Inkomoko y’inkongi zibasira Australia kuva mu 1851

Yanditswe na Twarabanye Venuste
Kuya 18 Mutarama 2020 saa 07:18
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Australia ni kimwe mu bihugu bikize ku Isi kibarizwa muri G20. Cyohereza umwuka mwinshi uhumanya ikirere kubera inganda zitunganya ubutare bwa fer na Uranium ariko cyane cyane iza nyiramugengeri. Kinengwa kutagira ingamba zihamye ku mihindagurikire y’ikirere nubwo aricyo cyibasirwa n’inkongi z’umuriro zihitana abaturage zigakura abandi mu byabo, zikangiza byinshi.

Australia ni cyo gihugu kinini mu Nyanja ya Oceanie kikaba icya Gatandatu ku Isi. Kigira ubushyuhe bukabije buterwa no kuba gikikijwe n’inyanja, zivamo imiyaga ishyushye (El Nino) n’inganda z’ingufu na gaz.

Ku wa 2 Mutarama 1960 ni umunsi utazibagirana mu mateka y’icyo gihugu, aho mu mujyi wa Oodnadatta ubushyuhe bwageze kuri dogre celcius 50.7 ndetse biza kongera kuba ku wa 19 Gashyantare 1998 i Mardie mu Burengerazuba, aho bwageze kuri dogre celsius 50.5.

Ni mu gihe Ikigo cy’Isi cy’Iteganyagihe (WMO) cyerekana ko ubushyuhe bukabije bumaze kubaho mu mateka y’Isi ari ubwageze kuri dogre celsius 56.7 bwabaye ku wa 10 Mutarama mu 1913 mu gace ka Furnace Creek muri leta ya California muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika.

Australia yibasirwa n’ibiza by’inkongi z’umuriro ziterwa n’ibikorwa bya muntu ndetse n’uburyo karemano. Inkuba, ubushyuhe bukabije, izuba riva igihe kire kire n’umuyaga wihuta cyane. ni bimwe mu bitera bikanatiza umurindi izo nkongi.

Kuva mu Ukwakira 2019 inkongi y’umuriro iri kuyogoza icyo gihugu, aho imaze kwica abaturage 28 no kwangiza hegitari zirenga miliyoni 10. Inyamanswa nyinshi zarapfuye, inzu n’inyubako birangirika n’abantu bava mu byabo. Ni inkongi yarishije nabi abanya-Australia iminsi mikuru isoza umwaka wa 2019.

Amateka yerekena ko inkongi z’umuriro atari iza none muri Australia kuko zifite imizi mu 1851, kandi zishobora kuba igihe icyo aricyo cyose bijyanye n’agace n’uko ibihe bimeze, ariko akenshi ziba hagati ya Kamena na Gicurasi.

Igitangaje ni uko inyinshi ziba muri Gashyantare. Buri nkongi ihabwa izina bitewe n’igihe yabereye, ibyo yangije, abantu bapfuye nigihe yamaze.

Inkongi zimaze kuba muri Australia

Mu 1851 inkongi yatangiye ku manywa y’ihangu, hari saa tanu z’amanywa ku itariki 6 Gashyantare, ubwo abantu batwaye amagare akururwa n’ibimasa bataga agashirira mu buryo batabyitayeho, maze umuriro utangira ubwo.

Icyo gihe muri Australia, ubushyuhe bwari kuri dogre celcius 47 hari n’umuyaga ushyushye, ibyatsi n’amashyamba byarumye kubera izuba ryaranze umwaka wabanje. Ibyo byatumye bidafata amasaha menshi ngo umuriro ukwire hose.

Iyo nkongi yiswe Black Thursday yishe abantu 12 yangiza hegitari miliyoni eshanu, intama zigera kuri miliyoni zarahiye, ibihumbi by’inka n’inyamaswa zitagira ingano zitikiriramo, mu gihe kitageze ku kwezi yamaze.

Iyo yakurikiwe n’izindi uko imyaka yagiye ishira. Hari Red Tuesday yo mu 1898 ku itariki 1 Gashyantare yahitanye abantu 12 yangiza hegitari 260,000 n’inyubako 2000. Yakurikiwe n’iyo mu 1926 yiswe Black Sunday yahitanye abantu 60 hegitari zigera ku 400,000 zirashya.

Hakurikiyeho isa n’iri kuba ubu, yahereye mu Ukuboza 1938 igeza muri Mutarama 1939. Yageze kuri hegitari miliyoni ebyiri ihitana abantu 71 inyubako 650 zirangirika. Umuriro ukaze wabaye ari ku wa Gatanu tariki 13 Mutarama aba ariwo bayitiriye Black Friday.

Hari Black Sunday yo mu 1955 yaguyemo abantu babiri bashinzwe kuzimya, hashya hegitari 40 000.

Hakurikiyeho iyiswe Black Tuesday yatangiye ku wa 7 Gashyantare 1967 ubwo umuyaga ufite umuvuduko wa Km 110 mu isaha wahuraga n’ibishingwe bigakubitiraho n’ubushyuhe bwariho, umuriro uraka.

Abantu 62 bahasize ubuzima 900 barakomereka, hegitari 264270 zirashya inzu 1293 zirangirika.

Izo zakurikiwe n’izindi zirimo iyo hagati ya 1974 na 1975, iyo mu 1983 yiswe uwa Gatatu w’ivu (Ash Wednesday). Iyo mu minsi ya Noheli mu 2001 yiswe Black Christmas yatijwe umurindi n’umuyaga wari ufite umuvuduko wa kilometero 90 mu isaha n’izindi.

Australia yaje kongera kugira akaga gakomeye mu 2009 ubwo habaga inkongi y’umuriro yiswe Black Saturday yaguyemo abantu 173 ari na yo yatwaye ubuzima bw’abantu benshi mu mateka y’izo nkongi, yangije hegitari 450 000.

