Ubuhezanguni buteye inkeke kuri YouTube n’imbuga nkoranyambaga; imwe mu miti ikwiye kuvugutwa hakibona

Yanditswe na Philbert Girinema
Kuya 14 Mata 2021 saa 12:24
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Isi yabaye nk’umudugudu biturutse ku ikoranabuhanga. Umuntu atera urwenya yibereye i Tokyo, ab’i Buzinganjwiri, New York na Mbugangari bagasekera rimwe, byose biturutse ku buryo murandasi [internet] isigaye yaroroheje guhanahana amakuru n’itumanaho. Si ibi byonyine gusa kuko n’iterambere riri kurushaho kwihuta ku buryo ibyiza dukesha murandasi ari ntagereranywa. Gusa hari n’ibibi umuntu atarenza amaso yaje izanye.

Muri ibyo bibi harimo nko kuba wa muntu uri i New York ashobora kugutuka akakwandagaza yibereye mu buriri bwe kandi bigakwira Isi nzima. Gukwiza ibihuha, gutukana, gukomeretsanya mu magambo n’ibindi, bisigaye byarorohejwe na murandasi. Ubwo simvuze ikwirakwizwa ry’amashusho y’urukozasoni mu maso y’abatarageza ku myaka n’ibindi byinshi bitari byiza.

Nubwo ibyiza dukesha murandasi ari byo byinshi kuruta ibibi, hano ndifuza ko twibanda cyane ku ngaruka Youtube, Twitter, Facebook n’izindi mbuga nkoranyambaga ziri kugira ku baturarwanda ku gipimo giteye inkeke, ku buryo hatagize igikorwa byazanagera n’aho amazi arenga inkombe, hamwe twatangira guhura n’ingaruka nyazo kandi zitagwa benshi neza.

Internet ni kimwe mu bintu benshi mu Banyarwanda babasha kugeraho mu buryo bworoshye. Muri Kamena umwaka ushize habarwaga ko ikoreshwa ryayo mu gihugu rigeze kuri 62,3%, mu gihe ari na kimwe mu bitwara amafaranga menshi nubwo abantu baba batabyitayeho.

Raporo yo mu 2020 y’Ihuriro Mpuzamahanga mu by’Itumanaho, ITU, yagaragaje ko nibura Umunyarwanda atanga 7% by’amafaranga yinjije ku mwaka agura internet. Ntabwo ari make na gato ni yo mpamvu ikoreshwa ryayo rikwiye kuba koko riciye mu mucyo, hato ikintu kidutwara amafaranga menshi tutazashiduka cyadusenyeye.

Ikibuga cy’abahezanguni

Dusubije amaso inyuma, nta munyarwanda utazi uburyo itangazamakuru rikoreshejwe nabi risenya. Amateka ashaririye y’u Rwanda twibuka ku nshuro ya 27 muri iki gihe, iyo hataza kuba ah’itangazamakuru ryabibye urwango kugeza ubwo Abatutsi barenga miliyoni bishwe, birashoboka ko kuri ubu twari kuba tuvuga indi nkuru.

Uyu munsi nta RTLM na Kangura bigihari, ariko turebye neza wabona ko bishobora kuba byarazukiye ku mbuga nkoranyambaga na YouTube mu isura benshi tutigeze tumenya cyangwa ngo tuyihe agaciro. Ubu nta kintu kinini bisaba kugira ngo umuntu ajye kuri izi mbuga akorereho ibyo ashaka, bisaba internet gusa ari nabyo bituma ubu icengezamatwara ry’imyumvire y’ubuhezanguni risigaye riri kwigarurira izi mbuga ku buryo wagira ngo ni nka RTLM yagarutse.

Ejo bundi aha, umuntu nka Padiri Nahimana yiyicariye muri apartment yishyurirwa n’abagiraneza i Le Havre mu Bufaransa, yifashishije YouTube akwiza igihuha ku Isi hose, bukeye abantu barakiyoboka, abandi bafata umwanya wo gutekereza ku byo avuze.

Uburyo izi mbuga zikoramo nabwo ntibworoshye; niba urebye amashusho kuri YouTube arimo ibintu bijyanye n’icengezamatwara rya RNC cyangwa FDLR, uru rubuga rukumenyesha n’ibindi biganiro biri muri uwo mujyo utigeze ureba mbere ku buryo ushobora kwisanga utekereza ko nta kindi kitari izo ngingo kiba kuri YouTube.

