Kera habayeho: Uko ubucuruzi bwakorwaga mu Rwanda mbere y’umwaduko w’ifaranga, aho inka yaguranwaga amasuka umunani

Yanditswe na Iradukunda Serge
Kuya 13 Ugushyingo 2020 saa 07:16
Yasuwe :
0 0

Mu bucuruzi bukorwa uyu munsi haba ubw’imbere mu gihugu n’ubwambukiranya imipaka, ifaranga nicyo gipimo kigenderwaho mu kumenya agaciro k’ikintu ku isoko. Ibi bitera kwibaza uko ubucuruzi bwakorwaga mu Rwanda rwo hambere mbere yo kwaduka kwaryo cyane ko atari gakondo yarwo.

Umushakashatsi mu Kigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ingoro z’Umurage w’u Rwanda, Maurice Mugabowagahunde, yatangaje ko ubucuruzi atari ubwa vuba mu Rwanda ndetse ko butatangiye aho ifaranga rigereye mu gihugu.

Mugabowagahunde yavuze ko mu Rwanda rwo hambere habaga amasoko nka hamwe mu hantu hakorerwaga ubucuruzi hakaba n’abacuruzi babigize umwuga.

Ati “Mu Rwanda rwa kera habaga amasoko ndetse habaga n’ibipimo byakoreshwaga bikemerwa n’abantu bose muri ayo masoko, ndetse hari n’abacuruzi babigize umwuga.”

Bitandukanye n’ijambo rikoresha ubu ry’isoko, mu Rwanda rwo ha mbere ahantu nk’aha hahuriraga abagurisha n’abaguzi hitwaga ‘iguriro’, ijambo isoko ryaje gutangira gukoreshwa nyuma rikomotse mu rurimi rw’Igiswahili.

Amakuru atangwa n’Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ingoro z’Umurage w’u Rwanda yerekana ko mu Rwanda rwa mbere y’umwaduko w’ifaranga n’abazungu habarirwaga amasoko 40 muri aya hakabamo ayaremaga mu buryo buhoraho ndetse n’andi mpuzamahanga.

Muri aya masoko ayamenyekanye cyane ni iryo mu Kinyaga ( Rusizi na Nyamasheke by’ubu) andi ni aya Bitare, Mururu na Nyagahinga. Ayo masoko yaremwaga n’Abanyarwanda ariko hakazamo n’abanyamahanga barimo Abarega, Abahavu , Abarundi, Abafurero, Abanyetambi n’Abashugi.

Mu Bugoyi ( Rubavu y’ubu) hari isoko rizwi nka Mushwiza n’irya Ryabizirye, muri Musanze y’ubu hari isoko rya Gasakuza, Gacaca na Mpenge, aya masoko yazagamo n’abaturage baturutse mu bindi bihugu barimo Abahunde, Abanande ndetse n’Abanyankole barayaremaga.

Mu majyepfo ahitwa Bwanamukali iryari rizwi cyane ni iryo mu Rwanza ryari riherereye hafi y’i Save.

Aya masoko yose yabaga agabanyijemo ibice bibiri, hakaba ahacururizwa imyaka n’ahacururizwa amatungo. Ubucuruzi bw’imyaka bwakundaga gukorwa n’abagore mu gihe ubw’amatungo bwakorwaga n’abagabo.

Uretse imyaka n’amatungo aya masoko yacururizwagamo ibindi bintu birimo ibikomoka ku bukorikori nk’ubucuzi, ububumbyi ndetse n’ububaji.

Habagaho abacuruzi bakomeye

Ahagana mu 1800 mu Rwanda habaga abacuruzi bakomeye babaga baraguze ibintu bitandukanye ariko bo bagahitamo kuzajya bongera kubigurisha nk’uko ubucuruzi bw’umwuga bukorwa uyu munsi.

Uyu mucuruzi ukomeye ni nawe washingaga isoko mu gace arimo akaba ari nawe uricunga. Muri aka kazi yafashwaga n’abo mu muryango we cyane cyane abahungu be.

Habagaho kandi uwo bita ‘Umutware w’isoko’ akariremesha akaba yakemura n’ibibazo byavutse ndetse akaka n’amahoro, ayo mahoro niyo wa mucuruzi yifashishaga mu kwiteza imbere.

Bitandukanye n’uyu munsi aho amahoro abarwa mu buryo bw’amafaranga, ayo hambere yabaga agizwe n’amasuka, ihene, umunyu, itabi ndetse n’imyaka. Uwangaga gutanga aya mahoro yirukanwaga mu isoko cyangwa agafatirwa ibindi bihano.

Kimwe n’ubu mu bihe bya kera habagaho n’abaturage bakwepaga amahoro, ahanini bakabinyuza mu kwigira abatoni ibwami kugira ngo basonerwe.

Uretse ubu bucuruzi bwo mu masoko habagaho kandi ubuhahirane hagati y’abaturanyi niba umwe afite ikintu runaka akagurana na mugenzi we kugira ngo nawe amuhe icyo adafite.

