Miliyari 11$ mu guhangana n’imihindagurikire y’ibihe: Menya ingamba zidasanzwe u Rwanda rwashyizeho

Yanditswe na Cyprien Niyomwungeri
Kuya 29 Gicurasi 2020 saa 09:18
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Mu cyumweru gishize, u Rwanda rwanditse amateka yo kuba igihugu cya mbere cya Afurika cyashyikirije Umuryango w’Abibumbye ingamba zijyanye no guhangana n’imihindagurikire y’ibihe, aho rwiyemeje byinshi birimo no kugabanya imyuka ihumanya ikirere.

Izi ngamba z’ibikorwa byo kurwanya imihindagurikire y’ibihe kugeza mu 2030, zizahindura imikorere isanzwe mu byiciro bitandukanye birimo ubuhinzi, gucukura amabuye y’agaciro, gucunga imyanda, amazi n’ibindi ku buryo imyuka ihumanya ikirere izagabanyukaho 38%, igasigara kuri 16%. Izi ngamba zizatwara miliyari 11 z’amadolari ya Amerika.

Iterambere ry’u Rwanda rishingiye ahanini ku mutungo kamere [amazi, ubutaka, n’amashyamba]. Hejuru ya bibiri bya gatatu by’abaturage b’u Rwanda bakora mu buhinzi, mu bikorwa bishyingiye ku mashyamba ndetse n’ubukerarugendo. Ubuhinzi bugize kimwe cya gatatu cy’ubukungu mbumbe (GDP) bw’u Rwanda, ndetse hafi kimwe cya kabiri cy’ingufu gikomoka ku mazi.

Gusa imihindagurikire y’ibihe yatumye ubukungu bw’u Rwanda butazamuka nk’uko byari byitezwe muri iyi myaka. Muri gahunda ya guverinoma y’imyaka irindwi (NST1), hagaragajwe ko ubuhinzi bwazahajwe n’imihindagurikire y’ibihe mu buryo bunyuranye.

Minisitiri w’Ibidukikije, Dr Mujawamariya Jeanne d’Arc, yavuze ko u Rwanda ari kimwe mu bihugu bigirwaho ingaruka n’ihindagurika ry’ikirere, aho imyuzure ishegesha ibikorwa by’ubuhinzi, igatwara ubuzima bw’abaturage ndetse igasenya n’ibikorwa remezo.

Yagize ati “Igihugu cyacu kirimo guhura n’ingaruka z’imihindagurikire y’ikirere. Mu buryo bubabaje, abaturage barenga 140 batakaje ubuzima, inzu zirenga 3000 zirasenyuka kubera imyuzure n’inkangu”.

Imvura nyinshi itera isuri, inkangu, bikagabanya umusaruro cyane mu bice by’Amajyaruguru, Uburengerazuba ndetse n’Amajyepfo, mu gihe uburasirazuba bukunze bwibasirwa n’amapfa.

U Rwanda rwashyizeho ingamba zinyuranye zigamije guhashya ndetse no guhangana n’imihindagurikire y’ibihe. Ku rwego mpuzamahanga, rwashyize umukono ku masezerano y’umuryango w’Abibumbye (UNFCCC) yerekeye kurwanya imihindagurikire y’ibihe, ndetse n’andi ashamikiyeho nka masezerano y’i Kyoto, ndetse n’ay’i Paris ajyanye no kugabanya imyuka yangiza ikirere, ndetse no kwongera imari ikoreshwa mu guhashya ingaruka z’imihindagurikire y’ibihe.

Mu gushyira mu bikorwa aya masezerano y’i Paris; u Rwanda ruherutse gushyikiriza umuryango w’abibumbye ingamba z’ibikorwa byo kurwanya imihindagurikire y’ibihe kugeza mu 2030. Izi ngamba zirimo ibice bibiri; harimo izishingiye ku guhashya imihindagurikire y’ibihe ndetse no guhangana n’ingaruka z’imihindagurikire y’ibihe.

