Imyaka 20 ishize isize ishema ryo kwitwa Abanyarwanda

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Dr Sébastien Gasana

Kuya 11 Nyakanga 2014 saa 08:21
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Imyaka 20 irashize Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi i Rwanda ihagaritswe n’Ingabo z’Inkotanyi ndetse n’u Rwanda rukabohorwa. Muri Jenoside na nyuma yaho, kuri benshi, kwitwa Umunyarwanda byasaga n’ibiteye isoni n’ikimwaro kuko, ku batazi neza u Rwanda, kuba Umunyarwanda byari nko kuba umwicanyi cyangwa se kuba umwe mu banyagihugu barangwa n’ubwicanyi. Isura y’u Rwanda n’Abanyarwanda, muri rusange, yari yasizwe amaraso n’abajenosideri.
Nyuma y’ihagarikwa rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, mu Rwanda no hanze (...)

Imyaka 20 irashize Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi i Rwanda ihagaritswe n’Ingabo z’Inkotanyi ndetse n’u Rwanda rukabohorwa. Muri Jenoside na nyuma yaho, kuri benshi, kwitwa Umunyarwanda byasaga n’ibiteye isoni n’ikimwaro kuko, ku batazi neza u Rwanda, kuba Umunyarwanda byari nko kuba umwicanyi cyangwa se kuba umwe mu banyagihugu barangwa n’ubwicanyi. Isura y’u Rwanda n’Abanyarwanda, muri rusange, yari yasizwe amaraso n’abajenosideri.

Nyuma y’ihagarikwa rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, mu Rwanda no hanze yarwo hari benshi batabonaga cyangwa batemeraga ko Abanyarwanda bagira ubushobozi bwo kwikura mu mahano ya Jenoside ndetse n’ingaruka ziteye ubwoba zayikurikiye (kandi zakomeje ku buryo bunyuranye). Ubu, ku buryo bufite aho bushingiye hanyuranye kandi hafatika, dushobora guhamya ko nyuma y’imyaka 20 igihugu cyibohowe noneho abantu benshi bagomba kuba bamaze kubona no kwemera bidasubirwaho ko u Rwanda rutarangwa n’abajenosideri gusa, ahubwo rufite n’abandi bantu benshi b’intwari kandi bafite ubuhanga, ubushobozi n’ubushishozi bidasanzwe.

Kuva aho Jenoside ihagarikiwe, n’ubwo bwose ibibazo bishingiye ku mutekano mucye byakomeje guterwa n’abajenosideri banyuranye bari henshi ku mbibi z’u Rwanda cyangwa se no mu gihugu imbere, Leta y’ubumwe yagiyeho ntiyatinze kwerekana ko ubutegetsi bwari bugiyeho bwari butandukanye n’ubwariho mbere no mu gihe cya Jenoside (ari nabwo bwayiteguye kandi bukayishyira mu bikorwa).

Muri icyo gihe cya nyuma ya Jenoside, bitewe n’ibibazo bitagira ingano kandi bikarishye cyane byari mu Rwanda, hari benshi mu bantu banyuranye babonaga ko u Rwanda nta mahirwe na macye rwari rufite yo kuzabasha kubikemura ngo rwongere rube igihugu gitekanye, kigendwa kandi gifite ijambo mu ruhando rw’amahanga! Uko ibintu byagiye bikurikirana mu gukemurwa, kuva muw’i 1994 kugeza ubu, ntawe utabibona cyangwa se ngo abyumve.

Magingo aya, ari abanyamahanga cyangwa se Abanyarwanda batekerezaga ko u Rwanda rwari rwasenyutse ku buryo budasubirwaho kandi butari bugifite igaruriro barabibona ko ibyo bibwiraga bitabaye, ndetse umuntu akaba atatinya no kuvuga ko bitakinashoboka na gato ko u Rwanda rwazima burundu.

