Opération Turquoise yatije umurindi ifatwa ku ngufu ry’abagore mu Nkambi ya Murambi no mu nkengero zayo

Yanditswe na Dr Bizimana Jean Damascène
Kuya 2 Nyakanga 2020 saa 10:14
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Abasirikare b’Abafaransa bageze i Murambi ku wa 24 Kamena 1994. Byavugwaga ko baje mu butabazi mu Nkambi za Murambi na Nyarushishi kimwe no mu Bisesero ariko abatangabuhamya b’impunzi n’Interahamwe zari mu nkengero z’inkambi bavuze ko Interahamwe zakomeje kwica Abatutsi kandi ko abasirikare b’Abafaransa bafashe ku ngufu abari baracitse ku icumu kandi bagombaga kubaha umutekano.

Muri Gikongoro abasirikare ba Opération Turquoise bari bakereye urugamba rwo gutabara abicanyi. Abahageze mbere ni abo mu Mutwe wa COS (Commandement des Opérations Spéciales) bari bayobowe na Lieutenant- Colonel Etienne Joubert, bahageze ku wa 24 Kamena 1994 bavuye i Cyangugu.

Bashyize icyicaro cyabo mu Kigo cya SOS. Ku wa 27 Kamena, abandi basirikare bamanukira mu mitaka (légionnaires de la 11ème division parachutiste) barabahasanze bayobowe na Capitaine Eric Hervé, nyuma abandi barwanira ku butaka (légionnaires du 2ème régiment étranger d’infanterie de Nîmes) bayobowe na Capitaine Nicol nabo barahaza.

Bamwe muri bo bacumbitse mu nzu za Koleji ACEPER. Abandi basirikare bari bavuye i Djibouti bayobowe na Capitaine Bouchez (3ème compagnie de la 13ème demi-brigade de la Légion étrangère) bakambitse mu nkengero za Nyungwe, hafi y’uruganda rw’icyayi rwa Kitabi, aho bacukuye imyobo yo kwirindiramo mu bihe by’imirwano.

Ku wa 5 Nyakanga 1994, abandi basirikare bo mu mitwe ya 11ème régiment d’artillerie de marine na 2ème régiment parachutiste d’infanterie yari ivuye muri Réunion, bakambitse mu Ishuri rya Tekiniki rya Murambi ryari ricyubakwa aho hari habereye ubwicanyi ndengakamere mu ijoro ryo ku wa 20 rishyira ku wa 21 Mata 1994.

Abo basirikare bari i Murambi bari bayobowe na Colonel Jacques Rosier wari n’Umuyobozi wa COS. Bageze i Murambi Abafaransa bahashyize imodoka z’intambara zifite imbunda nini za 90 mm.

Icyo gihe abantu bose bari bazi ko Abafaransa baje gutabara ingabo za Leta zarimo zitsindwa, bituma abayobozi banyuranye barimo Perefe Laurent Bucyibaruta babwira abaturage ngo bereke Abafaransa ko bishimiye ko baje kubatabara.

Colonel Didier Tauzin, alias Thibault ni we wabanje kuyobora abasirikare bari ku Gikongoro ku wa 4 Nyakanga, bivugwa ko Abafaransa batazatinya kurwana inkundura na FPR, ngo bari bahawe amabwiriza yo “kutagira imbabazi”.

Yaje gusimburwa mu gihe gito na Colonel Sartres waje koherezwa ku Kibuye ku wa 16 Nyakanga 1994. Ubuyobozi bw’abasirikare babo bari ku Gikongoro bwahawe Lieutenant-Colonel Eric De Stabenrath, yungirijwe na Commandant Pegouvelo, ari bo bakomeje kuyobora kugeza igihe operasiyo Turquoise yarangiriye kuwa 22 Kanama 1994.

- Bageze ku Gikongoro, Abafaransa bahise bagirana ibiganiro n’abayobozi bicaga Abatutsi

Abasirikare b’Abafaransa bakoranye n’abayobozi ba Gikongoro bicaga Abatutsi. Bakoranaga inama kenshi bakazenguruka Perefegitura yose bareba aho gushyira za bariyeri, cyane cyane ku mugezi wa Mwogo kugira ngo babuze ingabo za FPR kuzagera mu gice cya Turquoise.