Izi ngamba zashyizehwo hagendewe ku zindi gahunda za Leta zisanzweho, nka gahunda y’iterambere rirambye hitawe ku bidukikije izageza mu 2050, politiki y’igihugu yo kwita ku bidukikije n’imihandagurikire y’ibihe na gahunda ya Leta y’imyaka irindwi (NST1) ndetse na gahunda z’ibikorwa z’imirimo irebwa n’izi ngamba.

Ibiza bituruka ku mihindagurikire y'ibihe bikunda kwibasira ibice bitandukanye by'igihugu

Zimwe mu ngamba zizafasha u Rwanda guhangana n’imihindagurikire y’ibihe

Umuyobozi w’Ishami rishinzwe Imihindagurikire y’Ibihe n’amasezerano mpuzamahanga mu Kigo cy’igihugu cyo kubungabunga Ibidukikije (REMA), Hakuzimana Herman, yabwiye IGIHE ko ingamba zijyanye no guhangana n’ingaruka z’imihindagurikire y’ibihe ziri mu bice birindwi ari byo; ubuhinzi, amazi, ubuzima, amashyamba n’ubutaka, imiturire, ubwikorezi, n’ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro.

Mu ngamba u Rwanda rwashyikirije umuryango w’Abibumbye zijyanye no guhangana n’ingaruka ziterwa n’imihindagurikire y’ibihe mu buhinzi, hari bimwe mu bikorwa bizitabwaho bigatuma ingamba ziyemejwe zigerwaho.

Hakuzimana yagize ati "U Rwanda ruzibanda ku guteza imbere ibihingwa byihanganira izuba, guteza imbere uburyo ibihingwa bitunganywa nyuma yo gusarurwa no kwongerera agaciro ibihingwa nyuma y’isarura, kongera imbaraga mu bijyanye n’imicungire y’ibihingwa".

Yakomeje avuga ko hari ukwita ku butaka no kubucunga neza mu rwego rwo kuburinda isuri; gukoresha neza amazi ndetse no kuhira ibihingwa no gushyira ingufu mu bwishingizi bw’amatungo n’ubw’ibihingwa.

Mu bijyanye n’amazi, hazibandwa ku kongera amazi akoreshwa hagendewe mu kubungabunga ibishanga, ndetse no gukoresha amazi mu buryo butayasesagura, gushyira ingufu mu kugenzura ubuziranenge bw’amazi no gushyiraho uburyo bwo kurinda amasooko y’amazi.

Mu myaka 10 iri imbere u Rwanda rwiyemeje guteza imbere uburyo bwo kuvanga ibiti n’imyaka, gutera amashyamba, no gufatana neza ayatewe
no kongera ingufu mu micungire y’amashyamba

Mu bijyanye n’ubutaka, hazashyirwaho igenamigambi (ibishushanyo mbonera by’imikoreshereze y’ubutaka) ndetse no gukurikirana imicungire y’ubutaka mu buryo burambye hanashyirweho ikoranabuhanga rifasha kugenzura imikoreshereze y’ubutaka.

Imiturire yo mu kajagari izagabanywa ndetse hakurikizwe igishushanyo mbonera hirindwa imiturire idatunganye, hanashyirwe imbaraga mu buryo bwo gufata amazi mu ngo.

Hakuzimana yavuze ko mu bwikorezi hazashyirwa imbaraga mu ikoresha ry’ubwikorezi rusange no mu kubaka ibikorwa remezo nk’imihanda yihanganira ingaruka z’imihindagurikire y’ibihe n’ibindi.

Ubusanzwe ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro bukenera ingufu, n’amazi. Mu rwego rwo kwirinda imyuka yangiza ikirere, ndetse n’ikoreshwa nabi ry’amazi, hazatezwa imbere ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro burengera ibidukikije kandi burwanya imihindagurikire y’ibihe.

Mu guteza imbere ubu bucukuzi; hazitabwa cyane, ku gukoresha ingufu zisubiranya ndetse no gucunga neza amazi akoreshwa.

