira muri kaminuza uragenda ugabanuka, umubare w’abanyeshuri wagabanuka waratangiye n’ubundi utujuje ibisabwa byose, noneho bikagenda bisubira inyuma.”

Urebye umubare w’abanyeshuri biga mu mashuri abanza, uko bagenda bigira hejuru, umubare ugenda ugabanuka. Nko mu 2019 mu mashuri abanza abanyeshuri bari miliyoni 2.5, mu mashuri yisumbuye ari 732 104, muri kaminuza ari 86 206.

Yakomeje ati “Iyo tuvuga ubukungu bushingiye ku bumenyi rero, turacyari ku bipimo byo hasi cyane, hasi hasi cyane kuko ndebye ku mibare, muri kaminuza dufitemo 2.4% gusa [by’abanyeshuri bose]”.

Hakenewe ubufatanye

Dr Kabera avuga ko hakenewe ubufatanye bwa kaminuza zigenga na leta, kuko urebye nko muri ibi bihe bya COVID-19, ibiganiro byinshi byagiye bireba ku buryo ibigo byazahajwe n’ingaruka z’iki cyorezo byafashwa, aho nko mu kigega leta yashyizeho, 50% yagiye mu bukerarugendo.

Ati “No mu rwego rw’uburezi, gufunga amezi arindwi ntabwo ari ikintu cyoroheje. Aho rwose twifuza ko nka Minisiteri y’Uburezi yareba uko yashyiraho nk’ikigega cy’uburezi n’ubushakashatsi, icyo cyajya cyunganira za kaminuza, duke zisagura zigakomeza mu kubaka rya reme, ariko cya kigega, kaminuza iguye kikaba cyayigoboka.”

Yavuze ko kaminuza zigenga zashinzwe n’umurava mwinshi, ariko COVID “yaje ihuhura kaminuza n’ubundi zari zifite ibibazo.”

Yakomeje ati “Hari icyifuzo tumaze iminsi tuvuga kijyanye no guhabwa abanyeshuri bahabwa buruse yitwa inguzanyo, nacyo cyatuma mu by’ukuri za kaminuza zifite ibibazo zoroherezwa kuko zaba zibonye inkomoko y’amafaranga yizewe, kuko buriya abanyeshuri tubona bigenga burya hishyura nka 70 cyangwa 60%, abandi bishyura nabi, nabyo bigatera icyuho mu mikorere ya buri munsi.”

Ni igitekerezo Dr Rugengande avuga ko gishoboka, kuko hari nk’amashuri cyangwa amavuriro yashinzwe n’imiryango cyangwa amadini, bifashwa na leta ikabishyiramo abakozi n’ibikoresho.

Avuga ko ariko kaminuza zitakagombye gucungira ku mafaranga yishyurwa n’abanyeshuri gusa, kuko COVID yerekanye ko atari uburyo burambye.

Minisitiri Uwamariya yavuze ko kaminuza zikwiye kurushaho kubahiriza ibyo zisabwa kandi zikanoza imiyoborere, nubwo na Minisiteri yasanze hari ibyo ikeneye kunoza, cyane bijyanye no gutinda gutanga ibyemezo bya kaminuza.

Yakomeje ati “Urebye nk’Indangaburezi (iheruka gufungwa) yatinze kubona ibyemezo bya burundu, ari nabyo twemera ko habayeho kurangara ku ruhande rwa minisiteri, ku buryo, ntabwo byagombaga gufata iriya myaka yose, agateganyo ubundi aba ari ak’igihe gito, agateganyo kagakomeza kuba agateganyo kandi iyo ishuri ari agateganyo, burya nta n’ubwo ryemerewe gutanga impamyabumenyi ku banyeshuri.’’

Yakomeje agira ati “Ibyo byo nka Minisiteri y’Uburezi tugomba kubyemera ko habayeho uburangare.”

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