Isenyuka ry’ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda ubwo umukoloni yakandagiraga mu Rwanda

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 26 Ugushyingo 2020 saa 06:42
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Ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda ni imwe mu ngingo zimaze igihe zivugwaho mu buryo butandukanye ariko zose zigahuriza ku kuba abanyarwanda barigeze kugira ubumwe, n’ubwo uburyo ubwo bumwe bwaje gusenyuka ari ingingo ikivugwaho bitandukanye.

Gusenyuka k’ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda byasize icyasha n’igikomere gikomeye mu mateka y’u Rwanda ku buryo nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, Guverinoma nshya yihaye intego yo kugarura ubwo bumwe ndetse bijya no mu nyito.

Ibyasenye ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda mu gihe cy’ubukoloni

Inzobere zitandukanye mu mateka zigaragaza ko ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda bwatangiye gusenyuka ubwo abakoloni bageraga ku gihugu mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 19.

Muri Gicurasi 1998 muri Village Urugwiro mu mujyi wa Kigali hatangijwe ibiganiro byari bigamije kureba uko u Rwanda ruzabaho nyuma ya Jenoside. Ku murongo w’ibyigwa, hari hariho ikibazo cy’Ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda, kumenya uko bwasenyutse n’icyakorwa ngo bwongere kubakwa.

Icyo gihe abitabiriye iyo nama bo mu ngeri zose, basubiye mu mateka bibukiranya bimwe mubyo bazi byaba byaratumye abanyarwanda bashwana kugeza kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Ubusumbane

Abitabiriye inama zo mu Rugwiro, basanze ubwo abakoloni bageraga mu Rwanda, baratangiye gucamo abanyarwanda ibice. Batangiye kwigisha ko abatutsi atari abanyafurika nk’abandi, ko bo baturuka ahandi hantu kandi ko aribo bashoboye gutegeka, muri make barenze abandi banyarwanda, ko bavukiye gutegeka.Abakoloni bavuze ko abahutu bafite ubwenge buciriritse, ko bavukiye gukora imirimo y’amaboko no gutegekwa.

Umwami Musinga ni umwe mu bamaganye cyane uburyo abakoloni bari batangiye gucamo abanyarwanda ibice, bamucira ishyanga agwa hanze y'igihugu

Abitabiriye inama zo mu Rugwiro basanze ibyo abakoloni bakoze byari mu mitegekere bari basize iwabo. Baje bavuye i Burayi aho inyigisho zishingiye ku moko zari zarashinze imizi. Bafashe ibyarangaga ibyiciro by’imibereho y’abanyarwanda babihindura amoko. Ibyiciro by’Ubuhutu, Ubututsi n’Ubutwa byarangaga umukene, umukire n’umutindi babihindura amoko agomba guhangana.

Raporo y’ibyavugiwe mu Rugwiro ivuga ko ibyo abakoloni babikoze kugira ngo abanyarwanda bacikemo ibice biborohere kubayobora.

Abanyarwanda bamaze gucibwamo amoko, byatangiye gushyirwa mu bikorwa bikoreshwa mu mashuri no mu buyobozi, gahoro gahoro abanyarwanda nabo batangira kubyemera. Abatutsi bamwe bari mu buyobozi batangiye kumva ko koko baruta abahutu, abahutu n’abatwa batangira kumva ko baciriritse imbere y’abatutsi.

Amashuri, iturufu y’ivangura

Abakoloni bamaze kugera mu Rwanda, bifashishije amashuri mu kubacamo ibice bashyiraho amashuri yagenewe abana b’abatware kandi abenshi mu batware bari abatutsi. Ibyo byari bisobanuye ko n’ubundi abo bana bagiye kubona ubushobozi n’ubumenyi buzabafasha gukomeza kuyobora kandi ko bazajya babona imirimo myiza ibabeshaho itandukanye n’iy’abandi batageze ku ishuri.

Bijyanye n’iturufu yari yakoreshejwe bacamo amoko, aho bavugaga ko abatutsi bavukiye kuyobora. Ku bahutu n’abandi abana babo batashyizwe muri ayo mashuri, batangiye kubona ko umugambi koko ari ukubaheza hasi bakayoborwa. Ishuri ryatangiye kubonwa nk’inzira yo kuzamura bamwe no gupyinagaza abandi, urwikekwe ruratangira mu banyarwanda.

Ivangura mu miyoborere

Abakoloni bageze mu Rwanda, munsi y’umwami hari abatware bamufasha kuyobora. Abatware mu misozi (uturere) babaga ari batatu. Habaga umutware w’ingabo, uw’ubutaka ushinzwe ubuhinzi n’uw’umukenke ushinzwe ubworozi. Ibyaganiriwe mu Rugwiro bigaragaza ko abo batware akenshi babaga baturuka mu moko yose, haba mu batutsi, abahutu n’abatwa.

Abakoloni bamaze kugera mu Rwanda, umubare w’abatware waragabanyijwe hasigara umutware umwe aho kuba batatu nka mbere kandi baharanira ko umutware usigaye n’abamwungiriza bose baba abo mu bwoko bw’abatutsi.
Ibyo byashimangiye kimwe bari baje bavuga ko abatutsi bavukiye kuyobora, birema ishusho itari nziza mu bari bamaze kwitwa abahutu.

Umwami yateshejwe agaciro

Mbere y’ubukoloni, umwami wafatwaga nk’umuhuza w’abanyarwanda bose, agafatwa nk’umubyeyi wabo. Abakoloni bamaze kuhagera umwami yatangiye kwamburwa agaciro n’ububasha. Aho gutanga amategeko nkuko byahoze, yatangiye kujya ahabwa amategeko akurikiza cyangwa yagira icyo gukora akabanza kubaza abakoloni.

