Iterambere rya mwarimu mu Rwanda rihagaze rite mu myaka 25 ishize?

Yanditswe na Evariste Nsengimana
Kuya 5 Ukwakira 2019 saa 08:28
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Nta gushidikanya! Guhera kuri wowe ugiye gusoma iyi nkuru ubwo bumenyi bugufasha gutandukanya inyajwi n’iyindi nta handi wabukuye uretse imbere ya mwarimu ufasha umuntu guhera mu mashuri y’incuke, abo bishobokeye bagakomeza, bakaminuza bakavamo abayobozi bakomeye, ibyamamare n’ibindi bibahesha icyuhahiro.

Mu myaka 25 ishize u Rwanda rwagiye rwiyubaka mu nkingi zitandukanye, ni urugendo rutari rworoshye na gato bitewe n’uburyo ubukungu bwarwo bwashegeshwe na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 n’ingaruka yasize.

Uvuze uko kwiyukaba kw’igihugu cyari kivuye mu bihe bikomeye, ntiwasiga mwarimu inyuma nubwo urugendo rukiri rurerure kugira ngo abashe kubaho neza, atava gutanga umusanzu mu kurwanya ubujiji n’ingaruka zabwo ngo aburare, arare ahangayitse cyangwa asaba amaramuko abaturanyi.

Imibare ya Minisiteri y’Uburezi igaragaza ko abarimu bigisha mu mashuri abanza bavuye kuri 43 558 mu 2016 bakagera kuri 44 544 mu 2018, ibigo by’amashuri bigishaho biva kuri 2 842 bigera kuri 2 909.

Mu mashuri yisumbuye bava kuri 28 785 bagera kuri 30 040, ibigo by’amashuri bigishaho biva ku 1 575 bigera ku 1 728 muri icyo gihe.

Uburezi ni rumwe mu nzego zifite abakozi benshi mu gihugu kandi rukenera byinshi, kubibonera rimwe usanga ari umutwaro kuri Leta zitandukanye ariko zikomeza kugenda zikubita hirya no hino ngo iby’ingenzi biboneke.

Uko imibare y’abarimu ikomeza kugenda yiyongera ni nako inshuro nyinshi abarimu bakomeza kugenda bagaragaza ko bacyugarijwe n’ibibazo by’amikoro macye, ahanini bitewe n’umushahara uri hasi ariko bakanishimira impinduka zigenda zigaragara uko imyaka igenda ishira.

Nkurunziza Jean Bosco wigisha kuri GS Marie Merci Kibeho mu Karere ka Nyaruguru, yabwiye IGIHE ko imibereho ya mwarimu igenda ihinduka ugereranyije n’uko byari bimeze mu myaka ishize.

Ati “Nubwo imishahara ikiri mito, imibereho ya mwarimu igenda iba myiza, uko twatangiye siko tumeze. Umuntu ntiyabura kuvuga ko umushahara wa mwarimu umaze kwikuba kabiri.”

Nkurunziza yavuze ko nubwo mbere umushahara wabaga ari muto ariko ibiribwa n’ubuzima muri rusange bw’icyo gihe byabaga bihendutse, gusa ngo mwarimu yahemberwaga mu ntoki ku buryo atashoboraga kwizigama cyangwa ngo asabe inguzanyo mu bigo by’imari ku buryo yakwigobotora ikibazo bahuye gitunguranye bitamugoye.

Yavuze ko uyu munsi mwarimu agenda ashyirirwaho inyunganira mushahara ukunze kunengwa kuba udahura n’ibiciro byo ku isoko birimo amacumbi, kuwongera buhoro buhoro, girinka mwarimu, gufashwa kwiga n’ibindi.

Izo gahunda zashyizweho ni zimwe mu zitezweho kuba imbarutso yo gufasha u Rwanda mu cyerekezo rwihaye cyo kubaka ubukungu bushingiye ku bumenyi, bizagerwaho bigizwemo uruhare n’uburezi bufite ireme, butangwa na mwarimu wishimiye kandi ukunda umwuga.

Kongera umushahara

Umuyobozi w’Urwunge rw’Amashuri rwa Nganzo I mu Karere ka Gakenke, Kuradusenge Thomas, yabwiye IGIHE ko yatangiye kwigisha mu 1990 ahembwa 14 000Frw ariko nyuma gato ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi umushahara ushyirwa ku 18 000Frw mu mashuri abanza.