Ibiciro byo hambere

Kubera ko muri iyi myaka nta mafaranga yabagaho yaba muri ubu bucuruzi bwo mu masoko n’ubwakorwaga hagati y’abantu, hakoreshwaga uburyo bwo kugurana.

Mu bice byinshi by’igihugu inka yaguraga amasuka umunani cyangwa icyenda, ihene yo yaguraga amasuka ane. Isuka yo yaguraga inkangara ebyiri z’ibishyimbo cyangwa inkangara enye z’amasaka. Mu gihe kitari umwero w’ibishyimbo, ufite inkangara imwe yabyo washoboraga kubona isuka.

Isuka imwe kandi yashoboraga kugura ibirago bibiri, yashoboraga kuguranwa icumu cyangwa inkota.

Inkangara yo yashoboraga kuguranwa urusika, icyuma cyo guhata kikaguranwa inkangara nziza. Inkangara imwe y’ibishyimbo kandi yaguranwaga iy’amashaza.

Ibi biciro kandi byashoboraga guhinduka bitewe n’ibihe cyangwa ahantu nko mu Kinyaga impfizi yo kubaga kuko habaga ubutega bwinshi yashoboraga kugurwa ubutega ibihumbi 15.

Muri ubu bucuruzi ijambo igihumbi byavugaga ubutega igihumbi, inzovu byavugaga ubutega ibihumbi bibiri, ipfundo bikavuga amasaro icumi, ijana akitwa akagozi.

Mu bicuruzwa byo mu Rwanda rwo ha mbere byahendaga harimo ubuki kuko bwifashishwaga mu bintu byinshi birimo ubuvuzi no gutegura inzoga.

Muri ubu bucuruzi kandi habagamo icyitwa ‘Kuzegura’, bakabikoresha bashaka kuvuga igikorwa cyo guhuza umuguzi n’umugurisha, uwakoraga aka kazi yahembwaga amasuka azwi nk’amazege’.

Mu Rwanda rwo hambere inka yashoboraga kugurwa amasuka umunani

Ubucuruzi bwambukiranya imipaka bwarakorwaga

Muri ibi bicuruzwa byose hari ibyabaga ngombwa ko bitaboneka mu Rwanda cyangwa mu gace kamwe k’igihugu bikajyanwa ahandi bityo abantu bakabikura mu bindi bihugu, nk’umunyu wavaga hafi n’ikiyaga cya Edouard muri icyo gihe Abanyarwanda bitaga ‘Rwicanzige’ ( kuri ubu iki kiyaga giherereye muri Uganda.

Uretse uyu munyu wavaga aha, undi waturukaga i Burundi, imiringa yavaga muri Congo ahitwa Shaba, amasaro agaturuka i Butembo n’amasuka amwe n’amwe yavaga Uvila cyangwa ahitwa Bwishya.

Uretse ubu bucuruzi bwakorwaga hagati y’ibihugu bituranye n’u Rwanda, hari n’ubwakorwaga hagati n’u Burayi.

Ibicuruzwa bikomoka i Burayi no muri Aziya byasakaye mu Rwanda 1642 na 1675 ku ngoma ya Yuhi Mazimpaka.

Muri ubu bucuruzi Abanyamwezi nibo bazanaga ibintu biva ku nkombe y’inyanja bakabigeza mu bihugu byo hagati nk’i Karagwe n’i Bushubi, noneho bikaza kwambuka bigana mu Rwanda. Abo bacuruzi kugira ngo ubucuruzi bwabo bwemerwe mu Rwanda, kenshi bohererezaga umwami w’u Rwanda amaturo arimo imyenda n’amasaro.

Ku ngoma y’Umwami Yuhi IV Gahindiro (hagati ya 1746 na 1802) imyenda yari yaramaze kugera mu gihugu ariko yambarwa n’abakomeye barimo abatware n’abami.

Ku ngoma ya Kigeli wa IV Rwabugiri, u Rwanda narwo rwatangiye kohereza ibicuruzwa hanze, ahanini byiganjemo impu, muri ubu bucuruzi yafashwaga cyane n’uwitwa Byenenekwa.

Kuri iyi ngoma ya Rwabugiri nibwo n’Abarabu batangiye gukorera ubucuruzi mu Rwanda, bagacuruza amahembe y’inzovu n’imyenda, nyuma baje no kugerageza kwinjira mu bucuruzi bw’abacakara ariko birabangira kubera ko Rwabugiri yababereye ibamba.

Kimwe n’ubundi bucuruzi, ubu nabwo ngo bwahuraga n’imbogamizi zirimo n’ibisambo byashoboraga gucucura abacuruzi, gusa ngo uwafatirwaga muri ibi bikorwa yahanishwaga ibihano bikomeye birimo no kwicwa.

Na nyuma y’umwaduko w’ifaranga mu Rwanda, ubu bucuruzi bwo kugurana bwakomeje gukorwa mu bice bimwe na bimwe cyane cyane ibyari bitarageramo amafaranga.

Abaguzi n'abagurisha baremye isoko rya Gisenyi ( Iyi foto yafashwe mu 1912)
Isoko rya kera ni uku ryabaga rimeze

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE
Kwamamaza

Special pages
. . . . . .