Kuvugurura ubuhinzi hitabwa ku gukora amaterasi y'indanganire bizitabwaho mu myaka 10 iri imbere

Ingamba zijyanye no guhashya imihindagurikire y’ibihe

Ikigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe kubungabunga ibidukikije (REMA), kigaragaza ko ingamba zijyanye no guhashya imihindagurikire y’ibihe ziri mu bice by’imirimo bine; ari byo ingufu, imikorere y’inganda n’imikoresherezwe y’ibikorerwamo, ubuhinzi n’ubworozi ndetse n’Imicungire y’imyanda.

Mu bijyanye n’ingufu, u Rwanda rwiyemeje kongera amashanyarazi, kugabanya ingufu zituruka ku bikomoka kuri Peteroli no gukoresha ingufu zikomoka ku mirasire y’izuba ku mihanda ndetse n’ahahurira abantu benshi.

Gukoresha mu buryo bwiza ingufu zikoreshwa mu nganda hibandwa ku kugabanya ingufu zikomoka ku nkwi mu nganda zitunganya icyayi ndetse n’ikawa, gukuraho gutwikwa kw’amatafari hifashishijwe uburyo busanzwe bwa clamp kiln, busaba cyane inkwi no kugabanya ikoreshwa ry’ibikomoka kuri peteroli mu bucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro, hakaba kakoreshwa ingufu zisubira.

Ubwikorezi mu isura nshya

Leta y’u Rwanda yiyemeje kugenzura uko ibinyabiziga byohereza imyuka ihumanya ikirere hashingiwe ku bipimo fatizo, gushyira ingufu mu bwikorezi rusange, cyane cyane imodoka zitwara abagenzi zigaharirwa imihanda yazo mu rwego rwo kurinda ubukererwe bw’abagenzi n’umuvundo w’imodoka (Bus Rapid Transit).

Hari kandi gushyiraho imihanda yagenewe ibinyabiziga bitagira moteri (non-motorized transport lane), gukoresha ibinyabiziga bikoreshwa n’amashanyarazi.

Gukoresha mu nyubako amatara akoresha ingufu amashanyarazi make, gukoresha amashyiga azigama ibicanwa, ikoreshwa ry’ingufu zikomoka ku mirasire y’izuba mu ngo, kongera ikoreshwa ry’ingufu za biogas mu ngo no kuhira imyaka hifashishijwe ingufu zikomoka ku mirasire y’izuba.

Mu bindi bizitabwaho harimo gucunga neza imyanda ikomeye (Solid waste), gutunganya amazi mabi aba yakoreshejwe, guteza imbere imikoreshereze y’ubutaka n’amazi n’ubworozi.

U Rwanda rwiyemeje kugabanya ingufu zikomoka kuri Peteroli hagashyirwa imbaraga mu zituruka ku mirasire y'izuba n'amashanyarazi

Uko izi ngamba zizashyirwa mu bikorwa

U Rwanda rukeneye ingengo y’imari ingana na miliyari 11 z’amadolari kugira ngo izi ngamba zo guhashya imihindagurikire y’ibihe zishyirwe mu bikorwa.

Ibikorwa bijyanye no guhashya imihindagurkire y’ibihe bizatwara Miliyari 5.7, mu gihe ibijyanye no guhangana n’ingaruka bizatwara Miliyali 5.3 z’amadolari.

Hashyizweho kandi uburyo bwo gukurikirana ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’izi ngamba ndetse n’uburyo ibigo bya Leta bitandukanye bizakora mu kuzishyira mu bikorwa.

Izi ngamba ziteganya ko mu mwaka 2030, imyuka itera ubwiyongere bw’ubushyuhe ku isi izagabanukaho 38% ugereranyije n’uko ibintu byagombye kuba bimeze u Rwanda rukomeje gukora ibikorwa mu buryo busanzwe.

Izi ngamba kandi zizagira ingaruka nziza ku iterambere rirambye ry’Igihugu, nko kongera umusaruro w’ibikomoka ku bihingwa, ndetse n’amatungo, kugabanya ikigero cy’ubukene, guteza imbere ubwikorezi, kongera ingufu, kubyaza umusaruro imyanda, kugabanya itumizwa ry’ibikomoka kuri peteroli n’ibindi.

Hazatezwa imbere ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro burengera ibidukikije kandi burwanya imihindagurikire y’ibihe

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