Inshingano za BNR, politiki y’ifaranga, uburyo igihugu cyaka kikanishyura umwenda: Ikiganiro na Prof Kigabo

Yanditswe na Nkurunziza Ferdinand
Kuya 29 Nyakanga 2020 saa 06:58
Yasuwe :
0 0

Birashoboka ko waba uri umwe mu batekereza ko Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda ikora nka banki cyangwa ibindi bigo by’imari bisanzwe bikorana n’abaturage mu buryo bw’ubucuruzi bubyara inyungu.

Wanasanga kandi wibaza igisobanuro cya politiki y’ifaranga duhora twumva tukanasoma mu bitangazamakuru; inguzanyo zakwa n’igihugu ndetse n’uburyo igihugu cyishyura uwo mwenda, n’ibindi byinshi bikiri urujijo ku bantu badasobanukiwe neza n’ibijyanye n’ubukungu.

Mu bihugu byose byo ku Isi habaho Banki Nkuru ishinzwe kubungabunga agaciro k’ifaranga rya buri gihugu no gukurikirana ibijyanye n’urwego rw’imari ngo bidahungabanya ubukungu bw’ibyo bihugu. Iyo Banki iba ikurikirana ibikorwa byose bijyanye n’amabanki n’ibigo by’imari ndetse n’ibikorwa by’ivunjisha. Mu gihugu cyacu izo nshingano n’ubwo bubasha bifitwe na Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda (BNR).

Mu rugendo rwo kugufasha gusobanukirwa na bimwe muri ibyo bibazo, mu ntangiriro za Werurwe uyu mwaka, IGIHE yegereye impuguke mu bukungu, akaba n’Umuyobozi Ushinzwe Ishami ry’Ubukungu muri Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda, Prof Thomas Kigabo, adufasha gusobanukirwa neza byinshi mu bibazo nawe ushobora kuba wibaza bifite aho bihuriye n’inshingano za Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda ndetse n’ubukungu bw’u Rwanda.

Imikorere n’inshingano za Banki nkuru y’u Rwanda

Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu ifite inshingano ebyiri zikomeye, nubwo hari izindi abantu badakunze kuvuga. Inshingano ya mbere ni ni ugushyiraho no gukurikirana ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya politiki y’ifaranga. Iyi politiki y’ifaranga ijyanye no kugena uburyo ibiciro mu gihugu bigomba kuba bijyanye n’urwego abantu bifuza.

Inshingano ya kabiri ni ugushyiraho politiki igenga ibigo by’imari nk’amabanki mu rwego rwo kuyarinda guhungabana kandi agahora ahagaze neza ku buryo abasha gutanga inguzanyo mu buryo buhoraho kandi bw’igihe kirekire.

Prof Thomas Kigabo ati "Tugomba kugira urwego rw’amabanki rutajegajega, rutanga inguzanyo uyu munsi ariko tukaba twizeye ko no mu myaka 10 cyangwa 20 ndetse no mu myaka 100, urwo rwego ruzaba rubasha gukora akazi neza kugira ngo rufashe ubukungu bw’igihugu".

Politiki y’ifaranga ihura ite n’amafaranga umuturage atunze?

Icya mbere, amafaranga yose umuntu atunze ava mu bikorwa yakoze; ibyo ntaho bihurira n’inshingano za BNR, ahubwo bijyana n’izindi nzego nka Minisiteri y’Imari n’Igenamigambi n’izindi nzego zigena uburyo abantu bakora imirimo yabo ya buri munsi, uburyo ubucuruzi bukorwa n’ibindi.

Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda (BNR) icyo ikora ni ukuzana mu ruziga rw’ubukungu (ku isoko) amafaranga akoreshwa muri ibyo bikorwa by’abaturage kugira ngo babashe guhahirana.

Prof Thomas Kigabo avuga ko politiki y’ifaranga aho ihuriye n’ibyo byose, bagerageza gushyiraho uburyo butuma ibiciro bitazamuka cyane ku masoko, kandi iyo ibiciro bizamutse, ibyo umuntu yari kugura biragabanuka.

