RTLM, ikivumbikisho cy’umugambi mubisha wo kurimbura Abatutsi

Yanditswe na Cyprien Niyomwungeri
Kuya 10 Mata 2020 saa 09:38
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Itangazamakuru ni intwaro ikomeye yifashishijwe n’ubutegetsi mu gucura, gutegura no gushyira mu bikorwa umugambi wa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, yishwemo inzirakarengane zisaga miliyoni mu minsi 100 gusa.

Itangazamakuru rutwitsi rya Kangura na Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines (RTLM), ryakoreshejwe nk’ikivumbikisho cya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, aho inyigisho zuzuye urwango cyane hagati ya 1990-1994, zagaburiwe bamwe mu banyarwanda batozwa kwica abaturanyi babo, inshuti n’abavandimwe.

RTLM yari ifite umwihariko wo kumvwa n’abaturage benshi cyane, byatumye ikwirakwiza ubutumwa n’ibiganiro bikangurira Abahutu kwanga no kwica Abatutsi. Ibi bikaba byarakozwe mbere ya Jenoside no mu gihe yari irimbanyije.

Amateka yerekana ko mu bintu byatumye ubwicanyi bugira imbaraga kandi bugakwirakwira vuba, harimo amagambo y’ikangura yavugirwaga kuri RTLM.

Ishingwa rya RTLM

RTLM yamenyekanye ku izina rya ‘Radiyo Rutwitsi’, yatangiye kumvikana kuva ku itariki 8 Nyakanga 1993 kugera ku itariki 31 Nyakanga 1994.

Yashinzwe na bamwe mu banyapolitiki bari bashyigikiye ubutegetsi bw’igitugu bwariho, aba bakaba baragize uruhare mu itegurwa n’ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994.

Iyi radiyo ijya gushingwa hari abari bazi icyo igamije nyacyo ariko hari n’abandi bategetswe kuguramo imigabane bemezwa ko ari iy’ubucuruzi kandi izunguka.

Urugero ni Rucagu Boniface wigeze kuvuga ko ‘bamwinjijemo bamwemeza ko ari radiyo y’ubucuruzi kandi izunguka’. Igikorwa cyo kuyitangiza cyabereye mu Urugwiro muri Perezidansi. Ibyo byatumye aba muri mirongo itanu ba mbere bayigiyemo.

Rucagu bigaragara ko yaguze umugabane umwe wa 5000Frw, nyuma y’igihe gito RTLM itangijwe yahuye na Ferdinand Nahimana (wari umuyobozi wayo), amubwira ko ‘umugambi nyawo wa RTLM, ari uguhangana no kumvisha Abatutsi n’Inkotanyi’.

RTLM ikimara gutangizwa, imikorere yayo ya buri munsi yari ishinzwe Félicien Kabuga wari Perezida wayo, Ferdinand Nahimana, Umuyobozi wayo (Directeur), Jean Bosco Barayagwiza yari yungirije umuyobozi (Directeur adjoint).

Hari Gaspard Gahigi, umuyobozi ushinzwe ibijyanye n’amakuru (Editor-in-chief), Phocas Habimana, wakoraga mu buyobozi ari n’umunyamakuru.

Abanyamakuru ba RTLM, bari Georges Ruggiu, Valerie Bemeriki, Kantano Habimana, Emmanuel Rucogoza, Emmanuel Nkomati na Noheli Hitimana.

Abanyamigabane b’ibanze ba RTLM

RTLM ni radiyo yashinzwe n’ubuyobozi bubi bugamije gucishaho icengezamatwara ryo kwanga abatutsi no gutegurira abahutu kuzatsemba abatutsi mu mugambi bwa Jenoside bwari bumaranye igihe.

Urutonde rw’abanyamigabane b’ibanze b’iyi radiyo, rwagaragajwe n’umushakashatsi ku mateka ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, Tom Ndahiro, ruriho abantu 1136, aho umugabane umwe wari amafaranga 5000 Frw.

