Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa: Uburyo yabaye umusingi ukomeye w’uburezi, agatanga inzozi ze zidasohoye

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 25 Nyakanga 2020 saa 07:19
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Imyaka 61 irashize umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa atangiye i Bujumbura mu buryo bw’amayobera. Ni umwami wimye ingoma mu 1931 nta munyarwanda umwiyumvamo, kuko bamufataga nk’umugambanyi wanyaze ingoma se ku nyungu z’abazungu.

Abazungu bakomeje kumuzenguruka bamukoresha ariko mu myaka ya 1940 aza kubona ko inzira arimo atari nziza, atangira kubigobotora akora ibiri mu nyungu z’abaturage.

Inyandiko zitandukanye zerekana ko byageze mu 1948 abanyarwanda benshi batangiye kwiyumva muri Mutara III Rudahigwa. Uretse guharanira ko imirimo y’ahagato, uburetwa n’ibindi bicika, Umwami Mutara yakundirwaga imbaraga yashyize mu iterambere ry’uburezi mu Rwanda nubwo byinshi mu bitekerezo byiza yari afite yatanze atarabigeraho.

Umwami Rudahigwa yatanze amaze umwaka atangije ikigega cyo kurihira abana b’abanyarwanda bashaka gukomeza kaminuza mu mahanga, ikigega cyiswe ‘Fond Mutara’.

Ni nyuma y’ingendo zitandukanye yari amaze kugirira mu mahanga, akabona ko iterambere u Rwanda rwifuza rizagerwaho binyuze mu guha abana barwo ubumenyi kandi bugezweho bujyanye n’ibyo igihugu gikeneye.

Nubwo amashuri yari amaze kubakwa ku bwinshi n’abakoloni b’ababiligi bafatanyije n’abihayimana cyane cyane Kiliziya Gatolika, ayo mashuri yibandaga ku bumenyi bw’iyobokamana andi ashingiye ku kwigisha abazafasha abakoloni gukomeza ubuyobozi bwabo. Niho Mutara yavanye igitekerezo cyo gushaka uko hashyirwaho andi mashuri azafasha mu kugera ku nzozi igihugu cyari gifite.

Ingendo zo mu mahanga zamuhumuye amaso

Inzobere ku muco n’amateka, Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu yavuze ko mu mwaka wa 1948, ubwo intumwa za Loni zasuraga u Rwanda, Ababiligi bari bazi ko umwami azabarega kuri izo ntumwa. Rudahigwa yabyumvise nk’ejo arabizibukira, ahubwo avuga ko yishimiye imitegekere y’Ababiligi, ndetse abwira n’abatware kutabavuga nabi. Ubwo rero raporo izo ntumwa zajyanye yagiye ivuga neza Ababiligi.

Ati “Iyo politiki umwami yakoze yatumye Ababiligi bamuhemba kugenderera igihugu cyabo mu wa 1949. Ubwo Rudahigwa yari akubutse mu Bubiligi yaganiriye n’abakoroni b’Ababiligi abahata ibibazo bijyanye n’impamvu ki badateza imbere uburezi kandi iwabo bumeze neza, ndetse urwitwazo rwabo mu gukoroniza Afurika harimo no guteza imbere uburezi bwaho.”

“Mu mwaka wa 1950, Ababiligi batangiye kwikubita agashyi bamera nk’abakangutse, maze si ugushinga amashuri biva inyuma. Niyo mpamvu muzasanga amashuri yisumbuye menshi yashinzwe mu bihe by’ubukoloni yaravutse nyuma y’uwo mwaka.”

Nk’uko biri muri Kinyamateka N° 200, 1949, nyuma y’uruzinduko rwa Rudahigwa bimwe mu byavuyemo ni uguteza imbere uburezi ahereye ku mashuri y’imyuga.

Umwami Mutara yavuze ko Abanyarwanda bakwiriye gushishikarira umurimo kandi bakawukora neza uko bikwiriye.

Ati “Kugira ngo igihugu cyacu kijye imbere tugomba gukora. Ibyo ndabibabwira kandi sinzareka kubivuga. Si ugukora imirimo myinshi gusa, ariko cyane cyane ni ukurushaho kuyikora neza. Tugomba kumenya neza ko igihe dusabwe gukora umurimo ushyira igihugu imbere cyangwa uwo duhemberwa, tuba duhawe no kuwukora neza. Kutita ku murimo ukora ngo ugeregeze kuwukora neza, nta majyambere bigira.”

Kubera iterambere umwami Rudahigwa yari ashyize imbere, byatumye mu nzinduko zakurikiyeho yarakomeje gushaka ubushuti n’amashuri yo hanze y’u Rwanda, ndetse n’abarimu bayigishamo.

Uburezi ni ikibazo cyakundaga kuganirwa kenshi mu nama nkuru y’igihugu yafatwaga nk’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko y’umwami.

Yakomeje kujya mu bihugu bitandukanye, kenshi aho agiye akahava asuye amashuri, ariko uruzinduko rwamuteye ishyaka ryo gushyira imbere uburezi cyane ni urwo yakoreye mu Bubiligi muri Kamena mu 1958.

Mu gihe yamaze i Burayi muri uwo mwaka, yakoresheje ibishoboka byose ngo abone uburyo urubyiruko rw’abanyarwanda rwajya gukomereza amashuri mu Burayi.

Icyo gihe yahuye na Prof Malengreau wari umwarimu muri Université Catholique de Louvain. Yamugaragarije ko yifuza kubaka Kaminuza mu Rwanda nubwo abakoloni batabishakaga. Umwami kandi yahuye anaganira n’abarimu batandukanye ba siporo muri Kaminuza kuko yifuzaga gutangiza i Nyanza Kaminuza yigisha siporo, ndetse avuye mu ruzinduko yatangiye imyiteguro.

