Amafoto mpangano y’abami batwaye u Rwanda imyaka 870 n’abagabekazi babo

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 1 Kamena 2020 saa 09:59
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Hashize imyaka 929 (1091-2020) u Rwanda rubaye igihugu gihamye gituwe na bene Kanyarwanda. Amateka y’igihugu cyacu muri iki kinyagihumbi gishize ni maremare bitavugwa, dore ko rwayobowe n’abami 28 bafatanyije n’abagabekazi 27 kuva mu 1091 kugera mu 1961 mu gihe cy’akaga kiswe ’revolisiyo’, ubwo ingoma ya cyami yasimburwaga na Repubulika.

Hifashishijwe ibisigo by’Abasizi bisingiza Abami n’ingoma zabo ndetse n’Abacurabwenge bari abarinzi b’amateka n’intekerezo z’igihugu, hiyongereyeho n’Abiru bari abanyamabanga n’abagaragu b’ingoma, hakusanyijwe amateka y’u Rwanda kuva mu ntango yarwo ubwo Gihanga I Ngomijana yashyiragaho imfatiro z’igihugu kugera ubwo Ingoma cya cyami yasimburwaga na Repubulika.

Mu bakoreye mu ngata Gihanga I Ngomijana harimo ubuvivi bwe Ndoba watwaye u Rwanda ahasaga mu wa 1213 kugera 1246 arangwa n’ibitekerezo bihanitse mu bumenyi mu by’ibidukikije, inyamaswa n’urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima. Muri make Ndoba yari afite ubuhanga karemano muri siyansi, dore ko ari nawe dukesha ibirangamuryango nko kuba Abasinga barangwa na Sakabaka, Abashambo bakarangwa n’Intare, Abenengwe bakarangwa n’Ingwe mu gihe Abega barangwa n’Ibikeri, byose ni we tubikesha.

Hari kandi na Ruganzu Bwimba watwaye u Rwanda kuva mu 1312 kugera mu 1345 wabaye imbimbuzi mu ndwanyi zaranze amateka y’u Rwanda mu guhirimbanira ubuhangange bw’igihugu. Niwe wagabye igitero cya mbere atera Gisaka yashakaga gusibanganya u Rwanda we arayitanga arayitera. Ni we dukesha kurwanira ishyaka igihugu, cyane cyane mu guhangana n’abagomera umurage wa Gihanga w’igihugu gisangiwe.

Nta n’uwarenza ingohe Cyilima Rugwe, watwaye u Rwanda kuva mu 1345 kugera mu 1378, umutekerereza w’ubutabera bwunga mu mateka y’u Rwanda. Ni we washyizeho Inkiko z’Umuryango, iz’Abunzi n’iza Gacaca agena n’uko ibihano bizajya bitangwa ku bagomye. Yashakaga ko u Rwanda ruba igihugu kizira icyaha, abyubakira ku guhana igihango nk’uburyo bwo gukumira icyaha kitaraba.

Nta n’uwakwibagirwa Ruganzu II Ndoli, watwaye u Rwanda kuva mu 1510 kugera mu 1543 wari indwanyi karundura, wadukanye amatwara yo guhangana n’amahanga adakunda u Rwanda akayagusha ruhabo, akarwagura kurusha abandi bami bose dore ko yarwometseho ibihugu icyenda.

Hari inzobere kandi muri dipolomasi Mutara Semugeshi, watwaye u Rwanda mu 1543 kugera mu 1576, ni we mwami dukesha politiki ya mbere y’ububanyi n’amahanga, yubatse kandi imiyoborere ihamye mu kwegereza ubuyobozi abaturage aho yashyizeho inzego zisaga 75 nk’Intebe y’Abasizi, Abatware b’Ubutaka, Abatware b’Inyambo, Intebe y’Abahaditsi (abavuzi b’amatungo - vétérinaire), Intebe y’Abahoryo (Agronome), Intebe y’Abamotsi (abari bashinzwe itangazamakuru ry’ibwami) n’izindi.

Ni we washyizeho uburyo bw’imisimburanire y’Abami ku ngoma bijyanye n’inshingano zabo nk’aho Umwami Mutara yabaga ashinzwe kwagura ubworozi bw’inka yakurikirwaga na Kigeli wari umwami w’intambara, Mibambwe wari ushinzwe uburumbuke, Yuhi wari umwami usigasira amahoro bityo bityo.

Ntitwakwibagirwa n’abandi nka Cyilima Rujugira (1675 – 1708), wadukanye intero y’u Rwanda rutera rudaterwa, Yuhi Gahindiro (1746-1802) wazanye gahunda z’ubugiraneza nka Girinka na Kigeli Rwabugili (1859-1895) wacecekesheje ibihugu byashakaga kwiyomora ku Rwanda.