Inshingano ya mbere ya BNR ni ugusaba buri rwego rwose ruri mu ruziga rw’amafaranga gukora ku buryo ibiciro bitari buhindagurike cyane, ku buryo bishobora gutuma amafaranga umuntu yari afite agaragara nk’ayataye agaciro ku isoko.

Prof Kigabo avuga ko abantu benshi bakunze gutekereza ku muguzi gusa mu gihe havuzwe ingingo y’amafaranga n’ibiciro, nyamara haba hakwiye kurebwa n’uwagize uruhare mu kugeza ibicuruzwa ku isoko.

Aha atanga urugero nk’igihe igiciro cy’ibishyimbo cyagabanutse mu gihe kirekire, bituma wa muntu wagize uruhare mu kugeza ibyo bishyimbo ku isoko ahagarika ibyo bikorwa akimukira mu bindi, ariko ku muguzi we aba ari mu nyungu.

Ati "Icyo twifuza nka Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda ni ugushyiraho uburyo butuma ibiciro ku isoko bifasha abaguzi n’abagira uruhare bose mu kugeza ku isoko ibicuruzwa icyarimwe."

Gusa ku rundi ruhande hari izamuka ry’ibiciro ridafite aho rihuriye n’ubushobozi bwa Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda; nk’igihe imvura yaguye nabi cyangwa itaguye mu buryo bukwiye bikangiza imyaka, ibyo ntacyo BNR ibikoraho mu buryo bwa politiki y’ifaranga.

Ariko ku bindi biciro bitajyana n’ihindagurika ry’ibihe, BNR ikoresha uburyo bwose biba biri ku rwego rufasha impande zose.

Prof Kigabo avuga ko izamuka ry’ibiciro rishobora no kujyana n’uburyo ubukungu bw’igihugu buri kuzamuka; BNR yo igashyiraho uburyo busunikira amabanki gushora amafaranga yayo mu bikorwa by’abikorera.

Ati "Nko mu myaka itatu ishize twagize izamuka ry’ibiciro ridakanganye cyane, BNR yamanuye urwunguko itanga ku mabanki mu gihe aje kubitsa amafaranga yayo, mu rwego rwo kubereka ko tutari abakiriya beza bayo. Mu gihe nk’icyo banki icyo zikora ni ugushaka ahandi zishyira amafaranga yazo, inzira ikaba kuyaha abikorera ku giti cyabo."

Prof Kigabo avuga ko iyo babigenje batyo, bituma hari amafaranga ajya mu ruziga rw’ubukungu, abantu bagakora ubucuruzi bwabo, ubukungu bukazamuka, bigatuma babasha kugenzura ibiciro ku masoko.

Ese muri BNR haba amakarito y’amafaranga n’amadolari?

Prof Kigabo avuga ko ayo makarito yaba ahari cyangwa adahari, BNR idashobora gushyira amafaranga hanze ngo iyahe abantu uko babyifuza. Impamvu ngo ni uko iyo amafaranga abaye menshi mu baturage ku rwego rudahuye n’uburyo ubukungu buhagaze mu gihugu, biteza izamuka ry’ibiciro, bigasubiza inyuma izamuka ry’ubukungu muri rusange.

Ati "Ubusanzwe amafaranga umuntu atunze agomba kuba ajyanye n’ibyo akora. Hari ingero z’ibihugu byagiye bigira amafaranga menshi cyane atajyanye n’uko ubukungu bwabyo buhagaze bigatuma nk’umugati wari kugurwa ibihumbi bitatu, bucya wageze kuri miliyoni 10."

Ibibazo nk’ibyo ngo ni byo baba birinda kuko bagomba gukora ku buryo amafaranga ari hanze mu baturage ajyana n’uburyo ubukungu bw’igihugu buhagaze.

