Intandaro y’ubwoba n’uburakari bw’u Rwanda ubwo Gabon yivanaga muri OCAM rwari ruyoboye

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 24 Mutarama 2020 saa 09:13
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Imyaka ya 1974 kugeza mu 1978, ni imyaka yagoye cyane Leta ya Juvénal Habyarimana cyane cyane mu bijyanye no kugarura umwuka n’umubano mwiza mu muryango wa OCAM u Rwanda rwari rwahawe kuyobora.

Ni umuryango Gabon yitaga ko wenda gupfa, mu gihe Habyarimana, Perezida wa Sénégal, Sédar Senghor n’abandi bake babonaga ko ari wo zingiro ry’ukwishyira hamwe kwa Afurika.

OCAM ni umuryango watangiye mu 1965, uzima mu 1985. Waje usimbuye undi witwaga Union Africaine et Malgache (UAM) washibutse mu kwishyira hamwe kw’ibihugu byahoze bikolonijwe n’u Bufaransa.

U Rwanda rwinjiranye na Zaire muri OCAM mu 1965, umuryango ufite intego zo gufatanye mu by’ubukungu, imibereho myiza y’abaturage, guhanahana ibijyanye n’umuco n’ibindi.

Bimwe mu byo u Rwanda rwawungukiyemo ukiriho ni igice kimwe cya Village Urugwiro cyubatswe ubwo rwiteguraga kwakira inama yawo y’abakuru b’ibihugu, kuba umunyarwanda Ambasaderi Ismail Amri Sued yarabaye umunyamabanga Mukuru wawo no kuba mu Rwanda ariho hari ikigo cya OCAM gishamikiye ku Burayi cyari gishinzwe amahugurwa by’ibarurishamibare mu bukungu.

Ibibazo muri uyu muryango byatangiye mu myaka ya 1972 ariko bikomera cyane mu 1974 ubwo byatangazwaga ko Perezida Habyarimana ari we ugiye gusimbura Senghor ku buyobozi bw’uwo muryango.

Ku ikubitiro, ibihugu nka Zaire byavuyemo mu 1972, Congo Brazzaville ikurikiraho mu 1973 naho Cameroun, Tchad na Madagascar bivamo mu 1974.

Umuryango wahoranye abanyamuryango 16, wasigaye urwariza ku banyamuryango 12 nabo abenshi bashya kandi badafite imbaraga nyinshi dore ko ibihugu byinshi byari bikomeye byari bimaze kuvamo.

U Rwanda rwatorewe i Bangui, Gabon ihavana umujinya

Kuva tariki 10 kugeza 12 Kanama 1974, i Bangui muri Centrafrique habareye inama ya munani y’abakuru b’ibihugu bya OCAM.

Muri OCAM, ibihugu byari bisigaye bikomeye byari Sénégal na Côte d’Ivoire ari nabyo byafataga ahanini imyanzuro ikomeye, ibindi bikabigenderaho.

Ibyo bigaragazwa n’uko muri iyo nama ya munani, Perezida Senghor wari ucyuye igihe ku buyobozi bwa OCAM yatanze imyanzuro y’amavugurura yagombaga gutuma OCAM ikomeza kubaho, ibihugu hafi ya byose biyemeza uko yakabaye.

Muri iyo nama, ubwo Senghor yahabwaga umwanya ngo avuge ijambo rizosa manda ye, yavuze ko Umujyi wa Bangui ukwiriye kuba icyicaro gikuru cya OCAM, kikavanwa i Yaounde muri Cameroun.

Yavuze ko Maj Gen Juvenal Habyarimana ari we ukwiriye uba Perezida wa OCAM, Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa OCAM akava mu birwa bya Maurice, naho inama y’abakuru b’ibihugu bya OCAM ikajya iba buri myaka ibiri aho kuba buri mwaka.

Amwe mu mashami ya OCAM yahawe ibyicaro bishya, Gabon ntiyashyirwamo na kimwe icyakora hemezwa ko umuyobozi mukuru w’ikigo gishinzwe umutekano w’indege, (ASECNA) ava muri Gabon.

Perezida Habyarimana yahawe inkoni yo kuyobora OCAM, inama itaha ishyirwa muri Nyakanga 1976, ikabera i Kigali mu Rwanda.

Inyandiko z’icyo gihe za Ambasade ya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika i Bangui nk’uko zashyizwe hanze na Wikileaks, zivuga ko Omar Bongo wayoboraga Gabon yagaragaye mu nama ababaye ndetse ngo ari mu bakuru b’ibihugu batashye inama ikirangira i Bangui.

Ibihugu nka Gabon, Bénin, Niger, Togo na Burkina Faso nabyo byatahanye umujinya ndetse biri mu byakekwaga ko bishobora kwivana muri OCAM kuko byafataga Sénégal na Côte d’Ivoire nk’ibishaka kwigira abategetsi b’umuryango kubera ko imyanzuro yose ariho yafatirwaga.

Ikindi cyababazaga bimwe muri ibyo bihugu, ni umubano wihariye wagaragaraga hagati y’u Bufaransa na Sénégal ndetse na Côte d’Ivoire.

Abandi bakuru b’ibihugu bari baje mu nama baraye i Bangui ngo bifatanye na Centrafrique kwizihiza umunsi w’ubwigenge kuwa 13 Kanama ariko abayobozi b’ibyo bihugu bitishimye bahise bitahira.

Byakomeje guhwihwiswa ko Gabon ishobora kubanziriza ibindi bihugu kuva muri OCAM ariko biranga kugeza muri Nzeri 1976, ubwo hari hasigaye amezi abiri ngo inama y’uwo muryango ibere i Kigali.