U Rwanda, nk’igihugu, ubu rurakomeye ku buryo butajegajega kandi buzaramba kuko ibikorwa byose n’ibyubakwa birubakirwa ku musingi uhamye. Ingero zibyerekana ni nyinshi, ariko reka, muri aka kanya, twerekane ibimenyetso bike bishimangira ibyo dushaka kuvuga.

Muri rusange, kugira ngo igihugu gihungabane cyangwa kibure umutekano bishobora guterwa n’impamvu zinyuranye, ariko umuntu akaba yavuga ko ziri mu bice nka bibiri: hari izishobora guturuka mu gihugu imbere, hari n’izishobora guturuka hanze. Kandi rero, ku buryo bufatika, izo mpamvu z’ibice byombi zishobora no guhurirana, cyangwa iz’uruhande rumwe (mu gihe zigaragaje) zigahita zikurura iz’ikindi gice.

Mu yandi magambo, ibibazo biturutse mu gihugu imbere bishobora guhita bitera umutekano mucye n’imidugararo, cyangwa ibikomotse hanze bigahura n’ibyari mu gihugu imbere (ari ibyari bihasanzwe ku buryo bwihishe cyangwa bugaragara n’ibindi bishya byavuka) bityo byose bigatera ihungabana ry’umutekano.

Kuba twateruye tuvuga ko ubu Abanyarwanda benshi (wenda si ijana ku ijana, ariko byaba hafi aho) batewe ishema kandi bishimiye kuba ari Abanyarwanda ni uko, urebye imbere mu gihugu no hanze yacyo, usanga nta mpamvu nyakuri zifatika zihari zatuma u Rwanda rwongera kugwa mu mahano y’ubwicanyi na Jenoside (biboneka ko ahanini urwitwazo rwari “ubwoko”, nk’uko abakoloni babwemeje, bukanashimangirwa na repubulika ya Mbere n’iya Kabiri z’u Rwanda) nk’ayo rwanyuzemo mu myaka yashize (1959-1994).

Nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, ibyo kuvuga ngo ubwoko bw’Umunyarwanda ni umuhutu, umututsi cyangwa umutwa ntacyo bikivuze, nta n’icyo bimaze (dore ko bitakinandikwa mu ndangamuntu cyangwa ngo bibe no mu zindi nyandiko z’ubutegetsi izo arizo zose). Ibyo rero bivuze ko ntawe ushobora kwitwaza “ubwoko” bwe (hutu, tutsi, twa) ngo ahabwe ibyo atari akwiye cyangwa ngo abivutswe kubera “ubwoko” bwe.

Uterwa ibyishimo no kwitwa umuhutu, umututsi cyangwa umutwa namubwira iki, ariko amenye ko ibyo ntaho azabirisha muri uru Rwanda rw’ubu turimo kuko ruhuza Abanyarwanda bose nk’abana b’igihugu kimwe kandi rukabaha uburenganzira n’amahirwe amwe, aho kubatanya nk’uko byahoze mbere. Ubumwe n’ubwiyunge, nyuma y’ amahano atavugwa twanyuzemo, nta kindi bigamije uretse kongera guhuza no kubumbira hamwe abana b’u Rwanda bose no kubarinda amacakubiri n’umwiryane.

Ubu nta Munyarwanda uhejwe mu gihugu cye; niyo yaba yaragiye mu buhungiro arahamagarirwa gutaha mu rwamubyaye nta nkomyi. Ibi rero biratuma umutekano urushaho gusagamba. Uwashaka kuwuhungabanya nawe (aho yaba aturutse hose), Ingabo z’u Rwanda (zitavangura nk’uko byari bemeze muri Leta za mbere ya Jenoside) zizamurwanya nk’uko zitahwemye kubyerekana kandi zifatanije n’abaturage kuko aribo zikorera.