Mu mateka y’Isi n’ibihangange byayibayemo nk’Abami b’u Rwanda, benshi baburiwe irengero, amasura yabo aribagirana kuko nta buryo bwariho bwo gufata amafoto no kuyashyingura ariko ibikorwa byabo bikaba bikibukwa kuko basize imusozi amavugwa y’ibikorwa bihanitse.

Umushakashatsi ku mateka y’u Rwanda, Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu, yahereye aho maze akusanya ibitekerezo by’ubuzima bwaranze aba bakurambere, yifashisha abahanga mu gushushanya bahanga amafoto y’abami b’u Rwanda, cyane umwami wa mbere wafotowe yari Kigeli Rwabugili mu 1894, abandi bamubanjirije ntawe uzi neza uko basaga.

Aya mafoto mpangano y’Abami b’u Rwanda n’Abagabekazi babo, yakozwe n’umunyabugeni Mugisha Paul wize ku Nyundo, yashyizwe hanze bwa mbere mu gitabo ‘‘Intwari z’Imbanza, zubatse u Rwanda rugahamya igitinyiro” cyasohotse muri Gicurasi 2018.

Uko ubumenyi n’ikoranabuhanga bigenda bikwira ku Isi yose rero, abahanga bagiye bitabaza inyurabwenge maze bakazimbura amasura y’abo bantu babayeho mu myaka ibihumbi kugira ngo bajye bayifashisha mu kubavuga ibigwi no kubagiraho icyitegererezo, ariko batari za baringa cyangwa umuntu udashobora kubonwa.

Ni muri urwo rwego hariho amafoto ya Yesu, Mariya, Yozefu, intumwa za Yesu 12, Musa wavanye Abayisiraheli mu Misiri n’abandi.

Nsanzabera avuga ko ‘‘Abo bagize ibikorwa bakora ku Isi n’ubu bikiri intangarirwa, kandi amafoto yabo mpangano akaba yaramamaye mu buryo buhanitse ndetse ntashidikanyweho ko aribo koko.’’

Nk’abakoze ishusho ya Yezu, icyo bakoze ni ukureba ku bikorwa bye, amateka yamuranze n’imyitwarire ye ku Isi, barema amafoto mpangano ye kugira ngo buri wese ajye abasha kumubona mu buryo bugenekereje.

Mu gushushanya amafoto mpangano agenekereje y’abami b’u Rwanda, hagendewe ku bushakashatsi bushingiye ku bikorwa byabaranze, uruhererekane-mvugo rw’ibyabaye ku ngoma zabo, imishyingiranire y’umuryango w’abami b’u Rwanda n’indi miryango migari y’Abanyarwanda, igenantekerezo (Philosophie) n’imyitwarire yaranze Abami b’u Rwanda ndetse n’ikigero cy’imyaka y’ubukure mu iyimikwa ryabo.

Nsanzabera ati “Ese niba umwami runaka yarakoze ibikorwa bikomeye mu kubaka u Rwanda, aho ntiyasaga atya? Iyo ni imwe mu ngingo yitaweho cyane mu kugenekereza amafoto y’abami b’u Rwanda. Kuko kenshi imirimo y’umuntu isa n’isura ye, ikanahamya umutima wamuranze mu bihe byose.’’

Aya mafoto mpangano yanashingiye ku kigero cy’ubukure cy’abami n’abagabekazi. Hari aho atandukanye mu kigero cy’ubukure bitewe n’uko hari abagiye bimikwa bafite imyaka ibiri, abari abasore b’ibihame, abahawe ingoma bakiri ingimbi n’abayihawe bakuze cyane.

Ni nako byagenze ku Bagabekazi kuko hari abagiye bapfakara bakiri bato, umwami agatanga, bakiri ibirongore, abandi ugasanga bari bakiri abagore b’amariza n’ibindi.

Intego ya Nsanzabera ni uko ababyifuza bakoresha amafoto mpangano mu nyandiko na filime zirebana n’amateka y’u Rwanda mu kwerekana amashusho y’abami n’abagabekazi. Aya mafoto ni uburiza bw’andi yaranze u Rwanda mu bihe bitandukanye, azasohoka mu bindi bitabo.

Iyi foto ya Kanjogera ni iya nyayo ntabwo ari iyahanzwe n'abageni
Aha Musinga yafotowe akiri umusore w'intarumikwa
Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa yatwaye u Rwanda kuva ku wa 26 Ugushyingo 1931 kugera ku wa 27 Nyakanga 1959. Ni umwami wa 27 w'u Rwanda. Iyi ni ifoto ye ya nyayo ntabwo ari iyashushanyijwe

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