Ni ko bimeze no kuri Facebook cyangwa se Twitter, niba ukunda kureba ibijyanye n’imikino, iteka ni byo uru rubuga rukwereka, rugukusanyiriza amakuru ajyanye n’ibintu ukunda kureba ukayabona hafi. Uzajye kuri Instagram, niba ukunda kureba amashusho y’abakobwa b’ikimero, uzahora uyabona hafi buri gihe ku buryo ushobora kuzisanga wabaye imbata yayo.

Aha izi mbuga zifashisha ibyo mu ikoranabuhanga bita algorithm bibasha kugenzura ibyo buri wese akunda kureba cyangwa gusoma, bityo agahora yerekwa ibisa nabyo biba bishobora kumugwa ku nzoka mu buryo buhoraho kandi buri automatic/automatique.

Kugira ngo wumve neza ubukana buba mu mikorere ya algorithm zo ku mbuga nkoranyambaga na YouTube, reka dufate urundi rugero: Ushobora kubyuka wambaye neza warimbye, wahura n’umuntu utakwiyumvamo akakubwira ko utaberewe, wahura n’undi bafatanyije kutakwiyumvamo akakubwira atyo, nyuma byaza kurangira nawe ubwawe uri kwibaza niba koko imyambarire yawe ihwitse. No kuri YouTube cyangwa imbuga nkoranyambaga ibihabera bisa n’ibyo kuko ibyo urebye cyangwa usomyeho, ba bantu ukunda kureba cyangwa gusoma ibyo batangaza kuri konti na shene zabo, izi mbuga ziguhata ku bwinshi ibisa nabyo.

Muri iki gihe rero ibihuha n’amakuru y’ibinyoma [fake news] byafashe indi ntera, usanga niba wasuye rumwe mu mbuga zikwiza bene ibyo birangira hari n’izindi mbuga zifite ibihuha bisa nabyo zikwizanira bidahagarara.

Ibinyoma bisubiwemo kenshi, rimwe na rimwe bitananyomozwa, biba bishobora kurangira byafashwe nk’ukuri. Iyi ni imwe mu ngaruka za murandasi, cyane cyane nka YouTube n’imbuga nkoranyambaga.

Nk’umuturage w’iriya mu cyaro uruhukira kuri YouTube avuye mu murima we, igihe cyose azajya ahingura akagwa ku biganiro by’imitwe ya FLN, RNC, FDLR, Jambo News, Nahimana na ba Rukokoma ejo bundi dushobora kuzashiduka atakijya guhinga cyangwa se yumva ko ibintu byacitse, byadogereye kubera guhora yumva ingengabitekerezo za bariya bahezanguni.

Imbuga nkoranyambaga zangije benshi, bamwe bahinduka abiyahuzi

Mu Ukwakira umwaka ushize, umwarimu Samuel Paty wo mu Bufaransa yishwe akaswe umutwe n’uwari umunyeshuri. Wakeka ko wenda mu byo umwarimu yigishaga umwana harimo no gukata ijosi, ariko si ko byari biri. Uwo mutima mubi umwana yawuvanye ku mbuga nkoranyambaga mu mashusho yarebaga kuri Facebook, yinjirwamo n’imyumvire y’ubuhezanguni yo kwanga abantu batari Abayisilamu.

Omar Mateen wagabye igitero mu kabari ko mu Mujyi wa Orlando muri Amerika akica abantu 14, icengezamatwara ry’umutwe wa ISIS yaryigiye kuri internet, ntiyigeze ajya na rimwe mu bihugu by’Abarabu. Uyu munsi, Facebook ni rwo rubuga rukoreshwa cyane mu icengezamatwara rya ISIS, Hamas n’indi mitwe y’iterabwoba, niho abantu binjirizwa muri iyi mitwe bavanwa. Al Qaeda, Hezbollah, Minbar al-Tawhid wal-Jihad n’indi mitwe y’iterabwoba nayo imaze kwica abantu benshi biturutse ku icengezamatwara inyuza kuri Twitter gusa.

Kugira ngo wumve ubukana bw’izi mbuga mu icengezamatwara, uzabaze Abanya-Misiri. Iyi WhatsApp dukunda cyane yagize uruhare rukomeye mu mvururu zabaye mu 2011, cyane ahitwa Tahrir Square mu murwa mukuru wa Cairo, ni cyo kimwe n’ibyabaye muri Tunisia n’ahandi.