Ubutegetsi buri mu Rwanda guhera nyuma ya Jenoside buha, ku buryo bugaragara, uruhare abaturage mu miyoborere kuko uretse kwegerezwa abayobozi n’inzego z’ubuyobozi, abaturage nabo bashobora kujya mu nzego z’ubuyobozi zinyuranye binyuze mu matora. Ikindi kandi uwitwaye nabi mu nzego z’ubuyobozi abaturage ntibatinya kwerekana amakosa ye, bityo akabibazwa n’ababishinzwe.

Nta Munyarwanda ugitinya kuvuga icyo atekereza, ari ibigenda neza, cyangwa ibyaba bitagenda neza kugira ngo bikosorwe. Imvugo yarangaga abategetsi bo hambere ngo “ntabwo wankura ku mwanya w’ubutegetsi ndimo kuko atari wowe wawunshyizeho” zisa n’izirimo kwibagirana.

Ibyagaruriye Abanyarwanda ishema n’agaciro, nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 n’ibohorwa ry’igihugu ni byinshi umuntu yavuga, ariko reka tube duhiniye kuri iyi ngingo ya nyuma (ngo “kuyavuga si ukuyamara”) tuvuga kubyerekeye iterambere. Ntawe uyobewe ko mu gihe cya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, uretse abantu barenga miliyoni bishwe urw’agashinyaguro n’ibintu binyuranye byasenyutse ndetse n’ibindi bikadindira.

Muri iki gihe ugeze mu Rwanda wese abona ko mu myaka 20 gusa ishize igihugu cyakomeje kwisana kandi kigikomeje gukataza mu kwiyubaka no kwiteza imbere mu nzego zinyuranye. Ibikorwa remezo biriyongera ubutitsa (imihanda, amavuriro, amashuri, amazu, ibikorwa by’itumanaho,…) kandi bikagera mu nzego zose z’ubuzima bw’igihugu (ubuhinzi n’ubworozi, uburezi, ubuvuzi, ubutegetsi bw’igihugu, imibereho y’abaturage, ubukungu, ubutabera, etc.).

Ibikorwa byiza byose u Rwanda rukora kandi byigaragaza ntitwatinya kuvuga ko, urebeye imbere mu gihugu, bifite umusingi ukomeye cyane kuko Abanyarwanda bose, ku buryo bunyuranye, babifitemo uruhare. Ibyo rero bigatanga icyizere ko bazakomeza no kubibumbatira kuko ari ibyabo kandi bibafitiye akamaro, muri rusange, kuko ntawe utabibonamo inyungu.

Ku rundi ruhande, uhereye hanze y’igihugu, u Rwanda rubanye neza n’andi mahanga, uhereye ku baturanyi ( ndetse bamwe bakaba bahuriye n’u Rwanda mu yindi miryango migari) kandi, igihe cyose byaba bibaye ngombwa, Abanyarwanda bashyize hamwe bakaba biteguye neza kurwana ku busugire bw’igihugu cyabo. Ingabo z’u Rwanda (RDF) ntizihwema kwerekana ubutwari n’ubushobozi zifite, ndetse n’aho zitabaye hose zigaragaza ubwo butwari kandi zigatahukana ishema.

Mu magambo macye rero twakwanzura tuvuga ko mbere cyangwa mu bihe bya Jenoside n’ibohorwa ry’igihugu, Abanyarwanda, muri rusange, bari bafite byinshi bibatera ipfunwe ryo kwitwa Abanyarwanda, kubera amarorerwa yakorerwaga mu gihugu cyabo. Nyuma y’imyaka 20 gusa Jenoside ihagaritswe kandi u Rwanda rukabohorwa, kubera ubuyobozi bw’igihugu buriho kandi butandukanye n’ubwa mbere, ibintu birimo birahinduka ku buryo bwongereye cyane Abanyarwanda agaciro kandi bukabatera ishema. Ubu twahamya ko Abanyarwanda b’umutima, aho baherereye hose, mu gihugu cyangwa hanze yacyo, bafite cyane ishema ryo kuba ari Abanyarwanda.

Dr Sébastien Gasana, Umwarimu muri INATEK

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