Hasohowe itegeko ryangiza, rishwanyaguza, rihuhura, rinogonora Ikinyarwanda

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NTWALI John Williams

Kuya 29 Ukwakira 2014 saa 04:12
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Bwa mbere mu mateka y’u Rwanda hakozwe itegeko rigenga imyandikire y’Ururimi rw’Ikinyarwanda, ariko rikoze mu buryo bugihonyora ku rwego ndengamyumvire, itegeko ubwaryo risenya Ikinyarwanda.
Ku bijyanye n’abariteguye, itegeko rishya ritesha agaciro Ikinyarwanda rifite uko ribagaragaza. Ni urugero rwiza rw’ihuzagurika, kwivuguruza, kutamenya Ikinyarwanda, kudasoma bihagije ibitabo n’inyandiko z’Ikinyarwanda, kutagisha inama inzobere mu rurimi, kutaganira n’abisi, abahanzi, abasizi, abanditsi, … (...)

Bwa mbere mu mateka y’u Rwanda hakozwe itegeko rigenga imyandikire y’Ururimi rw’Ikinyarwanda, ariko rikoze mu buryo bugihonyora ku rwego ndengamyumvire, itegeko ubwaryo risenya Ikinyarwanda.

Ku bijyanye n’abariteguye, itegeko rishya ritesha agaciro Ikinyarwanda rifite uko ribagaragaza. Ni urugero rwiza rw’ihuzagurika, kwivuguruza, kutamenya Ikinyarwanda, kudasoma bihagije ibitabo n’inyandiko z’Ikinyarwanda, kutagisha inama inzobere mu rurimi, kutaganira n’abisi, abahanzi, abasizi, abanditsi, …

Ikindi kiranga agaciro ‘ka ntako’ kahawe Ikinyarwanda muri iri tegeko ni imyandikire yaryo idasobanutse, ivangavanga ifu n’ibiheri, ivangavanga ibirohwa n’amazi y’urubogobogo, ivanga amata n’amatezano. Ni imyandikire idakosowe (editing) kandi idasubiwemo (proofreading).

Amabwiriza ya Minisitiri N° 001/2014 yo ku wa 08/10/2014 agenga imyandikire y’Ikinyarwanda, aragisenya bihagije

Tutavuze byinshi turijora, reka tubagezeho bike muri byinshi bikocamye birigize.

Kuba iri tegeko ryaranyujijwe mu nzego nyinshi ubusanzwe zizwiho ubushishozi rikagera ubwo risohorwa mu igazeti ya Leta ntawe uteye imboni urusobe rw’ibusanya n’urujijo riteye, nabyo ubwabyo biteye kwibaza.

Mu ngingo ya kabiri y’iri tegeko, ijambo ‘injyana’ barisimbuje ‘urujyano’

Kera uwavugaga ururimi arugoreka, Abanyarwanda bavugaga ko atavuga ‘ururimi’ ahubwo avuga ‘uburimi’. Ijambo “Urujyano” mu mwanya w’injyana, rivugitse nk’uburirmi aho kuba ururimi.

“Amajyepfo” bayahinduye “Amagepfo”, ariko muri iri tegeko ntibyanditse kimwe mu ngingo ya 12 n’iya 38

Aha hakozwe ikosa ryirengagiza umuzi w’ijambo, kuko ijambo “Amajyepfo” ubwaryo ni inyunge yerekana icyerekezo kiganwemo: Kujya Epfo. Iyaba “Kujya” yandikwaga nka “Kuga”, nibwo iyi ngingo yari kuba ifite ishingiro.

“Jyewe/ Njyewe” ihindurwa “gewe/ngewe”

Kuri iyi ngingo ya 12, ibishingirwaho bandika batya ntibifututse, kuko n’imisomere yabyo yaba iri mu zindi ndimi zitari Ikinyarwanda. Ibi bisaba kuba urwaye indwara z’ubuhemekero (ibicurane, asima, ...) kugirango ubashe kubivugira mu mazuru.