Mu banyamigabane b’ibanze, ntawigeze arenza imigabane 100 ihwanye na 500 000 Frw, ndetse ntawagiye munsi ya 5000 Frw. Harimo kandi imiryango n’amadini nka ADEPR yaguze imigabane ibiri ya 10000 Frw.

Abanyamigabane batanze 500 000 Frw ari nayo menshi ni Kabuga Félicien, Musabe Pasteur, Ntilivamunda Alphonse, Nzirorera Joseph na Rwabukumba Séraphin. Kamana Claver yatanze 300000Frw, Col Bagosora Théoneste yatanze 250 000Frw, Mbonye Kope Gratien na Munyanganizi Donat batanga 200 000Frw.

Abatanze 100000 Frw ni 15 barimo Habyarimana Juvénal wari Perezida wa Repubulika, Ngirabatware Augustin, Sagatwa Elie na Simbikangwa Pascal n’abandi.

RTLM yashimangiye ko ari rutwitsi

RTLM itangira yahawe akabyiniriro ka ‘Radiyo Rutwitsi’, ikaba yari ifite studio n’iminara yayo mu nyubako ziri ahari Car-Free-Zone magingo aya, ndetse n’ubu imwe mu minara yayo iracyahagaragara.

RTLM yatangiye ibiganiro yigisha amacakubiri, ariko ikajya isa n’ibigira mu rwenya, gusa abantu bagenda bavumbura imigambi yayo uko abanyamakuru bayo bacishagaho inyigisho zihembera amacakubiri.

Amwe mu magambo yatambukaga kuri RTLM harimo ngo “Abatutsi mwa nyenzi mwe tuzabica”.

Mu biganiro bya Arusha abataravugaga rumwe na Habyarimana bigeze gusaba ko iyi radiyo ifungwa maze uwari umuyobozi wayo Ferdinand Nahimana, avuga ko yashyizweho kugira ngo irwanye Radiyo Muhabura yari iya FPR-Inkotanyi, ariko byabaga ari nko kuyobya uburari umugambi wari ugutegura Jenoside.

Ku itariki ya 27 Mutarama 1994, RTLM yanyujijeho ibiganiro bibi cyane bihamagarira Abahutu bose kwishyira hamwe bakarwana kugeza ku wa nyuma ngo kuko abasirikare b’Ababiligi ba MINUAR bari bafite umugambi wo gutanga igihugu bagiha Abatutsi.

Ku itariki ya 03 Mata 1994, RTLM yavuze ibeshya ko FPR yagombaga gukora akantu gatoya ikoresheje amasasu yayo na za grenade hagati ya tariki ya 3 n’iya 5 Mata 1994 ndetse no hagati y’itariki ya 7 n’iya 8 Mata 1994.

Iki kinyoma cyakwijwe na RTLM cyateje ubwoba bwinshi mu baturage bituma koko bemera ko Abatutsi bari bafite umugambi wo kwica Abahutu, bituma gahunda yo gutsemba Abatutsi yitabirwa ku buryo budasanzwe.

Tariki 22 Werurwe 1994, Georges Ruggiu, intagondwa y’umunyamakuru wakoreraga radio RTLM, yatangarije kuri iyo radio abeshya ko ‘Ababiligi bashakaga gushyiraho Leta mu Rwanda iyobowe na FPR-Inkotanyi igizwe n’amabandi n’abicanyi, ko kandi Ambasaderi w’u Bubiligi mu Rwanda yari yarateguye gukuraho ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana’.

Inkuru nk’izi z’ibinyoma zanyuzwaga kuri RTLM no kuri Radio Rwanda zari mu mugambi wa Jenoside wo kugira ngo ingabo z’Ababiligi zive mu Rwanda, bityo MINUAR ibure abasilikare bafite ibikoresho n’ubuzobere kuko ingabo z’u Bubiligi arizo zari zikomeye muri MINUAR.

