Iya 28 Kamena 1994: Intumwa idasanzwe ya Loni yemeje ko ubwicanyi bwakorewe Abatutsi ari Jenoside

Yanditswe na Dr Bizimana Jean Damascène
Kuya 30 Kamena 2020 saa 03:15
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Mu gihe Guverinoma y’abicanyi yakomezaga gushishikariza no guha abaturage amabwiriza yo gutsemba Abatutsi, Umuryango w’Abibumbye (ONU) wakomeje kwirengagiza ubwicanyi bwarimo gukorerwa Abatutsi.

Guhera tariki ya 25 Gicurasi nibwo Komisiyo y’Uburenganzira bwa Muntu ya ONU yateraniye byihutirwa i Genève, inama ihamagajwe na Canada.

Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yaje kwemerwa ku mugaragaro ubwa mbere muri raporo yo ku wa 31 Gicurasi 1994 yakorewe Inama y’Umutekano ya ONU. Iyo raporo yashingiye ku makuru yatanzwe na Iqbal Riza, kimwe na Maurice Baril wari Umujyanama mu bya Gisirikare w’Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa ONU kandi wari wasuye u Rwanda mu matariki ya 22-27 Gicurasi 1994.

Mr René Degni-Ségui, intumwa idasanzwe ya Komisiyo y’Uburenganzira bwa Muntu ya ONU, yagiye guperereza mu Rwanda ku matariki ya 16-20 Kamena 1994, nyuma muri raporo ye yo ku wa 28 Kamena 1994, yemeza ko ubwicanyi bwakorerwaga Abatutsi kuva ku wa 7 Mata 1994, ari Jenoside.

1) Icyemezo cyo ku wa 25 Gicurasi 1994 cya Komisiyo y’Uburenganzira bwa Muntu y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye (Onu), cyemeje ko hagomba kubaho iperereza ku bwicanyi bwakorerwaga Abatutsi

Mu nama yo ku wa 25 Gicurasi 1994 ya Komisiyo y’Uburenganzira bwa Muntu y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, hemejwe ko hari Jenoside ikorerwa mu Rwanda kandi ko hagomba kubaho iperereza.

Uwo munsi iyo Komisiyo yafashe icyemezo 1994 S-3/1 gishyiraho intumwa idasanzwe ishinzwe gukora iperereza mu Rwanda ku bwicanyi bwakorerwaga Abatutsi.

Mbere yaho, Komiseri Mukuru w’Uburenganzira bwa Muntu wa ONU, M. Ayala Lasso, yari yaragiye mu butumwa mu Rwanda ku matariki 11-12 Gicurasi 1994, muri raporo ye avuga ko Abatutsi bakorerwaga ubwicanyi bugamije kubatsemba.

2) Raporo yo ku wa 28 Kamena 1994, yatanzwe ku burenganzira bwa muntu mu Rwanda na Mr Degni-Segui, Intumwa idasanzwe ya Komisiyo y’Uburenganzira bwa Muntu y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, yashimangiye ko ubwicanyi bwakorerwaga Abatutsi ari Jenoside

Ku wa 28 Kamena 1994, muri raporo ye yakoze ku burenganzira bwa muntu mu Rwanda, Mr degni-segui, intumwa idasanzwe ya Komisiyo y’Uburenganzira bwa Muntu y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, yashimangiye ko ubwicanyi bwakorerwaga Abatutsi ari Jenoside kandi yemeza ko ubwo bwicanyi bwakorwaga na Guverinoma y’abicanyi, ingabo zayo n’Interahamwe n’Impuzamugambi za MRND na CDR.

Iyo raporo yavugaga ko ubwicanyi bwakorerwaga Abatutsi mu gihugu cyose kandi ko ahenshi bwakorwaga n’Interahamwe za MRND n’Impuzamugambi za CDR. Ikanavuga ko yari Jenoside yakorerwaga Abatutsi.

a) Gutsemba Abatutsi byateguwe na Guverinoma y’abicanyi

Iyo raporo yasanze ubwicanyi bwari indengakamere kandi bwarateguwe. Hari ibimenyetso byinshi byagaragazaga ko ubwo bwicanyi bwateguwe : icya mbere, ni uko habayeho gushishikariza kwanga Umututsi no kumwica, bikozwe n’ibinyamakuru bya Guverinoma y’abicanyi cyangwa biyibogamiyeho, nka Radio Rwanda, ariko cyane cyane "Radio Télévision Libre des Milles Collines" (RTLM). Ikimenyetso cya kabiri ni ugutanga intwaro mu baturage b’abasivili, ariko cyane cyane mu Nterahamwe n’Impuzamigambi.