“Icyibo” cyahinduwe “ikibo”

Ibi bihabanye cyane n’Ikinyarwanda mwimerere, aho amagambo ashyirwa mu bwinshi agakoreshwamo BY, mu bumwe akoreshwamo CY, naho akenera B mu bwinshi, mu bumwe akandikwamo K. Urugero: Ibigori – Ikigori, ibyivugo-Icyivugo, ibirayi – ikirayi, ibyibo – icyibo. Iri tegeko rishya riratanga amagambo hamwe na hamwe ntirigaragaze inzira (formule).

“Umujyi” uhindurwa “umugi”

Ubundi Umujyi nk’umurwa hakoreshwamo JY, mu gihe iyo bavuze UMUGI baba bagaragaza ka gasimba ko mu bwoko bw’inda (Aha inda isomwa nka inka).

“Umutimanama” uhindurwa “umutima nama”

Gufata ijambo umutimanama (conscience) bakarigabamo abiri umutima (heart) na –nama (advice) byujuje ubuziranenge bw’itakazareme ry’ikigenderewe.

“Nta batsinze” ihinduka “ntabatsinze” (Ingingo ya 21)
“Ntawe urwaye” ihinduka “ntawurwaye”

Iyo ufashe amagambo abiri nk’aya ukayashyira mu ijambo rimwe, byajijisha abantu bashobora no gukeka ko yahinduwe izina bwite ry’umuntu cyangwa ahantu. Urugero ‘Twaje amahoro’, iyo bigizwe izina bwite biba ‘Twajamahoro’. Ariko se Ntabatsinze, ntawurwaye, byubahirije ayahe muga?

Niko, Ni ko, Ni uko, Nuko, N’uko byavangavanzwe (Ingingo ya 32)

Mu gihe iri tegeko mu ngingo yaryo ya 32 ritagaragaza imikoreshereze y’aya magambo atanu benshi basobekeranya, rirarema ahubwo urujijo ku ikoreshwa ryayo

“Impfundiko” zihindurwa “imfundiko”, “imfabusa” isimbura “impfabusa”
“Saa cyenda” ihindurwa “Saa kenda” (Ingingo ya 28)

“Icyi (Impeshyi)” ihindurwa “iki”

Aha ijambo Icyi risobanura impeshyi (summer) iyo ryanditswe nka Iki nk’uko biri mu itegeko, igisobanuro ntikiba kikiri Impeshyi, ahubwo rihinduka Ikinyazina Nyereka - Iki (This)

“Intsinzi ihindurwa insinzi”, byumvikana ko n’imitsindo ihinduka imisindo

Amazina amwe yanditswe mu buryo budafututse, nka: Kamariza, Umurisa, u Bubirigi, Repuburika, Kirinda,...

“Umwumwe” isimbura “umwe umwe” naho “babiri babiri” isimburwa” na “Babiribabiri”
Ukurikije imiterere y’itegeko hazajya handikwa icumicumi, banebane, ikendikenda (mu cyimbo cya icyenda icyenda/neuf à neuf)

Nta cyibyara (kwibyara) nk’intare n’ingwe ihindurwa Nta kibyara (kubyara) nk’intare n’ingwe

Iyi myandikire mishya ihita ihindura imivugirwe n’igisobanuro cy’umugani. Kuko Nta cyibyara nk’intare n’ingwe, biva ku nshinga “Kwibyara” bishatse kuvuga ko izi nyamaswa zibyara izisa nazo mu buryo ndashidikanywaho, ariko iyi mvugo-shusho igasobanura ibisumbyeho mu mvugo mpamo. Naho “Nta kibyara nk’intare n’ingwe”, biva ku nshinga kubyara, bityo nta n’igisobanuro byaba bifite nk’umugani.