Agaciro k’ifaranga ry’u Rwanda ku ruhando mpuzamahanga

Mu myaka ine ishize, ifaranga ry’u Rwanda rigenda rita agaciro ku rugero ruri hagati ya gatatu na kane ku ijana buri mwaka; gusa BNR ivuga ko iyo bari kuvuga agaciro k’ifaranga mu gihe cy’isesengura ry’ubukungu, batareba ingano y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda avunjwa mu madolari mu bihe bitandukanye.

Prof Kigabo ati "Ubundi agaciro k’ifaranga kajyanye n’uko iryo faranga rifasha mu kugura ibicuruzwa biva hanze y’igihugu bijya mu nganda. Ubu iyo turebye dusanga inganda zo mu Rwanda zaratangiye gutanga umusanzu mu izamuka ry’ubukungu bw’u Rwanda."

Ubu ibikomoka mu nganda zikorera mu Rwanda ni byo byifashishwa mu kubaka imihanda, amahoteli, n’inyubako zitandukanye kandi ibyo ni byo bituma hakenerwa amadolari menshi cyane yo kubitumiza igihe bitari kuboneka ku isoko ry’imbere mu gihugu.

Prof Kigabo avuga ko ubu ibyatumizwaga mu mahanga bitari bubyazwe inyungu mu buryo bugaragara byagabanutse, ahubwo ibitumizwa hanze cyane muri iki gihe ni ibyunganira ubukungu bw’igihugu mu gihe kirekire.

Ati "Ubu turi guha imbaraga ubukungu bw’igihugu cyacu zituma mu myaka iri imbere tuzagira umusaruro uri hejuru cyane ku buryo ibyo twatumizaga hanze bizagenda bigabanuka, nibitagabanuka, ibyo twohereza hanze byo hazagire ibyiyongera. Aho rero niho hareberwa agaciro k’ifaranga."

Prof Kigabo akomeza avuga ko ibyo u Rwanda rwohereza hanze ku masoko mpuzamahanga ruhuriramo n’ibindi bihugu, bicuruzwa hagendewe ku buryo ifaranga ry’igihugu rihagaze, ndetse ko aho ifaranga ry’u Rwanda rihagaze ubu hangana n’ibyo rutumiza ndetse n’ibyo rwohereza hanze.

Ibi kandi ngo bijyana n’umusaruro uzava mu byo igihugu kiri gutumiza hanze, byitezweho kugira uruhare mu kongera ingano y’ibyoherezwa ku masoko mpuzamahanga mu gihe kizaza.

Hakorwa iki iyo ifaranga ryataye agaciro?

BNR ivuga ko u Rwanda rukigowe n’ikibazo, aho ibitumizwa hanze biruta ibyo rwoherezayo ku cyinyuranyo kinini, bigatuma banki n’ibiro by’ivunjisha biri mu gihugu bidashobora kubona amadorali yose abanyarwanda bakenera mu gutumiza ibicuruzwa hanze.

Icyo Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda ikora ni ukugurisha amadorali ifite ku bigo by’imari n’ibiro by’ivunjisha mu rwego rwo kubunganira kugira ngo bashobore gufasha abakeneye gutumiza ibicuruzwa hanze, ariko bigakorwa ku buryo agaciro k’ifaranga kajyana n’ibikenewe ku isoko ryo mu gihugu.

Prof Kigabo ati “Buri cyumweru tuba turi ku isoko kugurisha amadorali kuri za banki n’ibiro by’ivunjisha kugira ngo tubunganire.”

Kubika amafaranga bitandukaniye he no kubika zahabu?

Amateka y’ifaranga agaragaza ko mbere y’umwaduko waryo hari hari ubucuruzi bwari bushingiye ku kugurana ibyo abaturage babaga bafite hagati yabo. Iki gihe umuntu yashoboraga guha mugenzi we amasaka undi akamuha imyumbati cyangwa umwe agatanga inka mu mwanya w’umurima, n’ibindi.