Uyu mushahara wagiye wongera buhoro buhoro, umwaka ushize wari ugeze kuri 40 000Frw ku mutangizi wo mu mashuri abanza na 120 000Frw ku mutangizi wo mu mashuri yisumbuye ufite impamyabumenyi y’icyiciro cya kabiri cya kaminuza.

Guhera muri Werurwe uyu mwaka umushahara wa mwarimu wongereweho 10% ku bigisha mu mashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye ya Leta n’afatanya na Leta kubw’amasezerano. Kongera uyu mushahara n’ibindi bikorwa byatumye Ingengo y’imari ya leta yiyongeraho miliyari 141 Frw, bituma igera kuri miliyari zisaha 2584Frw.

Umwalimu Sacco

Inyongera y’umushahara wa mwarimu yiyongera ku bindi bisanzwe bikorerwa abarimu bigamije kubafasha kwiteza imbere. Muri ibyo harimo Koperative ‘Umwalimu Sacco’ ibafasha mu kwizigama no kubona inguzanyo bakwifashisha mu mishinga ibafasha kwiteza imbere ku nyungu iri hasi.

Koperative Umwalimu Sacco yashinzwe mu 2008 ku gitekerezo cya Perezida Paul Kagame, hagamijwe gufasha abarimu kwivana mu bukene no guteza imbere imibereho yabo muri rusange, Leta yemera inkunga ya miliyari 30Frw zo gutangirana.

Umwaka ushize iyi koperative yabaruraga miliyari zigera muri 200 z’amafaranga y’inguzanyo zahawe abarimu, mu gihe amafaranga y’ubwizigame yari miliyari zigera kuri 23Frw, na ho inguzanyo zari hanze ari miliyari 58 Frw. Mu 2018 inyungu y’Umwarimu Sacco yageze kuri miliyari eshatu ivuye kuri miliyari 2.1Frw mu 2017.

Kuradusenge ati “Umwarimu Sacco uradufasha cyane kuko udufasha kubona inguzanyo ku nyungu iri hasi kuri 11% mu gihe ahandi ari kuri 18%, bigatuma umwarimu agenda yiteza imbere kubera gukorana na Banki, akiteza imbere, akubaka inzu ku buryo uyu munsi mwarimu agira ho ataha.”

Amacumbi

Mu 2012 nibwo guverinoma y’u Rwanda yatangije gahunda yo kubakira abarimu amacumbi hagamijwe kugira ngo abakorera mu bice by’icyaro babone ahantu hiyubashye ho gucumbika kandi habereye mwarimu. Minisiteri y’uburezi igaragazaga ko kuva uyu mushinga watangira hamaze kubakwa amacumbi 417.

Nkurunziza yasobanuriye IGIHE ko nko mu bice by’icyaro aya macumbi afasha cyane cyane abarimu bahigisha badataha mu miryango yabo, ntibahangayikishwe n’aho kuba mu gihe bari butanga amasomo.

Girinka Mwalimu

Gahunda ya “Girinka Mwalimu” yatangije na Minisiteri y’Uburezi mu 2009 igamije gushimira ababaye indashyikirwa mu kazi kabo ka buri munsi ko kwigisha. Muri uwo mwaka hagabiwe abarimu 150 bo mu Turere icumi.

Umwalimu wagabiwe inka ikabyara, inyana ya mbere ayoroza undi mwalimu watoranyijwe. Kugeza uyu munsi iyi gahunda imaze kugera ku barimu 20.88.

Umuyobozi mu Rwunge rw’amashuri rwa Bare, Soeur Mukangabire Felecie, uheruka guhembwa inka kubera umushinga wo koroza abanyeshuri inkwavu watumye 50% by’abarivuyemo bagaruka, yavuze ko icyo gihembo kimushimishije kandi ari imbaraga abonye zo gukora cyane no kwiteza imbere.

Mwalimu afashwa kwiga

Mu rwego rwo kuzamura ubushobozi bw’abalimu no kubagira abanyamwuga, hashyizweho gahunda yo gushyira abarimu mu byiciro hagendewe ku burambe mu kazi, ku mikorere myiza ku buryo buhoraho, guhanga udushya, no gukomeza gutera imbere mu mwuga w’ubwarimu.

Guverinoma yashyizeho ingamba zo guteza imbere amasomo nderabarezi muri Kaminuza n’amashuri makuru, aho Leta iha buruse itishyurwa n’amafaranga atunga umunyeshuri ugiye kubyiga.

Ibi bitangirana no kugabanyirizwa amafaranga y’ishuri yishyurwa mu ishuri ryisumbuye nderabarezi (TTC), hamwe n’ivugururwa ry’integanyanyigisho ifasha abarangije kwiga mu nderabarezi gukomeza mu mashuri makuru na Kaminuza.