Ikindi ni uko Interahamwe n’Impuzamugambi zitorezaga mu bigo bya Gisirikare kuva mu Ugushyingo 1993 kugeza muri Werurwe 1994. Kandi byanagaragaye mu buryo ubwicanyi bwatangiye byihuse bidasanzwe kuva ku wa 7 Mata 1994 kandi bugakomeza. Bariyeri zashyizweho hagati y’iminota 30 na 45 nyuma yuko indege ya Habyarimana irasiwe na mbere yuko n’iyo nkuru ivugwa na Radio Rwanda.

b) Iyo raporo yerekanye ko ubwicanyi bwari bwibasiye Abatutsi bose nta gutoranya

Raporo y’Intumwa idasanzwe yerekanye ko Abatutsi bose bari bibasiwe n’ubwicanyi nta gutoranya. Imiryango yarishwe, nta gutoranya ibisekuru, ababyeyi n’abana. Nta n’umwe waburokokaga, habe n’abana b’impinja, bose barahigwaga kugeza n’ahantu babaga bahungiye bakahicirwa. Biciwe mu nsengero, cyane cyane no muri za kiliziya zahindutse amarimbi yabo. Biciwe aho bahungiraga hose, mu byumba by’inzu no mu bisenge byayo kimwe no mu bihuru no mu mashyamba aho abicanyi batwikaga kugira ngo hatagira urokoka n’umwe. No ku mipaka y’ibihugu by’ibituranyi, abicanyi bahategeraga Abatutsi kugira ngo badahunga.

c) Raporo yerekanye ko ubwicanyi bwakorerwaga Abatutsi bwaherekezwaga n’iyicarubozo rw’indengakamere

Raporo yerekanye ko ubwicanyi bwakorerwaga Abatutsi bwaherekezwaga n’iyicarubozo rw’indengakamere. Muri rusange Abatutsi bicishwaga imihoro, amashoka, ubuhiri, inkoni n’imitarimba.

Abicanyi bashoboraga kubanza gutema intoki, ibiganza, amaboko n’amaguru mbere yo kuca umutwe cyangwa kumena agahanga Abatutsi bicaga.

Abatangabuhamya bagiye bavuga ko akenshi uwajyaga kwicwa yingingaga abicanyi cyangwa akabaha amafaranga kugira ngo bamurashishe imbunda aho kumwicisha imihoro. Iyo Abatutsi bifungiranaga mu nzu cyangwa mu kiliziya abicanyi ntibabashe kuhafungura, batabazaga abasirikare bakabomora inzugi, bagateramo za grenade nyuma bakarekera Interahamwe zikica abagihumeka.

Abicanyi ntibatinyaga kwica abana bakanabasanga no mu bigo by’imfubyi, ndetse bakica n’inkomere aho ziri mu bitaro. Ababyeyi bahatiwe gusekura abana babo mu masekuru. Abicanyi batemaguraga abo bamaze kwicira ku mugaragaro, ndetse bamwe muri bo bakicara ku mirambo bakahanywera byeri bategereje ko abanyururu baza kuhavana iyo mirambo.

d) Ibyo bimenyetso byose nibyo intumwa idasanzwe yahereyeho yanzura ko hari Jenoside yakorerwaga Abatutsi

Abantu banyuranye bakomeye, barimo Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa ONU, bahise bemeza ko koko Abatutsi bakorerwaga Jenoside bashingiye ku makuru yo ku bwicanyi bwaberaga mu Rwanda.

Ibiteganywa n’ingingo ya II y’Amasezerano Mpuzamahanga yo Gukumira no Guhana icyaha cya Jenoside yo ku wa 9 Ukuboza 1948, byari byuzuye kugira ngo ubwicanyi bwakorerwaga Abatutsi bwitwe Jenoside

Icya mbere, byagaragaye ko ubwicanyi bwakorwaga (II a) mu iyicarubozo ry’indengakamere (II b).

Icya kabiri, umugambi wo gutsemba Abatutsi wagaragaye mu bikorwa byo kubishishikariza abaturage kwica Abatutsi binyuze mu binyamakuru nka RTLM no mu nyandiko zitariho umukono y’uwazanditse. Byanagaragaye no mu bindi bikorwa: gutegura ubwicanyi hatangwa intwaro n’imyitozo ya gisirikare, umubare w’Abatutsi bishwe na politiki yo kubatsemba.

Icya gatatu, byaragaragaye ko Abatutsi ari bo bari bibasiwe kubera ubwoko bwabo: abatangabuhamya bavuze uko Abatutsi batoranywaga kuri za bariyeri bishingiye ku ndangamuntu zabo. Umwanzi yari Inyenzi, ni ukuvuga Umututsi, akaba yaragombaga kwicwa nta kabuza nkuko abicanyi babyivugiraga.