Iyo yabaga abyanze yashoboraga kubizira nkuko byagenze kuri Yuhi V Musinga cyangwa se agatanga amarabira nkuko byagendekeye Mutara III Rudahigwa, yabyanga agafungwa nkuko byagendekye Kigeli V Ndahindurwa. Guca intege umwami n’ubwami, byabaye guca intege ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda kuko yafatwaga nk’ipfundo ry’ubumwe bwabo.

Idini

Mbere y’abakoloni abanyarwanda basengaga Imana imwe, bafite idini rimwe. Abakoloni bamaze kuza bazanye amadini menshi. Imigenzo n’imihango gakondo abanyarwanda bakoraga basenga Imana yabo, amadini yaje ayisenya avuga ko ari ibishenzi ndetse hava n’imvugo y’uko Kiliziya yakuye kirazira, ibyo bamwe baziririzaga biba ibintu bisanzwe.

Imigenzo gakondo yatangiye guta agaciro. Abanyarwanda bari bamenyereye ko habaho umwami umwe, babwirwa ko hari undi mwami witwa Yezu ari na we utegeka abandi bami bose. Byagize ingaruka ku myumvire n’imyitwarire by’abanyarwanda, bisenya bwa bumwe bahoranye.

Imirimo y’agahato

Kimwe mu bintu bikomeye byasenye ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda mu gihe cy’ubukoloni, ni imirimo y’agahato. Abakoloni bamaze kugera mu Rwanda, batangije imirimo y’agahato ku nyungu zabo. Abatware b’abatutsi nibo bahawe inshingano zo gukoresha iyo mirimo y’agahato. Yabaga ari imirimo ivunanye cyane kandi utayikoze agahanwa nabi.

Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa yabanje kwemera amabwiriza y'abakoloni, atangiye kugaragaza no kwamagana imigambi mibi yabo apfa mu buryo budasobanutse

Umutware utakoresheje neza imirimo y’agahato yakubitwaga n’abazungu cyangwa se akirukanwa. Kubera ko ubwo buretwa bwabaga buhagarikiwe n’abatware b’abatutsi (nubwo abatutsi batari abatware nabo babukoreshwaga) kandi ababukoraa benshi bakaba abahutu, byatumye abahutu bijundika abatutsi, umwuka utangira kuba mubi.

Imwe mu mirimo y’agahato yakoreshwaga yari nko gukora imihanda, gutera ibiti, kubaka inzu z’abazungu, gutwara ibikoresho byo kubaka, guhinga ibihingwa bishya nk’ikawa, imyumbati n’ibindi.

Imisoro

Mbere yo kugera mu Rwanda, abakoloni basanze abanyarwanda batanga amaturo yo gushimira umwami no kumukeza. Bamaze kuhagera bashyizeho umusoro. Muri make cyari ikintu gishya ku banyarwanda ku buryo batumvaga icyo abazungu bawakira. Icyatumye biba bibi kurushaho nuko abatware bashishikarizwaga kujya gukusanya umusoro kugira ngo bashimwe, bahabwe amafaranga menshi nabo bakarushaho kuyaka abaturage bakoresheje imbaraga z’umurengera.

Uwabaga atatanze umusoro yarabihanirwaga bikomeye. Mu bihano byatangwaga hari harimo gukubitwa umugabo yambaye ubusa imbere y’abana n’abagore, gucibwa amande cyangwa gushyirwa muri gereza.

Byabaye ibintu bibi ku buryo abanyarwanda bamwe bahunze, bagahungira mu bihugu bituranyi nka Tanzania, Uganda na Congo, abasigaye nabo bagakoreshwa nabi ari amaburakindi.

Muri icyo gihe n’ibyari ibikorwa bisanzwe nk’ubuhake aho umukene yahakwaga ku mukire kugira ngo azahabwe inka, byatangiye guhindura imigirire, rimwe na rimwe umuntu yahakwa ntahabwe inka yahakiwe cyangwa se nyuma akayamburwa nta mpamvu.

Amakosa menshi yakozwe icyo gihe nubwo yabaga yaturutse ku mategeko y’abazungu, yashyizwe ku mutwe w’umututsi kuko ari we wabaga yoherejwe ngo ayashyirwe mu bikorwa.

Abitabiriye inama zo mu Rugwuro bavuze ko abakoloni bagize uruhare runini mu gutanya abanyarwanda ubwi bahimbaga amoko, gukoresha amashuri mu gutanya abanyarwanda, kwambura umwami ububasha, guhindura imitegerekere bavanaho abatware batatu bagasigaza umwe n’ibindi.

Ibyo byateje ikibazo no mu gihe cyo gusaba ubwigenge. Abatutsi babusabye bashaka ko basigarana ubutegetsi abazungu bakagenda burundu, ariko abahutu babagirira impungenge kuko bari bamaze kubarambirwa kubw’ibyo bakoreshejwe n’abakoloni. Abahutu batekerezaga ko ubutegetsi nibusigara mu maboko y’abatutsi bazakomeza gukandamizwa.

Inama yo mu Rugwiro yagaragaje ko abazungu bize amayeri batangira kwiyegereza abahutu, abahutu bagira ngo ni urukundo kandi bwari uburyo bwo gukomeza kubacamo ibice ngo bakomeze gusigasira inyungu zabo mu Rwanda.

Ibyo byatumye na nyuma yo gutanga ubwigenge bugashyirwa mu maboko y’abahutu, iturugu yo gucamo ibice abanyarwanda yarakomeje kugira ngo bwa bumwe bahoranye butagaruka, abakoloni bakabihomberamo.

Mbere y'ubukoloni, abanyarwanda baharaniraga gushyira hamwe, umwami agafatwa nk'umuntu udasanzwe ufite inshingano zo guhuriza hamwe abaturage

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