Ejo bundi muri Amerika ku bwa Trump, internet n’imbuga nkoranyambaga byatumye abakunzi be baba ibiharamagara, biyemeza kwinjira mu Ngoro y’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko kugira ngo baburizemo umuhango wo kwemeza ko Joe Biden ariwe Perezida watowe.

Muri make, ntabwo bigisaba ibintu byinshi ngo umuntu ahinduke intagondwa cyangwa umurakare. Ashobora kwicara mu ruganiriro iwe mu rugo, ubundi akirirwa yidudira ibyo bintu abona kuri za YouTube ejo akabyuka yabaye nk’umurwayi wo mu mutwe, umurakare, umuhezanguni n’ibindi nk’ibi.

Badushumurije imbwa iryana?

Mu Burayi na Amerika, umunsi ku wundi hashyirwaho amategeko ajyanye n’uburyo bwo guhangana n’ibihuha bishyirwa ku mbuga nkoranyambaga. Ni yo mpamvu twabonye ejo bundi aha, imbuga nkoranyambaga za Trump zose zifungwa nyuma y’aho bigaragaye ko ibyo yandikaga byagumuraga abaturage.

Mu kwezi gushize, Facebook yatangaje ko hagati ya Ukwakira na Ukuboza, yahagaritse konti miliyari 1,3 zakwirakwizaga ibihuha. Ni mu gihe yasibye ubutumwa miliyoni 12 bwavugaga amakuru atari ukuri kuri Covid-19. Gusa mu zasibwe harimo mbarwa zo muri Afurika.

Mu 2015, Twitter yasibye konti 125.000 zakwizaga amakuru ajyanye n’iterabwoba y’umutwe wa ISIS mu gihe mu mezi atandatu ya 2018, imbuga zasibwe zikwirakwiza iterabwoba zari 166.153.

Muri uyu mwaka, YouTube yasibye amashusho 30.000 yakwizaga ibihuha ku rukingo rwa Covid-19 mu gihe mu mwaka ushize hasibwe shene 2.500 zari zifitanye isano n’u Bushinwa, kuko Amerika yashinjaga iki gihugu gukwiza ibihuha ku matora ya Amerika.

Nyinshi muri izi nkonti na shene zifungwa, ziba zikoresha indimi mpuzamahanga nk’Icyongereza, Igifaransa, Icyarabu cyangwa Icyesipanyolo. Ntabwo uzabona konti ya Twitter yafunzwe yandika mu Kinyarwanda cyangwa muri izi ndimi zindi zizwi nka “langues bantoues”.

Impamvu ni uko inzobere zishinzwe kugenzura ibinyuzwa kuri izi mbuga nkoranyambaga cyangwa se za Robot zikoreshwa mu gutahura amakuru y’ibihuha, zikoresha indimi mpuzamahanga zitarimo izi zacu. Ikindi n’ingingo twe zitubangamiye kuri bo ntacyo ziba zibatwaye.

Nubwo Nahimana yakwandika mu Gifaransa cyangwa se mu Cyongereza, nta na rimwe ibyo avuga bireba u Rwanda bizahangayikisha abakozi ba Mark Zuckerberg wa Facebook cyangwa se aba Jack Dorsey wa Twitter.

Rimwe na rimwe nibwo usanga habaho kuregera izi mbuga abantu baba batangaje ibintu birimo ubuhezanguni, amashusho y’urukozasoni, gusebanya n’ibindi, kubw’amahirwe ukajya kubona bamwe bashinzwe kugenzura ibica kuri izi mbuga bagize batya barabisibye cyangwa na za konti byaciyeho bakazifunga. Gusa ntibiba kenshi.

Mu bihugu byo mu Burayi, Amerika na bimwe mu byo muri Aziya, ho usanga izi mbuga zishyira imbaraga mu byitwa “fact checking”, aho bagenzura byimbitse ibyo abazikoresha batangaza, ibihabanye n’ukuri bigasibwa cyangwa se konti byanyuzeho zigafungwa. Gusa iyi mikorere y’ubugenzuzi bw’imbitse muri Afurika ntabwo irashyirwamo imbaraga na ziriya mbuga.