Ibiteganywa n’Amasezerano Mpuzamahanga yo mu 1948 byari byuzuye, kandi u Rwanda rwari rwarayashyizeho umukono ku wa 16 Mata 1976, rwagombaga kuyubahiriza.

Intumwa idasanzwe yemeje rero ko Abatutsi bakorerwaga Jenoside.

e) Abicanyi bari baremerewe na Guverinoma yabo kutazahanwa

Imitwe y’abicanyi y’amashyaka ya politiki yashyiragaho za bariyeri, bakagenzura indangamuntu z’abahisi n’abagenzi, bagafata Abatutsi bakabica mu maso ya bose, n’imbere y’abajandarume n’abasirikare b’u Rwanda batabibabuzaga ahubwo babibateragamo inkunga. N’abategetsi bo mu nzego z’ibanze, ababurugumesitiri n’abaperefe, bose bagize uruhare mu bwicanyi.

Kugeza kiriya gihe, abakoraga ubwicanyi kimwe n’ababikoze mbere hose, bazwi n’abaturage n’ubutegetsi, ntibigeze bahanwa, ahubwo bakomeje ubuzima bwabo busanzwe bidegembya nta nkomi.

f) Raporo yerekanye abagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

Inzego za Leta y’u Rwanda, cyane cyane abayobozi bo mu rwego rw’igihugu, nk’abaminisitiri, ingabo na jandarumori, cyane ingabo zarindaga Perezida, abaperefe n’ababurugumesitiri, bose bagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Guverinoma y’abicanyi yiyise iy’Abatabazi yagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi dore ko yashishikarije abaturage gutsemba Abatutsi.

Mu bagize uruhare mu bwicanyi, raporo inavuga Interahamwe n’Inmpuzamugambi, abayobozi b’amashyaka ya politiki b’abahezanguni (MRND na CDR) n’abashinze kimwe n’abanyamakuru ba RTLM

g) Raporo yatanze imyanzuro

Umuryango w’Abibumbye ugomba kwamagana Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda, ugashimangira ko ubwo bwicanyi bwabaye ubw’indengakamere budashobora kwihanganirwa.

Umuryango w’Abibumbye ugomba kumenyesha ababigizemo uruhare ko nibamara kumenyekana bagomba kuzakurikiranwa ku bikorwa byabo aho ariho hose bazaba bari kw’isi.

Ibihugu bizaba bicumbikiye abagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bigomba gukora ibishoboka byose kugira ngo bakurikiranwe imbere y’ubutabera.

Umuryango w’Abibumbye ugomba gushyiraho, mu gihe hatarajyaho Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga ruhoraho, urukiko rushinzwe gukurikirana ababigizemo uruhare, cyangwa se rukabihera ububasha Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga rwashyiriweho gukurikirana ibyaha by’intambara mu cyahoze ari Yougoslavia.

-  UMWANZURO

Kuva muri Mutarama 1994, General Romeo Dallaire, wayoboraga ingabo za MINUAR, ntiyahwemye gutabaza inzego z’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, avuga ko hari Jenoside yategurwaga na Guverinoma y’u Rwanda.

Ku mpamvu zitaramenyekana, inzego za ONU zagombaga gufata icyemezo cyo gukumira no guhagarika Jenoside ntacyo zakoze.

Bimwe mu bihugu by’ibihangange bifite icyicaro gihoraho mu Nama y’Umutekano ya ONU byashoboraga kubona ko hari Jenoside itegurwa bigafataho ukuri ibimenyetso byagaragazaga ko igiye gukorwa.

Ibihugu bifite icyicaro gihoraho mu Nama y’Umutekano ya ONU byari bizi, mbere y’ibyumweru bibiri itaratangira, ko Jenoside igiye gukorwa, cyane kubera amakuru adashobora gushidikanywaho yatanzwe na MINUAR, CICR na OXFAM.

Ahubwo, bimwe muri ibyo bihugu byakomeje gufata Jenoside nk’intambara hagati y’amoko, bikaba byaragize uruhare mu guhisha amateka nyayo ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi no kuba nta butabazi bwabaye.

Umuryango mpuzamahanga wanze kureba ukuri kw’ibyabaga mu Rwanda guhera ku wa 7 Mata 1994. Nyuma y’amezi atatu yose Jenoside yaratangiye, nibwo inzego za ONU zagezeho zemera ku wa 28 Kamena 1994 ko koko Abatutsi bakorerwaga Jenoside.


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