Kugira ngo ihitane abantu benshi uretse ubushyuhe bwari kuri dogere Celcius 46 mu mujyi wa Melbourne, umuyaga wari ufite umuvuduko wa km 100 mu isaha wahinduye icyerekezo mu buryo butunguranye, umuriro ujya mu bice abantu batari biteze.

Mu Ugushyingo 2019, inama ya Australia ishinzwe imihindagurikire y’ibihe yasohoye raporo yise ngo "Ibi ntabwo bisanzwe", yerekanaga ibyago by’ibiza by’inkongi bidasanzwe bitegereje icyo gihugu, kandi ntibyatinze kugaragara.

Izo nkongi zisiga abatuye Australia mu ibura ry’umwuka mwiza kuko amashyamba yakabaye awuyungurura aba yakongotse.

Mu mezi atatu inkongi iriho ubu imaze kogereza umwuka wa CO2 mu kirere ungana na toni miliyoni 350, ungana na 2/3 by’uwo Australa yoherezaga ku mwaka kuko nko mu 2017 yohereje toni miliyoni 530.

Abaturage bikomye Minisitiri w’Intebe Scott Morrison na Guverinoma ye

Mu byumweru bishize Minisitiri w’Intebe wa Australia, Scott Morrison yasuye abaturage bakozweho n’inkongi yatangiye muri Nzeri 2019, ntibamwakira neza muri leta ya New South Wales n’iya Victoria ibyo biza byangije cyane.

Mu mujyi wa Cobargo muri New South Wales, umugore umwe yasabye ko inzego zishinzwe kuzimya umuriro ko zakongererwa ubushobozi mu gihe abandi bamutukaga banamubwira ko atazongera kubona amajwi muri ako gace.

Minisitiri w’Intebe yanenzwe ko Guverinoma ayoboye itabasha kugira igisubizo itanga ku nkongi z’umuriro zibasira igihugu na Politiki yo guhangana n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere igenda biguru ntege. Icyakora na we yemeye ko hari ibyo yakabaye yarakemuye neza kurusaho.

Nubwo ku rundi ruhande arengera Guverinoma ye, avuga ko ikora ibihagije ko ibyaraye ari ibiza.

Ati "Turi mu bihe birere bire by’ubushyuhe bukabije. Birumvikana ko byatewe n’ihinduka ryibihe."

Ibyo ntibyanyuze abaturage bituma bakora imyigaragambyo yo gusaba Guverinoma ko yagira icyo ikora ku mihindagurirkire yikirere.

Mu mijyi nka Sydney, Melbourne na Canberra, abigaragambyaga basabye Guverinoma ya Morrison gukuraho byihuse ibitiza umurindi inkongi z’umuriro, birimo inganda zimwe na zimwe.

Umuryango w’Abibumbye unenga Australia

Umuryango w’Abibumbye watangaje ko hafi ½ cy’ibihugu bigize G20 birimo Australia bitari mu nzira y’intego zabyo mu kugabanya imyuka yangiza ikirere.

Ku rutonde rw’ibihugu bisabwa kugira icyo bikora ku kwangiza ikirere Australia ni iya mbere mu kugenda biguru ntege.

Minisitiri w’Intebe Morrison yanze kwitabira Inama y’Umuryango w’abibumye yiga ku ihindagurika ry’ibihe yabereye i New York ku wa 23 Nzeri 2019.

Amakuru avuga ko yamenye ko ibihugu biraza gusabwa kuvuga ku kugabanya no gukuraho inganda za nyiramugengeri, bituma yohereza Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’amahanga, Marise Payne, nubwo na we yari muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika iyo nama iba.

Ishyaka ry’abakozi rya opozosiyo muri icyo gihugu ryatangaje ko Australia yanze kugira icyo ikora ku mihindagurikire yikirere.

Nyamara Minisitiri wIntebe aherutse gutangaza ko bari gukora ku buryo bagera ku ntego yabo yo kurwanya mihundagurikire y’ikirere mu 2030, aho Australia yiteze igabanyuka rya 16% mu 2030 nk’uko yabitangaje muri Nzeri.

Inganda za Nyiramugengeri

Australia ni kimwe mu bihugu byohereza mu mahanga ubutare bwa Fer, Uranium, Nyiramugengeri na Gas.

Mu 2017 cyari igihugu cya kane cyohereza Nyiramugengeri nyinshi mu mahanga nk’uko bitangazwa n’ikigo mpuzamahanga gishinzwe ingufu (International Energy Agency) naho mu 2018 cyabaye icya mbere aho cyohereje 37.8% bya nyiramugengeri yoherejwe hanze y’ibihugu ivamo, icyinjiriza miliyari $ 47.

Kugabanya inganda zitunganya Nyiramugengeri byagabanya ubushyuhe ku kigero cya dogere celcius 1.5 ariko Australia ntibikozwa kubera uruhare inganda ziyitunganya zifite mu bukungu bwayo.

Nubwo Umuryango w’abibumbye usaba ko zahagarara, Guverimona iherutse gutanga uburenganzira bwo kubaka ikindi kirombe kizaba ari icya mbere ku Isi gicukura Nyiramugengeri. Biteganyijwe ko iyo kizajya kiyohereza mu Buhinde.

Nyiramugengeri ni kimwe mu bitanga umwuka wanduye cyane kandi abahanga mu bya siyansi basabye ko hatakongera kubakwa inganda ziyitunganya niba Isi ikeneye guha umurongo ibijyanye n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere.

Mu 2017 Australia yoherezaga CO2 ingana na 1.1% by’iyo ibihugu byose byohereza mu kirere.

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