Amerika ikomeje inkundura ku guca Caguwa mu bihugu birimo n’u Rwanda

Yanditswe na Cyprien Niyomwungeri
Kuya 15 Gashyantare 2018 saa 08:52
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Ibihugu bigize Umuryango wa Afurika y’Iburasirazuba, EAC, bitsimbaraye ku cyemezo cyo guca imyenda n’inkweto byambawe bizwi nka Caguwa, bituruka muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, Canada, u Bwongereza n’ahandi, hagamijwe guteza imbere inganda zikora imyenda n’izitunganya impu.

Ni icyemezo cyatumye ibihugu bifata ingamba zikaze zo guca intege ubu bucuruzi, aho nko mu Rwanda kuva ku itariki 1 Nyakanga 2016, imyenda n’inkweto bya Caguwa byinjizwa mu gihugu byongererewe umusoro ukubye inshuro 25 ugereranyije n’uwari usanzwe.

Uganda na Tanzania byateye iyi ntambwe yo kuzamura imisoro ndetse byanarimba iyo myambaro igahagarikwa burundu ntiyongere kwinjira mu gihugu.

Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zafashe iya mbere mu kwamagana iki cyemezo, ndetse zitangaza ko gishobora kugira ingaruka ku bucuruzi bwa biriya bihugu bikorana na yo binyuze muri gahunda ihuza icyo gihugu n’ibindi bya Afurika yo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara,“African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA).

Ibiro by’Intumwa y’iki gihugu ishinzwe Ubucuruzi, byatangaje ko bigiye gukora isuzuma harebwa niba u Rwanda, Tanzania na Uganda bikwiye gukomeza kungukira ku mahirwe y’ubucuruzi agenwa na gahunda y’ubufatanye ya AGOA.

Umuyobozi w’agateganyo w’ibiro bishinzwe ubukungu bwa Afurika mu ishami rishinzwe Afurika rya Minisiteri y’ububanyi n’amahanga ya Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, Harry Sullivan, yatangaje ko icyemezo bazagifata nyuma y’ibizava mu mwiherero w’Abakuru b’Ibihugu bya EAC, uzaba mu cyumweru gitaha i Kampala.

Yagize ati “Mu cyumweru gitaha abayobozi b’u Rwanda, Tanzania na Uganda bazahura kuri iki kibazo. Ndifuza kuzamenya icyemezo bazafata. Bashobora kuba batarabyemeranyaho, ntabwo mbizi neza. Ba Minisitiri b’ubucuruzi bahuye ku wa Gatanu w’icyumweru gishize, simfite icyo ibiganiro byabo byagezeho. Abayobozi bakuru bazahura mu cyumweru gitaha, kandi ndizera ko ibizavamo bizatanga umurongo w’aho tuzakomereza.”

Yakomeje avuga ko Amerika yasabye biriya bihugu kugabanya imisoro kuri Caguwa igasubizwa uko yari imeze mbere ya 2016, kandi bikareka guhagarika ubucuruzi bwa Caguwa no kwitwaza impamvu z’ubuzima n’isuku.

Caguwa iri kugenda igabanyuka ku isoko ryo mu Rwanda nyuma y'ingamba zitandukanye zafashwe

Amerika ntiyemeranya na EAC

EAC ivuga ko guca Caguwa ari mu rwego rwo guteza imbere inganda z’imbere mu bihugu zikora imyenda.

Sullivan avuga ko iki cyemezo kitazatuma iyi ntego igerwaho ko ahubwo kizateza ubushomeri mu bihumbi 300 by’abaturage ba EAC n’abandi ibihumbi 40 bo muri Amerika bari batunzwe na Caguwa. Avuga kandi ko bizazitira amahitamo y’abaturage benshi bakennye batabasha kugura ibikorwa n’izo nganda.

Yagize ati “Ndibaza niba abagura caguwa bazabasha kugura imyenda izakorwa n’izo nganda. Aho guca caguwa, bagashyizeho uburyo bwo guteza imbere ibikorerwa mu bihugu byabo, bikubaka izina bakabigurisha abafite ubushobozi bwo kubigura mu maguriro n’ahandi.”

