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Itangazamakuru mu Rwanda, imodoka itagira feri ikeneye umushoferi?

Yanditswe na Mutangana Gaspard
Kuya 9 Kamena 2021 saa 01:34
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Kuri ubu iyo uri nko mu ruhame ukumva hari uvuze ijambo RTLM cyangwa Kangura, umutima urasimbuka bitewe n’amateka mabi ibi binyamakuru byombi byagize.

Ni amazina y’ibinyamakuru bibiri bitazibagirana mu mateka y’u Rwanda ku ruhare rwabyo mu kwenyegeza urwango rwagejeje kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Abahanga bavuga ko itangazamakuru ari inkota y’amugi abiri atyaye, uwo ryasingije ugira ngo ni Malayika ariko uwo ryangishije abandi ntabona n’aho gusaba amazi.

Hari abemeza neza ko mu 1994 iyo hataba RTLM, Kangura n’ibindi binyamakuru byari mu murongo wa Jenoside, hari Abatutsi bamwe bari kurokoka. Hejuru yo kuba inyigisho zibiba urwango zari kutagera kure n’abatutsi bagiye bahigwa nyuma y’uko aho bihishe haranzwe kuri Radio ubu baba bakiriho.

Umugambi wabyaye Jenoside yahitanye Abatutsi basaga miliyoni mu minsi 100 wacuzwe n’abanyapolitiki babi, itangazamakuru ryo mu Rwanda rigira uruhare rukomeye mu gushishikariza Abanyarwanda kwanga no kwica bagenzi babo.

Icyakora nanone, itangazamakuru ryo mu Rwanda, rimaze igihe ritanga umusanzu mu kuzahura ubumwe n’ubwiyunge by’Abanyarwanda nyuma yo kugira uruhare mu kubisenya.

Bamwe mu basesengura itangazamakuru ryo mu Rwanda mu bihe bya mbere na nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi baganiriye na IGIHE, bavuze uko itangazamakuru ryo mu Rwanda ryitwaye, by’umwihariko kuva mu 1994, kugeza mu 2021, ubwo Abanyarwanda bibuka Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ku nshuro ya 27.

Kugira ngo itangazamakuru ribashe gucengeza mu Banyarwanda, ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside nta nkomyi, ryisunze icyitiriwe ukutaniganwa ijambo cyashyizweho na Leta ya Habyarimana Juvenal wari Perezida w’u Rwanda, nk’uko bigarukwaho na Tom Ndahiro, inararibonye akaba n’umusesenguzi mu bitambutswa mu bitangazamakuru byo mu Rwanda.

Ati “Ibyo itangazamakuru ryakoze mu gihe cya Jenoside, ni leta yabirifashijemo. Uwareba ukuntu leta ya Habyarimana yaretse abantu bakavuga ibyo bashaka, yakwibeshya ko bwari uburyo bwo guha ubwisanzure itanagazamakuru. Babazaga Habyarimana impamvu areka ibitangazamakuru bikabiba urwango, akavuga ko we ashyigikiye kutaniganwa ijambo.”

Umunyamakuru Nshimiyimana Sam Gody wakoze mu binyamakuru bitandukanye mbere na nyuma ya Jenoside, yavuze ko itangazamakuru ribiba urwango mbere ya Jenoside ryari rishyigikiwe na Leta kugeza ubwo abaturage babihabwa ku buntu.

Ati “Abashishikarizaga abantu gukora Jenoside, ntabwo babuzwaga gukora, ahubwo bahabwaga n’amafaranga. Bitewe n’uko bamwe mu baturage bangaga kugura ibinyamakuru bibiba urwango, abaturage babihabwaga ku buntu, basanzwe mu masoko n’ahandi hahurira abantu benshi.”

Ibitangazamakuru Leta ya Habyarima yanyuzagamo ibitekerezo by’ivangura, byahabwaga amafaranga, bigaterwa inkunga ngo bikomeze inshingano, mu gihe abakoraga itangazamakuru ry’umwuga ntaho babogamiye ibinyamakuru byabo byimwaga inkunga.

Nshimiyimana Sam Gody yavuze ko kuba Leta yateguye Jenoside yararebereye itangazamakuru ribiba urwango aribyo byatumye haboneka ibinyamakuru byinshi bishishikariza abahutu kwica abatutsi

Nshimiyimana yavuze ko Jenoside imaze gutangira, abanyamakuru batari bari mu mugambi wa Jenoside ari bamwe mu bibasiriwe, mu gihe itangazamakuru ribiba urwango bahawe rugari.