Mu misomere nabwo bizahinduka kuko “Nta kibyara” bizasomwa nka nta (kibyara), ijambo ryose mu masaku nyesi, nk’uko wasoma “nta bajyana”. Naho Nta cyibyara bizaba nta (cyîibyara) nk’uko basoma “nta kwibona”

Imikoreshereze y’inyuguti nkuru mu ngingo ya 41 ihabanye n’imikoreshereze yo mu ngingo ya 39:

Kuba itegeko rigena imyandikire nayo ubwayo itubahirijwe mu iyandikwa ryaryo biteye kwibaza niba ari ikosa-nkana, cyangwa se amahitamo y’abarikoze.

Kuremekanya amagambo

Mu ngingo ya 34 hari andi mahano yo kwangiza amazina bwite y’ ahantu bayaremekanya akabyazwa andi, aho izina Mutara ry’umuntu ryitiranywa na Umutara ry’ahantu. Hagaragaramo kwirengagiza ko hari amazina ubwayo aremanye n’indomo nka Itaba (Ku Itaba), Irango (Mu Irango), Amarangara, Amayaga, Umutara, Ibandagure n’ayandi. Imiterere y’itegeko rishya ibyangiza itya: A Marangara, u Mutara byumvikana ko n’ahandi byaba Mu i Rango /Mu Rango, ku Taba / Ku i Taba, n’ibindi bisa babyo bitari Ikinyarwanda.

Ingingo ya 13 igaragaza ko “Yancecekesheje” izahinduka “Yanshecekesheje”

N’ibindi n’ibindi,

Urujijo rw’inzibacyuho

Mu gihe andi mategeko yose atangira gukurikizwa umunsi asohokeye mu igazeti ya Leta, iri ryo mu ngingo ya 44 ritanga inzibacyuho y’imyaka ibiri, mbere yo gutangira kubahirizwa. Bigatera kwibaza niba mbere y’iyo myaka yose abantu bakomeza kwivugira ibya “Mva he na njya he”. Ese biramutse ariko biri, ryaba rizindutse gukora iki, kuki ritategereza icyo gihe nyirizina, rikazasohoka ryanogejwe?

Umwanzuro

Itegeko ryo kuwa 16/08/2004 ntiryigeze ryubahirizwa kuko ritamenyekanye, ryarakozwe ribikwa muri Minisiteri y’Uburezi birangiria aho. Ubwo kuwa 20/06/2012 Inama Nkuru y’Itangazamakuru yasabaga abanyamakuru kujya bandika Ikinyarwanda uko gikwiye, mu batumiwe ntihabonetse n’umwe wari uzi iri tegeko ryari rimaze imyaka umunani risohotse.

Iri tegeko ryaje risimbura iryo kuwa 02/07/1985 bitaga irya Nsekalije, ari naryo ryakoreshejwe igihe kirekire mu myaka 50 ishize. Dusimbuke andi mavugurura tugere mu mwaka w’1930 aho amabwiriza yo muri iyo myaka yagaragazaga ibihekane "fk" mu mwanya wa "fwa" (igufka), bg mu mwanya wa bw (ubgenge), mh mu mwanya wa mp (imhanuro), ..., naho ijambo riri muri Ngenga ya mbere y’ubumwe rikagira imyandikire yihariye iyo ryabaga ririmo N cyangwa M. Urugero: “Mmenye ko byatunganye”. Uko biri kose, iri naryo ryo mu myaka 80 ishize ntiryari rimugaye nk’irisohotse ubu.

Bibaye kandi ubwa mbere mu mateka y’u Rwanda kubona itegeko ry’imyandikire y’Ururimi rishyirwa ahabona na Minisiteri ifite Siporo n’imyidagaduro mu nshingano.

Birakwiye ko Abanyarwanda bubaha Ururimi rwabo, batarutaye mu nzira ngo rukandagirwe n’uwenze wese.

Byasesenguwe na NTWALI John Williams
[email protected]


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