Imbuga nkoranyambaga si ikibazo, uko bamwe bazikoresha ni cyo kibazo

Yanditswe na Remy Maurice Ufitinema
Kuya 11 Gashyantare 2019 saa 11:35
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Ku wa 3 Gashyantare 2019 nakurikiye ikiganiro Urubuga rw’Itangazamakuru cyatambutse kuri Radio icumi zo mu Rwanda icyarimwe, cyibanda ku ikoreshwa ry’imbuga nkoranyambaga. Abatumirwa muri iki kiganiro bari Urwego rw’Igihugu rw’Ubugenzacyaha (RIB), Urwego Ngenzuramikorere (RURA) n’Urwego rw’Abanyamakuru Bigenzura (RMC).

Icyo kiganiro cyagarutse ahanini ku bibazo bisigaye bigaragara mu ikoreshwa ry’imbuga nkoranyambaga n’ingamba zo guhangana nabyo.

Umwe mu bahamagaye batanga ibitekerezo muri iki kiganiro yagize ati “Ikibazo si imbuga nkoranyambaga ahubwo ikibazo kiri mu buryo abantu bazikoresha” . Nanjye ndemeranya n’iki gitekerezo mu buryo bukurikira.

Inyungu ziri mu ikoreshwa ry’Imbuga nkoranyambaga

Ikwirakwira ry’imbuga nkoranyambaga n’ikoreshwa ryazo rirarushaho kuzamuka haba mu Rwanda ndetse n’ahandi ku isi. Ubushakashatsi ku bipimo by’iterambere ry’itangazamakuru mu Rwanda bwakozwe mu 2018 (Rwanda Media Barometer 2018) bwerekanye ko mu bantu babajijwe, 18% bakoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga mu gushaka amakuru. Uwo mubare wari 9.4% mu bushakashatsi nk’ubwo mu 2013.

Muri icyo cyiciro cy’abakoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga hanabayeho kureba izikoreshwa cyane, maze ubushakashatsi bugaragaza ko habayeho kuzamuka kw’ikoreshwa rya WhatsApp mu buryo bukomeye riva kuri 14% mu 2013 rigera kuri 65.5% muri 2016. Facebook, Twitter na Youtube nazo ni inbuga nkoranyambaga zikoreshwa cyane mu Rwanda.

Iri zamuka mu ikoreshwa ry’imbuga nkoranyambaga narihuza n’ikwirakwira ry’ikoranabuhanga rishingiye kuri interineti. Imibare y’urwego ngenzuramikorere yo mu gihembwe cya gatatu cya 2018 igaragaza ko 47.7% (5.634.047) by’Abanyarwanda bagerwaho na interineti.

Ntawashidikanya ko ikoreshwa ry’imbuga nkoranyambaga riri mu bifite uruhare mu gutuma amakuru agera ku bantu mu buryo bwihuse. Ni na yo mpamvu usanga inzego zitari nke zifashisha izi mbuga mu gutanga amakuru n’amatangazo ku bikorwa bijyanye n’inshingano zabyo.

Ku mbuga nkoranyambaga abanyarwanda bakuraho amakuru y’iteganyagihe, amakuru abafasha kwirinda no kurwanya indwara runaka, amakuru abafasha kumenya ibiciro ku masoko, amakuru abafasha kumenya uko igihugu gihagaze n’ibindi.

Ku birebana no gusakaza amakuru ho imbuga nkoranyambaga zashyize igitutu gikomeye ku bitangazamakuru bisanzwe kuko zo ni uburyo bwihuse kandi buhendutse bwo gusakaza amakuru kandi n’abayashaka bakayabona bitabahenze. Amakuru ashyushye y’ako kanya (breaking news) akenshi atangazwa n’imbuga nkoranyambaga hamwe ugasanga ni zo zibaye isoko y’amakuru ku bitangazamakuru bisanzwe.

Imbogamizi zihari

Nubwo imbuga nkoranyambaga zimaze gufata umwanya ukomeye mu buzima bwacu, hagenda hagaragara ibibazo bikeneye kwitabwaho mu ikoreshwa ryazo kugira ngo zirusheho kutubera isoko y’ibyiza.

Nk’uko natangiye mbivuga “Ikibazo si imbuga nkoranyambaga ahubwo ikibazo kiri mu buryo abantu bazikoresha”. Urebye imikoreshereze y’imbuga nkoranyambaga muri iki gihe usangamo ibibazo bishingiye ku buryo abantu bazikoresha cyangwa bazikuraho amakuru.

Kubiba urwango n’amacakubiri: Hari abashaka kubiba urwango mu bantu bakifashisha imbuga nkoranyambaga kuko usanga biboroheye kujya kuri izo mbuga bakandikaho cyangwa bagashyiraho amajwi n’amashusho bigamije kubiba urwango n’amacakubiri. Iki ni ikibazo usanga ku isi yose aho bamwe bakoresha izi mbuga mu kubiba urwango rushingiye ku myemerere, amoko, politiki…

Gukwirakwiza ibihuha: Si rimwe cyangwa si kabiri twabonye imbuga nkoranyambaga zikwirakwizwaho amakuru yitirirwa inzego nyuma zigasohora amatangazo agaragaza ko ibyakwirakwijwe ari ibihuha. Ingero za vuba zirimo amatangazo ajyanye n’ibiciro by’ingendo, ibigo bishaka abakozi cyangwa imishinga ije gutanga inkunga.