Mu bishwe mbere hari uwari Minisitiri w’Itangazamakuru Rucogoza Faustin. Bimwe mu bitangazamakuru byarahagaze, ibindi bisigara bikora nabi.

Ati “Abaturage bari barimye amatwi ibitangazamakuru bibiba urwango, ku buryo n’abakomokaga hamwe n’abateguraga Jenoside batabihaga agaciro. Ahubwo wasangaga bagura ibyo leta yarwanyaga, kuko ni byo byavugishaga ukuri."

"Gukangurira Abanyarwanda kwica bagenzi babo byafashe indi ntera, aho abaturage babwirwaga ko nibica Abatutsi bazajya bahita batwara imitungo yabo. Ntekereza ko kubwira abaturage ko nibica bagenzi babo bari buhite bagwiza ubutunzi, ari bumwe mu buryo abashishikarizaga abantu ubwicanyi bifashishije bakoshya benshi.”

Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi imaze guhagarikwa, Leta yihutiye gushyira imbaraga mu nzira y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge. Itangazamakuru nubwo ryari ryaragize uruhare mu gusenya igihugu, ryari rigikenewe ngo rigisubiranye ahanyuze ubutumwa bw’urwango, hanyure ubw’ihumure n’icyizere kuri ejo hazaza.

Barore Cleophas, umunyamakuru wa RBA unayoboye Urwego rw’Abanyamakuru Bigenzura mu Rwanda, RMC yagize ati “Nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, itangazamakuru ryakoze akazi gakomeye mu rugamba rwo kubaka igihugu, by’umwihariko mu kongera kubanisha Abanyarwanda. Ibitekerezo bishishikariza Abanyarwanda kongera kunga ubumwe, gutangaza ko amahoro yagarutse mu Rwanda, ibikorwa byo gucyura no gushishikariza impunzi gutaha, ntahandi byari kunyuzwa, uretse mu itangazamakuru. Ryatanze umusanzu ugaragara, cyane ko n’abarikoragamo wabona ko basobanukiwe icyerekezo gishya cy’igihugu.”

Barore kandi, yabwiye IGIHE ko ijwi ry’itangazamakuru Nyarwanda naryo ryazamutse, ku buryo n’ibitangazamakuru mpuzamahanga byavugaga u Rwanda mu ndimi z’amahanga byatangije ibiganiro kandi bigatangira gutangaza amaku avuga ku Rwanda mu Kinyarwana.

Yavuze ko mu myaka ya 1995 na 1997, ibitangazamakuru BBC na VOA (Ijwi rya Amerika) byashyize muri gahunda zabyo Ikinyarwanda.

Nk’umuntu wabonye itangazamakuru mu gihe na nyuma gato ya Jenoside, Barore yemeza ko hari iterambere rigaragara ryabayeho mu itangazamakuru nyarwanda. Abishingira ku kuba abanyamakuru b’Abanyarwanda baragiye bahabwa imirimo mu bitangazamakuru mpuzamahanga, kandi leta igafatanya n’abarigize gushyiraho amategeko arushaho kuriteza imbere.

Umunyamakuru Barore yavuze ko hakenewe itangazamakuru rikora kinyamnwuga ariko ritunga abaririmo

Abanyamakuru bagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bashyikirijwe ubutabera bagahabwa ibihano bitandukanye nka Ngeze Hassan wayoboraga Kangura, Nahimana Ferdinand wari umunyamakuru wa RTLM, Valérie Bemeriki na Georges Henri Yvon Joseph Ruggiu bakoreraga RTLM n’abandi.

Hari abanyamakuru bakwiriye gucungirwa hafi....

Ingabire Marie Immaculée, Umuyobozi w’Umuryango Urwanya Ruswa n’Akarengane mu Rwanda (TI-RW) yabwiye IGIHE ko nubwo nta wakwirengagiza ibyiza itangazamakuru ryafashije mu kongera kubaka u Rwanda, hari ibigikeneye kunozwa.