Ubwo yari avuye muri urwo ruzinduko, nibwo yatangije ikigega cyamwitiriwe, Fond Mutara.

Inzobere mu mateka Innocent Nizeyimana yavuze ko ubusanzwe kugera muri za 1958, nta mwana w’umunyarwanda wari warigeze abona buruse yo kujya kwiga i Burayi cyangwa ahandi muri kaminuza.

Umwami Mutara amaze gushyiraho ikigega, bamwe batangiye koherezwa kwiga hanze.

Ati “Nta munyarwanda wari warigeze yiga kurenza ku rwego rw’amashuri yisumbuye. Kuko buruse zatangwaga n’abazungu, yatekereje ikigega kizajya cyishyurira abana b’abanyarwanda bakiga ku rwego rwa kaminuza, boherejwe kwiga mu mahanga.”

Nizeyimana yavuze ko uretse ikigega, Umwami Mutara yanagiye afasha ababaga barangije amashuri yisumbuye kubona akazi.

Ati “Abana barangije kwiga bafite amanota meza bagerageje kumugeraho yageragezaga kubashakira akazi atitaye ko ari abahutu cyangwa abatutsi. N’abana bishyurirwaga na Fond Mutara ntabwo yarebaga ko ari abahutu cyangwa abatutsi.”

Rudahigwa mu rugamba n’Ababiligi

Kubera ibitekerezo by’ubwigenge no gushaka gukora ibituma rubanda rumuyoboka, igihugu kigatera imbere, ntabwo abakoloni b’ababiligi bakunze umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa.

Nizeyimana avuga ko ahanini byatewe nuko bamubonaga nk’ufite amatwara ya gikomuniste (communistes), ahabanye n’ayo abanyaburayi bagenderagaho.

Ibyo ubwabyo byatumye banga uruzundiko yari yateganyije kugirira muri Tanzania kuko hari harimo guhura na Mwalimu Julius Nyerere wari ku isonga ry’umutwe Tanganyika African National Union washakaga ubwigenge bwa Tanganyika kandi ugendera ku matwara ya gikomuniste.

Uretse ibyo bya politiki, abakoloni basaga nk’abamupinga cyangwa se abakerensa ibitekerezo bye, iyo byabaga bigeze ku burezi.

Nizeyimana avuga ko hari ishuri ryitwa Collège International du Saint Esprit i Bujumbura, yari yatekereje mbere ndetse atangira imyiteguro yo kurishinga i Kabgayi ariko abakoloni barabyanze, nyuma bamwiba igitekerezo barishinga i Bujumbura.

Ati “Ingamba zose yakoraga zishobora kumugaragaza nk’ukunzwe n’abaturage no kubateza imbere barazirwanyaga. Iryo shuri yashatse n’abapadiri bo kuriyobora arishakira aho kuryubaka i Nyanza, barabyamagana birangira umushinga bawumwibye bawujyana i Bujumbura.”

Hari ibikorwa byinshi Rudahigwa yagiye ashyiramo imbaraga ngo abanyarwanda bajijuke birimo nk’Ishuri ry’Abayisilamu ku Ntwari ry’i Nyamirambo, Amashuri y’abalayiki (Ecoles Laïques), Ishuri ry’Abenemutara ry’i Kanyanza n’ibindi.

Nyuma yo gutanga, bimwe mu bikorwa byatangijwe n’Umwami Mutara byarasenyutse ibindi byitirirwa abandi. Nk’ikigega cyamwitiriwe cyafashaga abagiye kwiga mu mahanga cyavuyeho, umushinga wo kubaka Kaminuza y’u Rwanda ukomezwa n’abari bamaze guhirika ubwami.

Ku bwa Rudahigwa abana benshi boherejwe mu mashuri. Mu mwaka wa 1959, mu bashefu 48 bari mu gihugu, 18 bari barize muri Astrida, abandi barize mu ishuri ry’abakoloni rya Nyanza no mu yandi mashuri.

Ahagana mu 1950 nibwo hatangiye gushingwa ku bwinshi amashuri yisumbuye, menshi agamije kwigisha abarimu bo kwigisha mu mashuri abanza, naho abakobwa batangira gushyirirwaho amashuri y’ubuforomo n’ububyaza ndetse n’ayagenewe kubigisha imirimo yo mu rugo yitwaga ‘écoles menagères’.

Kugeza mu 1953, abamisiyoneri bari bamaze kubaka mu Rwanda amashuri abanza 338, arimo abanyeshuri 22,645 n’abarimu 553.

Ubwo u Rwanda rwabonaga ubwigenge, mu mashuri abanza higagamo abanyeshuri 250,000.

Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa yakoze ibishoboka byose ngo mu Rwanda haboneke amashuri ahagije (Igishushanyo: Kalima Alain)
Rudahigwa mu 1938
Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa mu Ugushyingo 1958
Umwami Rudahigwa ari kumwe n'abapadiri na Gashugi Justin wari mu nama Nkuru y’Igihugu, akaba na shefu wa Buhanga - Ndara (uwambaye ikote)
Rudahigwa yerekwa inyambo mu myaka ya 1950
Umubiligi na Rudahigwa mu birori
Umunsi Rudahigwa ashyingurwa
Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa
Umwami Rudahigwa arimo gusoma igitabo mu ngoro ye i Nyanza
Umwami Rudahigwa n'umwamikazi mu ngoro yabo i Nyanza

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