Perezida wa Sénégal, Sédar Senghor na Habyarimana ubwo bari mu Bufaransa

U Rwanda rwatunguwe no kumva mu binyamakuru ko Inama y’abaminisitiri ya Gabon yateranye tariki 7 Nzeri 1976, yatangaje ko icyo gihugu cyivanye muri OCAM gusa ikaguma mu mashami n’imishinga imwe n’imwe y’uwo muryango.

Byari inkuru mbi kuri uwo muryango wari umaze iminsi ucumbagira, bigakubitiraho ko Gabon yari kimwe mu bihugu bitanga umusanzu utubutse muri OCAM kandi ikaba kimwe mu bihugu byatangiranye nawo.

Impamvu zatanzwe binyuze mu binyamakuru byo muri Gabon, ni uko Bongo yashakaga gushyira imbaraga mu muryango w’ibihugu bya Afurika (OUA) yari abereye Visi Perezida anateganyijwe kuwuyobora guhera mu 1977.

Gabon kandi yabonaga OCAM nk’umuryango ushaje utajyanye n’icyerecyezo cya Afurika, ukigendera ku bitekerezo bya gikoloni byasizwe n’u Bufaransa.

Ikinyamakuru Union cyo muri Gabon cyanditse ko n’ubundi OCAM wari umuryango “wapfuye’ guhera mu 1972 ubwo ibihugu bine byawuvagamo, ko ‘nta mpamvu yo gukomeza gutuma usamba’. Cyakomeje kivuga ko Gabon “itazakomeza kuba ‘inka ikamirwa’ OCAM.

Ubwo yari mu Bufaransa muri uwo mwaka, Perezida Omar Bongo na we yavuze ko OCAM “yirangije kera yo ubwayo, kuko nta cyo ikimaze”.

Kumenya amakuru yo kwivana kwa Gabon muri OCAM hasigaye gusa amezi abiri ngo inama ibe, byababaje u Rwanda.

Inyandiko z’icyo gihe za ambasade ya Amerika i Kigali zigira ziti “u Rwanda rwarakajwe n’amakuru yo kwivana kwa Gabon muri OCAM rukabimenyera mu binyamakuru. U Rwanda rwari ruyoboye umuryango, rwahise rutangaza ko rugiye kugirana ibiganiro n’ibindi bihugu hakarebwa ingaruka uko kwivana mu muryango bizawugiraho.”

Ku ikubitiro, inama y’abakuru b’ibihugu bigize OCAM yagombaga kuba mu Ugushyingo mu 1976, yahise yigizwa inyuma, u Rwanda rushyiraho itsinda ryagombaga kujya i Libreville kwinginga Gabon ngo yisubireho ku cyemezo yafashe.

Amerika yatangaje ko u Rwanda rwasigaranye ubwoba bw’uko kugenda kwa Gabon gushobora gusenya OCAM burundu, bikagaragaza intege nke z’uwo muryango, ugapfira mu maboko ya Perezida Habyarimana wari uwuyoboye.

Tariki 30 Nzeri 1976, Habyarimana yagiye i Libreville. Ibyaranze ibiganiro bye na Perezida Omar Bongo harimo icyemezo cya Gabon cyo kwitandukanya na OCAM.

Baraganiriye birangira nta mwanzuro ufashwe, bemeranya kutemeranya kuri iyo ngingo ariko umubano w’ibihugu byombi ugakomeza. Uwo munsi hanasinywe amasezerano ane ajyanye n’ubufatanye bw’u Rwanda na Gabon.

Ku mugoroba Bongo amaze kwakira ku meza Habyarimana, yafashe ijambo, avuga ko mu byatumye bavamo harimo kuba OCAM itarahisemo Libreville nk’icyicaro gikuru cyayo.

Habyarimana yirinze kuvuga ku ngaruka zo kugenda kwa Gabon, gusa atangaza ko yubaha icyemezo cya Gabon cyo kwivana mu muryango, ariko agaragaza ko ababajwe no kuba umwe mu banyamuryango ba kera abavuyemo.

Mu bindi byavuzwe ko byavanye Gabon muri OCAM, harimo guteza imbere sosiyete yayo y’indege, Air Gabon igatandukana na Air Afrique yari ishamikiye kuri OCAM kandi isa n’iri gutera imbere cyane.

Kuva muri Nzeri 1976 kugeza mu Ugushyingo, abakuru b’ibihugu bya OCAM bane bari bamaze gusura Gabon ngo barebe ko yakwisubiraho ariko biba iby’ubusa.
Kubera ibibazo byakomeje kuzurungutana mu buyobozi bwa OCAM, imyaka ibiri u Rwanda rwagombaga kuyobora uwo muryango yavuyemo itanu.

Urugendo rwa OCAM rwarangiye mu 1985 usenyutse burundu kuko wasaga nk’umuryango utakijyanye n’igihe kandi ukomeje gutereranwa n’ibihugu byinshi ari nako havukaga imiryango mishya ihuza uturere.

Indi nenge ivugwa kuri OCAM, ni uko yari igizwe n’ibihugu bitatanye ku buryo ibyinshi byabonaga nta nyungu z’ako kanya zibihuza, bigahitamo kujya mu miryango ya hafi kandi ifite ingufu.

Mu 1987 ubwo Perezida Habyarimana (iburyo) yari kumwe na Omar Bongo wa Gabon na Mobutu Sese Seko wa Zaire
Omar Bongo ubwo yaganiraga na Jean-Bédel Bokassa wa Centrafrique mu nama ihuza Afurika n'u Bufaransa yabereye i Kigali mu 1979
Aha hari mu 1966 i Antananarivo muri Madagascar ubwo habaga inama ya OCAM

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