Nyuma haje kugerwaho n’ibindi bintu by’agaciro birimo na za zahabu; izi na zo zaje gusimburwa n’inoti cyangwa amafaranga dukoresha ubu. Gusa zahabu zo zakomeje gukoreshwa mu gupima ubukungu bw’umuntu cyangwa igihugu bitewe n’ingano ya zahabu gitunze.

Prof Kigabo ati “Zahabu akenshi ntizitakaza agaciro, n’iyo zitaye agaciro, mu gihe gito zirongera zikagurishwa kandi zikavanwamo amafaranga menshi, ariko mu buryo rusange ku isi, igikoreshwa ni amafaranga afatika nubwo turi kugenda nayo duhindura uburyo tuyakoresha binyuze muri gahunda ya ‘cashless economy’’.

Prof Kigabo ashimangira ko zahabu zidashobora gusimbura amafaranga mu bukungu bw’ibihugu kuko n’aho bikorwa hirya no no hino ku isi, banakomeza gukoresha amafaranga asanzwe, zo zikifashishwa mu buryo busa no kwizigamira.

Uburyo igihugu cyaka umwenda kikanawishyura

Kwaka umwenda kw’igihugu ni igikorwa gisanzwe ukurikije uko abahanga mu gusesengura ubukungu babisobanura.

Prof Kigabo avuga ko ibihugu bihurira ku masoko mpuzamahanga gusaba yo imyenda, hagashingirwa ku bushobozi bujyana n’iterambere ry’ubukungu igihugu runaka gifite.

Ati “Iyo ari igihugu cyiyubashye nk’u Rwanda, uragenda bakaguha inguzanyo ku rwunguko ruto; cyaba ari igihugu gifite ibibazo byinshi kikagurizwa ku rwunguko ruri hejuru.”

Ngo iyi nguzanyo iba igiye gushorwa mu bikorwa bibyara inyungu kandi biteza imbere ubukungu. Iterambere ry’ubwo bukungu ngo ni ryo rikurwamo ubushobozi bwo kwishyura ya myenda igihugu cyafashe mu bihe bitandukanye.

Ingengo y’imari igihugu gitegura buri mwaka, haba harimo n’ubwishyu bw’imyenda igihugu cyafashe.

Prof. Thomas Kigabo ashinzwe ubukungu muri BNR

Gushyiraho ifaranga rimwe rya EAC bigeze he?

Urugendo rwo gushyiraho ifaranga rimwe mu bihugu bigize Umuryango wa Afurika y’Ibirasirazuba (EAC) rusa n’urutaragera ahatanga icyizere ku baturage b’ibihugu byo muri uyu muryango.

Prof Kigabo avuga ko iyo ibintu byakozwe neza, hakaba hari ubuhahirane buteye imbere cyane hagati y’ibihugu, gukoresha ifaranga rimwe biroroha kandi bigafasha impande zose.

Gusa ngo mu muryango wa EAC haracyari ibigomba kubanza gukorwa birimo kuzamura ubuhahirane hagati y’ibihugu binyamuryango ndetse hagashyirwaho uburyo bworohereza ibihugu mu kuba byakemura ikibazo icyo ari cyo cyose hakoreshejwe umuti umwe.

Ati “Nk’iyo ibiciro bizamutse, hari uburyo dukoresha politiki y’ifaranga kugira ngo tugabanye icyo gitutu ku biciro; ariko iyo ari ibihugu bibiri bitandukanye, kimwe gifite ibiciro biri hejuru ikindi biri hasi, birumvikana ko umuti umwe utakemura ikibazo muri ibyo bihugu.”

Prof Kigabo yakomeje avuga ko hakiri akazi kenshi muri urwo rugendo rwo gushyiraho ifaranga rimwe ku buryo bigoye guhamya igihe kazarangirira, ariko ko yizeye ko bizakorwa.


Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE

Kwamamaza

Special pages
. . . . . .