Ruggiu yahamagariraga Ababiligi gukanguka no gusubira mu gihugu cyabo, akavuga ko bidakozwe bazahura n’intambara itarimo impuhwe ndetse n’urwango rukabije.

Ibijyanye n’urugamba hagati y’Inkotanyi n’ingabo z’igihugu byavugwaga kuri radiyo RTLM byabaga byuzuyemo urwango no kwambura ubumuntu abo muri RPF Inkotanyi. Ingero ni nk’aho bitaga Inkotanyi ko ari “Inyenzi, imburagasani” zifite amatwi maremare n’imirizo.

Ku wa 2 Ukuboza 1993, RTLM yatambukije ikiganiro gikangurira Abahutu bose aho bari, mu Rwanda no mu bindi bihugu, ko Umututsi ari umunyamahanga waje mu Rwanda ashaka ubwatsi bw’inka ze, ariko kubera amayeri agira, akagera aho ategeka Abahutu yahasanze. Bityo ko nibamwemerera akagaruka mu Rwanda atari ho azategeka gusa, ahubwo ko azigarurira ibiyaga bigari.

Iyi radiyo n’abanyamakuru bayo banakunze gukora icengezamatwara ryabo bifashishije indirimbo za Simoni Bikindi na we uzwiho kuba yararirimbga indirimbo zahamagariraga Abahutu kwishyira hamwe bakarwanya Abatutsi, by’umwihariko mu ndirimbo ze zirimo “Mbwirabumva” na “Nanga abahutu” n’indi yitwaga “Mbwira abumva.”

Nyuma yo guhanurwa kw’indege ya Habyarimana ku ya 6 Mata 1994, RTLM yakanguriye rubanda ko Abatutsi bigometse ari bo bakoze ayo mahano maze ihamagarira abantu icyo yitaga intambara ya nyuma yo gutsemba Abatutsi. Imvugo yasubirwagamo kenshi ni iyo “Gutema ibiti birebire”.

Umunyamakuru wayo Habimana Kantano yavugiye kuri iyi Radiyo ati “Aho bukera muri Kigali haraba akantu”.

Mu kiganiro IGIHE yagiranye n’uwari umunyamakuru wa RTLM, Bemeriki Valerie, yemeje ko yatanze ubutumwa bwo kuvuga ngo Abahutu nibice Abatutsi.

Yagize ati “Narabutanze pe! Cyane ko ari Abatutsi ari n’Inkotanyi bose twabitaga Inyenzi, twabitaga amazina abatesha agaciro kugira ngo bumve ko atari abantu.

Urabona niba uvuze ngo umuntu ni inzoka, kandi inzoka igomba kwicwa, icyo kintu twarakivuze kandi nanjye narakivuze muri icyo gihe ku buryo twaravugaga tuti ‘aho bari hose mugomba kubasangayo.”

Iraswa rya RTLM

Hari ku itariki ya 17 Mata 1994 mu masaha y’igitondo, abasirikare b’Inkotanyi bari bashinze imbunda yabo i Kagugu barashe muri studio za RTLM hakoreshejwe Katyusha. Igisasu kimwe muri bine byoherejwe, kimwe cyakubise RTLM harimo abanyamakuru Hitimana Noheli na bagenzi be babiri barimo Anania Nkurunziza.

Icyo gikorwa cyo kurasa RTLM, cyari icyo kumvisha amahanga icyo yagombaga kuba yarakoze ariko akakirengagiza, Abatutsi bakicwa.

Kuraswa kwa RTLM, byatumye icecekeshwa hafi amasaha atatu mbere y’uko itangira kuvuga ikoresheje ibyuma bya Radiyo Rwanda, kandi noneho igakorera mu modoka igenda.

Igihe abasirikare b’Abafaransa bari mu cyiswe “Opération Turquoise” iyi Radio yakoreraga ku Gisenyi. Igihe igihugu cyose cyari kimaze kujya mu maboka ya FPR, RTLM na yo yahungiye muri Repubulika iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo.

Ferdinand Nahimana wayoboraga RTLM

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