Muri iyi gahunda biteganyijwe ko umwarimu urangije mu nderabarezi akigisha imyaka itatu mu mashuri abanza, azajya yemererwa buruse itishyurwa n’amafaranga atunga umunyeshuri byo gukomeza mu cyiciro cya kabiri cya Kaminuza (Bachelors) mu ishami ry’Uburezi.

Urangije Kaminuza mu ishami ry’uburezi, akigisha imyaka itanu mu mashuri yisumbuye, azajya yemererwa buruse itishyurwa n’amafaranga atunga umunyeshuri byo gukomeza mu cyiciro cya gatatu cya Kaminuza mu ishami ry’Uburezi.

Mudasobwa ku mwalimu

Nyuma yo gutangiza gahunda ya Mudasobwa imwe ku munyeshuri [One Laptop per child], umwaka ushize Minisiteri y’uburezi yabwiye abarimu ko aribo batahiwe.

Umunyamabanga wa Leta muri Minisiteri y’Uburezi ushinzwe amashuri abanza n’ayisumbye, Dr Munyakazi Isaac yagize ati “Nabizeza ko buri mwaka abarimu barenga 400 bazajya bahabwa mudasobwa..Iyi gahunda izakomeza kugeza mudasobwa kuri buri mwalimu, aho tuvuga One Laptop per Child tukagera n’aho tuvuga One Laptop per Teacher.’’

Amashuri Nderabarezi yongerewe ubushobozi

Ministeri y’Uburezi yashyizeho gahunda yo kongerera ubushobozi amashuri y’inderabarezi (TTCs) n’amashuri y’imenyerezamwuga wo kwigisha, aho abarimu bimenyereza umwuga batangirira kwitoza kwigisha.

Integanyanyigisho ivuguruye y’aya mashuri, izafasha abayarangijemo kugira ubushobozi bwo kuba abarimu babishoboye kandi b’umwuga bashobora gukomeza amasomo yabo ku byiciro byisumbuye no gupigana ku isoko ry’umurimo wo kwigisha.

Leta igaragaza ko Amashuri nderabarezi azashyigikirwa binyuze mu kuyatera inkunga yo kugaburira abanyeshuri, anahabwe amafaranga agenewe guteza imbere ibigo by’amashuri.

Mwarimu w’intyoza mu cyongereza

Mu guteza imbere imikoreshereze y’ururimi rw’Icyongereza mu myigire n’imyigishirize, guverinoma y’u Rwanda yashyizeho gahunda aho abarimu bo mu cyiciro cya kabiri cy’amashuri abanza, abo mu mashuri yisumbuye n’abarimu bo muri Kaminuza bazajya bakora isuzumabumenyi ry’ururimi rw’icyongereza hagamijwe kumenya ubushobozi bw’umwarimu mu gukoresha urwo rurimi mu kwigisha, kumuha ubufasha bukwiye, no kumushishikariza gukomeza kurwiyigisha.

Mwalimu ucunzwe neza

Mu rwego rwo kunoza imitangire y’akazi n’ishyirwa mu myanya ry’abarimu mu burezi bw’ibanze no mu mashuri y’imyuga n’ubumenyingiro, havuguruwe uburyo bwo gushaka no gushyira abarimu mu kazi.

Ubu buryo buzashyirwa mu bikorwa na Minisiteri y’Uburezi, Minisiteri y’Abakozi ba Leta n’Umurimo na Minisiteri y’Ubutegetsi bw’Igihugu, mu gihe ubusanzwe ibi byakorwaga n’Uturere gusa.

Ubu nyuma yo gutsinda ikizamini cy’akazi ku rwego rw’Igihugu, abarimu bose bashyirwa ku rutonde rw’abatsinze ruba rufite agaciro k’imyaka ibiri, rwifashishwa mu gushyira abarimu mu myanya y’akazi hashingiwe ku manota bagize n’Uturere dutatu bahisemo aho bazakorera.

Ibyifuzo by’ahazaza

Abarimu nubwo bagaragaza ko imibereho yabo ikomeje kugenda ivugururwa, bavuga ko ibibazo bigihari aho bifuza ko nk’umushahara wahuzwa n’ibiciro ku isoko cyangwa igihe Isi iganamo, mwarimu agafashwa kubona aho ahahira ku biciro biri hasi n’ibindi bijyanye n’imibereho myiza muri rusange.

Hari byinshi bimaze gukorwa mu iterambere rya mwalimu mu Rwanda

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