U Rwanda rwiteguye guhara AGOA

U Rwanda rwakoreshaga miliyari 15 mu gutumiza caguwa mu mahanga. Inzego zibishinzwe zivuga ko yadindizaga iterambere ry’inganda mu gihe mu bihugu byinshi byateye imbere usanga inganda zishingiye ku budozi bw’imyenda ziri mu zitanga akazi kenshi.

Muri Kamena 2017, Perezida Kagame yaciye amarenga ko Amerika iramutse itsimbaraye ku bihano byo guhagarika amasezerano ya AGOA, u Rwanda rushobora kwemera kuyavamo aho gusubira kuri caguwa.

Icyo gihe yagize ati “Niba rero ngiye gushyiraho uburyo inganda zacu zabasha gutera imbere zirimo n’izikora imyenda, umuntu akavuga ati ‘Oya’ nubikora ndaguhana kubera ko ibyumvikanweho muri AGOA [nubwo bidafitanye isano na gato] ugomba kuba ingarani ya caguwa, kugira ngo ujye ku rutonde rw’ibihugu dukorana muri AGOA, twe aho hari ukundi tubyumva.”

Kuva mu 2002 kugeza mu 2012 ibicuruzwa u Rwanda rwoherezaga muri Amerika muri gahunda ya AGOA byari hafi ya zeru, ariko mu 2013 biza kugera ku $9,000; mu mwaka wakurikiyeho wa 2014 bigera ku $187,000, mu 2015 bisa n’ibyikuba kabiri bigera kuri $435,000 biturutse ahanini ku bintu bishingiye ku budozi n’ububoshyi n’imbuto za macadamia.

Gahunda ya AGOA yemejwe na Perezida Bill Clinton mu 2000, iheruka kongererwa igihe ikazarangira mu 2025, igahuriramo ibihugu 38 birimo n’u Rwanda.

Iha amahirwe ibihugu bitandukanye byo muri Afurika yo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara yo gukorana ubucuruzi na Amerika, bikabasha gucuruzanya ibikorerwa imbere mu bihugu, birimo nk’imyenda, Ikawa, ibiribwa n’ibindi bikomoka ku buhinzi.

Inyungu muri AGOA

Ibiro bishinzwe ubukungu bwa Afurika muri Minisiteri y’ububanyi n’amahanga ya Amerika, bitangaza ko ibidakomoka kuri peteroli Afurika yohereza muri Amerika binyuze mu masezerano ya AGOA, byiyongereye biva kuri miliyari 1.3 z’amadolari mu 2001, bigera kuri miliyari 4.2 z’amadolari mu 2016.

Ubucuruzi Amerika yakoranye n’ibihugu bya Afurika yo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara mu 2017, bwiyongereyeho 16.8%, buva kuri miliyari 33 z’amadolari mu 2016 bugera kuri miliyari 38.5 z’amadolari umwaka ushize.

Ibyo Amerika yohereje muri Afurika byiyongereyeho 4%, biva kuri miliyari 13.1 z’amadolari, mu gihe ibyo Afurika yoherejeyo byiyongereyeho akarenga 24% bikagera kuri miliyari 24 z’amadolari.

Ibikomoka ku buhinzi Afurika yohereje muri Amerika mu 2017, byiyongereyeho 10% bigera kuri miliyari 2.7 z’amadorali. Amasezerano ya AGOA yatumye hagati ya 2016 na 2017 ibihugu nk’u Rwanda, Senegal, Namibia na Uganda byongera ibyo byohereza muri iki gihugu.

Binyuze muri AGOA, u Rwanda, Tanzania na Uganda byohereje muri Amerika ibicuruzwa bifite agaciro ka miliyoni 43 z’amadolari mu 2016 bivuye kuri miliyoni 33 z’amadolari mu 2015. Nyamara ibicuruzwa Amerika yohereje mu Rwanda, Tanzania na Uganda byo byageze kuri miliyoni 281 z’amadolari mu 2016, bivuye kuri miliyoni 257 z’amadolari mu 2015.

Kugeza mu 2014 toni za caguwa zagurishwaga zariyongeraga cyane, ariko guhera mu 2016 hari igabanyuka rigaragara
Inganda n'abantu bikorera ku giti cyabo bashoye amafaranga mu bijyanye no gukora imyenda, bamaze kuba benshi mu gihugu kandi ibintu byabo bikomeje kuyobokwa ku masoko

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