Umugambi wapfubye mu 1978 wo kohereza Abanyarwanda muri Tanzania na Gabon kubera ubwiyongere bw’abaturage

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 3 Werurwe 2020 saa 08:55
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Guhera u Rwanda rutangiye kubarwa nk’igihugu nyuma y’ubwigenge, ubuyobozi bwose bwagiyeho bwagowe no guhangana n’ikibazo cy’ubwiyongere bukabije bw’abaturage, baberanye na kilometero kare 26338 rwahawe n’abakoloni mu nama y’i Berlin mu 1885.

Mu myaka ya 1970 nibwo iki kibazo cyagaragaye cyane, ndetse icyo gihe ibihugu bikomeye n’imiryango mpuzamahanga bigira inama u Rwanda ko mu gihe nta gikozwe, bizarangira runaniwe kwita ku baturage barwo.

Muri iyo myaka Kiliziya Gatolika yasaga n’iyashinze imizi haba mu buzima bw’iyobokamana n’ubwa Politiki mu Rwanda, ntiyemeraga uburyo bwo kuboneza urubyaro butari ubwa kamere ari nayo myemerere yayo kugeza ubu, mu gihe ubushakashatsi bwagaragazaga ko ubwo buryo butafatwa nk’ubwahangana n’ikibazo nyamukuru igihugu cyari gifite.

Mu 1978, u Rwanda rwabarirwaga abaturage miliyoni 4.8 utabariyemo impunzi zari mu mahanga. Hakurikijwe ubutaka buri mu gihugu bukoreshwa, Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zarushyiraga mu bihugu bituwe cyane dore ko kilometero kare icyo gihe yabarirwaga abaturage basaga 400.

Guhera mu 1975, imyaka ibiri Habyarimana afashe ubutegetsi, ikibazo cy’ubwiyongere bukabije bw’abaturage cyari kimaze gufata indi ntera. Ibyo byakubitiyeho ko umuryango nyarwanda wari ukibaswe n’imyumvire gakondo y’uko kubyara abana benshi, ari umugisha, bikaba amaboko n’ubukungu.

Hiyongeragaho ko benshi mu baturage ari abayoboke ba Kiliziya Gatolika itarakozwaga ibyo kuboneza urubyaro.

Habyarimana wari umuyoboke Gatolika anakorana nayo bya hafi kugeza no mu miyoborere, muri Nzeri 1977 yatumije uwari intumwa ya Papa mu Rwanda, Rotunno ngo baganire ku buryo igihugu cyatangiza gahunda yo kuboneza urubyaro ariko bitabangamiye imyemerere Gatolika.

Inyandiko z’ibanga za Ambasade ya Amerika mu Rwanda icyo gihe, zigaragaza ko Rotunno yemeye ko ubwiyongere bw’abaturage buri mu Rwanda bukwiriye gushakirwa umuti mu maguru mashya. Mu nama yagiriye Habyarimana harimo gukoresha uburyo bwa kamere mu guhangana n’icyo kibazo.

Banki y’isi mu 1977 yamenyesheje u Rwanda ko kugira ngo rugire ubushobozi bwo guhaza abaturage biyongera rufite ari uko umusaruro w’ubuhinzi wiyongera ku kigero cya 3 % buri mwaka.

Kimwe mu byo Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zashinjaga u Rwanda nka nyirabayazana w’ubwiyongere bukabije bw’abaturage, ni ukugendera ku bitekerezo bya Kiliziya Gatolika byo kuboneza urubyaro mu buryo bwa kamere.

Mu 1978, mu Rwanda habaye inama yiga ku kuboneza urubyaro, imiryango mpuzamahanga nka Pathfinder International yiyemeza gutanga ubufasha.

Icyo gihe hagaragajwe ko mu guhangana n’ikibazo cy’ubwiyongere bw’abaturage mu Rwanda, kuboneza urubyaro ari cyo gisubizo gishoboka hagakoreshwa uburyo bwose bwaba gakondo n’ubwa kizungu kandi abaturage bakabwegerezwa ari nako basobanurirwa imikorere yabwo.

Mu biro bya Perezida hashyizweho itsinda ryihariye ryita ku gukurikirana ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya gahunda yo kuboneza urubyaro, ari nabyo byaje kurangira mu 1981 hashinzwe Ofisi y’Igihugu yita ku Mibereho y’Abaturage, ONAPO, yari ishinzwe ibyo kuboneza urubyaro.

Gutuza abanyarwanda mu mahanga, umushinga wapfubye

Mu nama zitandukanye Leta y’u Rwanda icyo gihe yagiye igirwa, harimo gushaka uburyo bamwe mu baturage bakimurwa bakajya gutuzwa mu mahanga, mu bihugu byabemera.