Ati “Mu nkuru zisanzwe, hari ibitangazamakuru bigerageza kugaruka ku bumwe n’ubwiyunge, ariko ibiganiro ntabwo biraba byinshi. Umuntu yavuga ko hari umusanzu itangazamakuru riri gutanga mu guteza imbere ubumwe n’ubwiyunge, ariko haracyari byinshi byo gukora. Hakwiye kongerwamo imbaraga.”

Mu gihe Nshimiyimana Sam Gody ashima ko hasigaye hariho uburyo butandukanye umunyabakuru ashobora kubonamo amafaranga nka YouTube, yanavuze ko hari abanyamakuru bo mu Rwanda bakwiye gucungirwa hafi, kuko ngo bigaragara ko babonye urwaho bashobora kurogoya ubumwe n’ubwiyunge Abanyarwanda bashyize imbere muri iyi minsi.

Ati “Hari abo mbona bashobora gukora nk’ibyo ababibye urwango bikatugeza kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bakoze. Hari abo bigaragara ko batacengewe n’isomo amateka yadusigiye. Haracyagaragara inkuru zimwe na zimwe zibogamye, ziba zakozwe n’abanyamakuru bigira abavugizi b’amatsinda ntazi.”

Ibi kandi byashimangiwe na Ingabire Immaculée wabwiye IGIHE ko hari abiyita abanyamakuru barya ruswa bagatambutsa ubutumwa bubangamira intego z’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge.

Yavuze ko YouTube ari umwe mu miyoboro migari ababiba urwango n’amacakubiri bifashisha mu kugoreka amateka y’u Rwanda.

Ati “Hari abanyamakuru baherutse kwemera ko bohererejwe amafaranga na Rusesabagina Paul. Ubu muntu arafungura umuyoboro wa YouTube, yarangiza akiyita umunyamakuru, kandi yarangiza akakubwira ngo yohererezwa amafaranga n’abantu bari hanze y’u Rwanda, usanga biganjemo abagoreka amateka y’u Rwanda. Barabakoresha bagatangaza ibidakwiye, kandi ni imbogamizi ikomeye ku bumwe n’ubwiyunge turi guharanira.”

Ingabire yavuze ko hakwiriye amavugurura mu mategeko agenga itangazamakuru, ku buryo uwemererwa gukora uwo mwuga aba ari umuntu ubikwiriye koko.

Ati “Kubona umuntu abyuka mu gitondo agafungura umuyoboro kuri YouTube, hanyuma akitwa umunyamakuru, ni imbogamizi ikomeye cyane. Natewe isoni n’aho umucamanza atinyuka akavuga ngo ‘kwemera ko uri umunyamakuru w’umwuga ntibisaba ko uba ufite ikarita y’itangazamakuru, wajya no muri RDB [Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’Iterambere] ugafungura YouTube yawe’. Dukwiye gutandukanya abanyamakuru n’abashoramari . Leta nisobanure neza umunyamakuru uwo ari we, kandi hagarazwe uko uwatandukiriye akurikiranwa”.

Ingabire Marie Immaculée yavuze ko Leta isabwa kugaragaza neza ukwiriye kwitwa umunyamakuru n'utari we kugira ngo hakumirwa abashobora kuryitwaza bagakora ibitari byo

Barore yavuze ko ikindi gikeneye kwitabwaho kuri ubu, ari amikoro y’ibitangazamakuru n’abanyamakuru kugira bakore kinyamwuga nubwo atabibona nk’impamvu yo gutezuka ku mahame.

Ati “Gukena kw’itangazamakuru birababaje, nta n’uwabyifuza. Hari abanyamakuru bakoreshwa ntibahembwe, ndetse hari n’abareze abakoresha babo mu nkiko baranabatsinda. Ariko nanone, ubukene ntibukwiye kuba urwitwazo, ngo umunyamakuru abushingireho ahemuka. Hari igihe umuntu ajya mu itangazamakuru yari asanzwe ari impirimbanyi mu bindi bintu, akitwikira umwambaro w’ubunyamakuru, ariko afite ibindi aharanira.”

Kugeza ubu, mu Rwanda habarirwa ibitangazamakuru 161[byanditse muri RGB], bitambutsa inkuru n’ibiganiro bitandukanye.

Umusesenguguzi Tom Ndahiro yemeza ko itangazamakuru ryijanditse muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bitewe n'uko byari bishyigikiwe na Leta

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