Ni nk’aho izi mbuga zadushumurije imbwa ziryana zarangiza zikinumira, ku buryo hatagize igikorwa, byazarangira ingaruka zibaye umurengera.

Hakorwa iki?

Hari abajya bavuga ngo izi mbuga zikwiye gufungwa, gusa mu Isi tugezemo umwanzuro si uwo. No kuzifunga umunsi umwe gusa, ibyo twahomba byaba ari byinshi. Sosiyete nziza, yoroshye kuyoborwa, ni ifite amakuru, isobanukiwe kandi izi mbuga nkoranyambaga zigira uruhare mu kujijura abantu, bityo rero kuzifunga byaba ahubwo bisa no kwisubiza mu bujiji.

Gusa ariko ibibi byazo birasaba guhaguruka. Inshuro nyinshi, tubona mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko ya Amerika batumije Mark Zuckerberg wa Facebook, Jack Dorsey wa Twitter n’abandi, kugira ngo basobanura ingamba z’izi mbuga mu kurwanya ibihuha no gusigasira n’umutekano w’amakuru y’abantu bazikoresha.

Iyo urebye imikorere y’izi mbuga, usanga zikwiye kongera imbaraga nyinshi mu bugenzuzi bw’ibizishyirwaho muri Afurika nk’uko bikorwa ahandi, gusa kugira ngo bishoboke bizasaba imbaraga nyinshi zizahera no mu kuba zafungura ibiro kuri uyu mugabane, ku buryo zigira inzobere ziwusobanukiwe zazajya zisesengura ibyandikwa.

Ibi ntabwo byaba bigoranye kuko izi mbuga zisanzwe zigendera ku mategeko akarishye kandi arwanya ibintu byinshi bishobora kuba byagira ingaruka mbi kuri sosiyete nko gukwirakwiza ibihuha, ubuhezanguni, gusebanya, amashusho y’urukozasoni n’ibindi. Gusa aya mategeko ahanini akurikizwa mu bihugu bikize byo mu Burayi, Amerika na Aziya mu gihe Afurika isa n’aho ititaweho kandi abakoresha izi mbuga badasiba kwiyongera kuri uyu mugabane.

Urugero rworoshye, Muri Afurika y’Amajyaruguru, bibarwa ko nibura 45% by’abaturage bose bakoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga mu gihe muri Afurika y’Amajyepfo umubare w’abakoresha izi mbuga ari 41%.

Abanyafurika bakoresha indimi gakondo cyane kurusha iziri mpuzamahanga nk’Icyongereza, Igifaransa, Icyesipanyolo ku buryo kugira ngo ubugenzuzi muri Afurika bushoboke, ni uko zagira abanyafurika babasha kumva neza ibiba bivugwa, bakabasha gukora ibikwiriye ku buryo niba hari ibisibwa, bisibwa.

Nka Twitter yateye intambwe nziza, itangaza ko igiye gufungura ibiro muri Ghana, ariko nta watinya kuvuga ko yatinze urebye uburyo izi mbuga ziri guhindura ibintu.

Ba nyirazo bafashe umwanzuro wo gushyira imbaraga mu kugenzura ibizivugirwaho byakunda ariko mu gihe bitarakunda, leta za Afurika zikwiye gukora ibishoboka byose zikaganira na ba nyirazo, nka kumwe Sena ya Amerika itumiza abayobozi ba Facebook na Twitter, ni ko byagakwiye no kuri Afurika.

Uko ba nyiri izi mbuga baha umwanya u Burayi na Amerika mu kurwanya ibihuha, ni ko byari bikwiye kugenda no muri Afurika. Bakwiye gusabwa gufata abakiliya babo bose kimwe, nta kuvuga ngo Afurika turayiha ibiyihitana abandi tubagaburire ibitarimo uburozi.

Ikindi gikwiye kurebwa ni uburyo izi mbuga zishobora gusenya igihugu bitewe n’amateka yacyo. Urugero, amateka y’u Rwanda arihariye ugereranyije n’ibindi bihugu byose bya Afurika. Ni igihugu cyabayemo Jenoside ndetse kigwije abahezanguni bashaka gucamo abantu ibice, birakwiye ko ibivugirwa ku mbuga nkoranyambaga birebanwa ubushishozi mu kurinda Sosiyete nyarwanda.


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