Iyi nama yahuje akanama ka Leta kagizwe n’inzobere zitandukanye mu by’ubuzima n’imibereho myiza, ku matariki 18 na 19 Mata 1978 hemejwe ko Guverinoma ishyira imbaraga mu kuganira n’ibihugu byifuza gutuza Abanyarwanda, bikagabanya igitutu cyari kuri Leta cy’ubwiyongere bw’abaturage.

Intumwa za Minisiteri y’Ububanyi n’Amahanga zamenyesheje ako kanama ko Tanzania yari yemeye kwakira no gutuza abanyarwanda bari hagati ya 400 000 na 1 000 000, bakabatuza ahantu hihariye.

Muri uko kwezi, uwari Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga, Aloys Nsekalije yari yabwiye abanyamakuru ko u Rwanda ruzishimira kohereza abo banyarwanda muri Tanzania ariko bigakorwa mu buryo budahubukiwe kandi abagiye koherezwa bakabanza gutegurwa.

Ntibyatinze, tariki 11 Gicurasi 1978, Perezida Julius Nyerere yagiriye uruzinduko rw’iminsi itatu mu Rwanda. Inyandiko z’ibanga za Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zahishuwe na WikiLeaks, zigaragaza ko yemereye u Rwanda kwakira abaturage barwo, bagatuzwa mu bice byo mu Burengerazuba bwa Tanzania bitari bituwe.

Agiye guhaguruka asubira muri Tanzania, Nyerere yagize ati “Twiteguye no kwakira abanyarwanda 500 000 icya rimwe kuko dufite ahantu hanini hadatuwe. Abazaza bazashyirwa mu midugudu izwi nka Ujamaa nkuko abandi Banyatanzaniya bameze.”

Uyu mushinga waheze mu mpapuro kuko nubwo u Rwanda na Tanzania byari byawemeranyijeho, ikiguzi cyose cyo gutuza abo baturage cyari kuri Leta y’u Rwanda.

Inyandiko z’ibanga za Amerika zerekana ko u Rwanda rwabigenzemo gahoro cyane, dore ko amikoro yo kubatuza yasaga nk’aho ari menshi ahubwo rushyira imbaraga muri gahunda zo kuboneza urubyaro.

Mbere yo kuganira na Tanzania, Habyarimana yari yaciye undi muvuno wo kumvikana na Gabon abanyarwanda bamwe cyane cyane abafite ubumenyi runaka, bakajyanwa gutuzwa muri icyo gihugu cyari cyugarijwe n’ubuke bw’abakozi mu nzego nyinshi cyane cyane iza Leta.

Tariki 30 Nzeri 1976 Perezida Habyarimana yagiriye uruzinduko muri Gabon, we na Perezida Omar Bongo basinya amasezerano ane y’ubufatanye arimo ayo kohereza abanyarwanda muri Gabon bakagenda nk’abakozi.

Byari byitezwe ko nyuma y’isinywa ry’ayo masezerano, impande zombi zizashyiraho Komisiyo ihuriweho ishinzwe kuyashyira mu bikorwa.

Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zigaragaza ko uwo mushinga nawo waje gupfuba kuko Gabon yagiye igaragaza ubushake buke mu kuwushyira mu bikorwa, cyane ko byari biyoroheye kubona abandi banyamahanga batayihenze kandi ba hafi no guteza imbere uburezi imbere mu gihugu kugira ngo ibone abaturage bayo bafite ubumenyi bukenewe.

U Rwanda rwakomeje guhangana n’ubwiyongere bw’abaturage hakoreshejwe kuboneza urubyaro ariko umusaruro bitanga ukaba muke.

Mu 1966, abaturarwanda bageraga kuri miliyoni eshatu, bagenda bazamuka aho mu 1988 rwari rutuwe n’abaturage miliyoni esheshatu, mu gihe mu mwaka wa 2018 rwari rutuwe n’abasaga miliyoni 12.

Ibimenyetso byerekana ko bazakomeza kwiyongera ku buryo mu 2032 bazaba bageze kuri miliyoni 16.9 mu gihe baba biyongereye cyane, cyangwa miliyoni 15.4 baramutse baboneje urubyaro.

Ikigo gishinzwe Ibarurishamibare kigaragaza ko bazaba barikubye gatatu mu 2050 urebeye ku bwiyongere bariho bwa 2.6% ku mwaka.

Abanyarwanda bari bagiye koherezwa gutuzwa mu mahanga, umushinga uza guhagarara
Nyerere yari yemereye Habyarimana gufata Abanyarwanda basaga ibihumbi 500 bakajya gutuzwa mu mashyamba yo mu Burengerazuba bwa Tanzania

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