Gutangaza amakuru hatitawe ku mahame abigenga: Nk’uko byanavuzwe mu kiganiro nakomojeho, usanga umuntu yanyuze ahabereye nk’impanuka agafata amafoto y’inkomere agashyira ku mbuga nkoranyambaga atitaye ku kuntu ateye ubwoba.

Si ibyo gusa, hari umuntu ubyuka yasanga yibwe agahita afata ifoto y’uwo akeka wamwibye cyangwa se ifoto y’indangamuntu ye akabishyira ku mbuga nkoranyambaga, akavuga ati uyu muntu ni umujura yantwaye amafaranga, umubona amufate. Ni mu gihe amakuru ajyanye n’umuntu ushakishwa ubundi atangwa n’inzego z’umutekano.

Kwiyoberanya: Ku mbuga nkoranyambaga rimwe na rimwe hagaragaraho abantu bakoresha amazina y’abandi bagamije gukora ibikorwa bibi. Abakora ibi usanga harimo ababa bashaka kuyobya uburari ku bikorwa bibi bagambiriye birimo nk’ubwambuzi, gutangaza ibihuha cyangwa se kubiba urwango n’amacakubiri.

Bimwe muri ibi ni ibyaha bihanwa n’amategeko. Nubwo ukoze icyaha aba yabihaniwe, hari ababa bagizweho ingaruka n’uwakoresheje imbuga nkoranyambaga. Hari umuntu ushobora guhungabanywa n’amafoto y’inkomere, cyane ko hari n’ushobora gufungura ya mafoto atabizi akagwa nko ku ifoto y’uwe wakomerekeye muri iyo mpanuka. Hari n’ushobora kubura imitungo ye bitewe n’igihuha cyangwa ubushukanyi bwakorewe ku mbuga nkoranyambaga abantu biyitiriye abandi cyangwa ibigo.

Nubwo imbuga nkoranyambaga zirimo izo mbogamizi, inyungu njye mbona zizanira umuryango w’abantu ziruta cyane imbogamizi ziteza. Kandi nk’uko na none byavuzwe n’umwe mu bari mu kiganiro “imbuga nkoranyambaga zizabaho ibihe n’ibihe”.

Igisubizo ni ukumenya kubana na zo, kuzikoresha no kuzibyaza umusaruro mu buryo budateza ibibazo. Ibyo bizagerwaho mu gihe habayeho gahunda yo guhugura abaturage ku ikoreshwa ry’imbuga nkoranyambaga no kumenya gusesengura amakuru zitanga (digital media literacy).

Umuturage akeneye kumenya ngo ‘ni gute natandukanya igihuha n’inkuru y’ukuri mu zitambutswa ku mbuga nkoranyambaga, ni irihe tandukaniro riri mu bitangazwa ku mbuga nkoranyambaga n’ibyo tubona mu bitangazamakuru bisanzwe, ese mbonye ikibazo runaka ku mbuga nkoranyambaga nakigeza kuri inde, ni ibiki nkwiriye gusangiza abandi no kwirinda...’

Ibi usanga ari umuti wava mu bufatanye bw’inzego zose: Leta, Abikorera na Sosiyete Sivili. Unakurikije umuvuduko izi mbuga zizamukaho usanga ari ikintu gikwiye kwitabwaho cyane.

Hakwiye kandi gukorwa ubushakashatsi cyangwa isesengura ryimbitse ku miterere y’ikibazo cy’abakoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga nabi, hakamenyekana niba ingamba zihari haba mu buryo bw’amategeko na politiki zihagije. Ubwo bushakashatsi ni nabwo bwatanga icyerekezo nyacyo ku bukangurambaga bwakorwa.

Hagati aho ariko abakoresha izi mbuga ni twe tugomba gufata iya mbere twirinda kuzikoresha nabi kandi tunirinda ko ibikorwa by’abazikoresheje nabi bitugiraho ingaruka. Mbere yo gushyira ikintu kuri izi mbuga ni ukwibaza neza inyungu gifitiye abo tugisangiza ndetse niba nta ngaruka cyabagiraho.

Dushobora kwirinda ko hari ibihuha bizishyirwaho bikatugiraho ingaruka. Ni ukugenzura aho amakuru twahawe avuye ndetse byaba ngombwa tukagira abo twizeye cyangwa inzego tubaza amakuru y’ukuri. Na none kandi ibyo tubonyeho tuzi ko ari ibihuha cyangwa tubona bigendereye imigambi, mibi tugomba kubyamagana.

Tuzirikanye ihame rikomeye ry’imibanire y’abantu rigira riti “Ntuzakorere mugenzi wawe icyo utifuza ko yagukorera”, byaturinda kuzikoresha nabi.

Ufitinema Remy Maurice yabaye umunyamakuru kuri RBA igihe kinini

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