Abafaransa bakuragaho ba Burugumesitiri bariho bagashyiraho abayobozi babo, cyangwa bakemeza abari bariho kabone bari baragize uruhare muri Jenoside. Hafi ya ba burugumesitiri na ba superefe bose bakoranye n’Abafaransa baje gukurikiranwa n’inkiko zo mu Rwanda cyangwa Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga rwashyiriyeho u Rwanda, icyaha cya Jenoside kirabahama.

Abafaransa bahaye aba burugumesitiri amabwiriza yo gushaka ingabo za FPR zaba zarahacengeye cyangwa ibyitso byabo, bakababazanira. Abatangabuhamya benshi bemeje imbere ya Komisiyo Mucyo muri 2006-2007 ko ayo mabwiriza yari akubiyemo no kwica Abatutsi. Banashyiragaho abashinzwe umutekano b’abasivili bo gukorana nabo bakabaha n’intwaro.
Mu gice cya Turquoise, inkambi z’impunzi zavuye mu byabo zabaye nyinshi muri Perefegitura ya Gikongoro, inini muri zo zari i Murambi, Cyanika (Karama) , Mbazi, Kaduha, Musange, Kibeho, Ndago, Mudasomwa, Muko, Mushubi, n’ahandi.

Muri izo nkambi hari n’Interahamwe, abasirikare ba Guverinoma, n’abayobozi banyuranye bagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Birirwaga bahiga Abatutsi mu nkambi no mu nkengero zayo bakica abantu benshi. Abafaransa barekaga abicanyi bagakora icyo bashaka, ntibanakureho za bariyeri Interahamwe ziciragaho Abatutsi.

- Ibyaha abasirikare b’Abafaransa bakoreye i Murambi cyangwa se byakozwe babihagarikiye

Inkambi ya Murambi yari mu nzu y’Ishuri rya Tekiniki ryari ricyubakwa aho Abatutsi barenga 50,000 biciwe bamaze kuhakusanyirizwa bitegetswe na Perefe Bucyibaruta.

Abafaransa bahageze nyuma y’amezi abiri hakorewe Jenoside, bahashyira inkambi z’abantu bavuye mu byabo n’ikigo cya gisirikare cyarimo imbunda za rurura. Bazitiye inkambi yabo na senyenge banahacukura imyobo yo kurwaniramo.

Mu kubaka ikigo cyabo, bifashishije abaturage bo mu nkengero, barimo n’Interahamwe bagize uruhare mu bwicanyi bukabije bwari bwarahakorewe ku wa 21 Mata 1994. Imirambo myinshi yari yarakuwe mu nzu z’ishuri n’abayobozi ba Perefegitura bitegura ukuza kw’Abafaransa, iyo mirambo yashyinguwe mu byobo rusange mu busitani bw’ishuri.

Imirambo imwe yari igihari n’amaraso akigaragara ku nkuta, bituma Abafaransa barahakoze isuku bagashyingura n’imirambo yari itangiye kwangirika. Abafaransa bashyize ikibuga cyo gukiniraho umupira w’intoki iruhande neza y’icyobo cyashyinguwemo Abatutsi bahiciwe, ku buryo abareberezi bazaga kureba iyo mikino bakandagiraga hejuru y’icyo cyobo.
Imbere mu nkambi Abatutsi barokotse ubwicanyi bari bavanze n’abasirikare ba Leta n’Interahamwe bagize uruhare muri Jenoside. Uko kubavanga byatumye abicanyi barakomeje kwica abari mu nkambi nyamara yaragombaga kurindirwa umutekano.

Abatangabuhamya berekanye ko hari ubwumvikane hagati y’abasirikare b’Abafaransa n’abicanyi, bikaba byaratumye ubwicanyi, gufata ku ngufu n’ibindi nkabyo bikomeza muri iyo nkambi.

- Abasirikare b’Abafaransa baretse Interahamwe zikomeza Jenoside ku Gikongoro

Abasirikare b’Abafaransa ntibigeze basenya za bariyeri abicanyi bakoreshaga mu gutoranya abo bica. Babarekeye intwaro zabo bakazinjirana mu nkambi zarimo Abatutsi bari bararokotse ubwicanyi, bagatoranyamo abo bajya kwica. Hari n’ubwo Abafaransa bahagarikiraga abicanyi bakica Abatutsi, cyangwa bakabashishikariza kubica, babaga bararokotse ubwicanyi bakagana abo Bafaransa baje kubasaba kubafasha no kubarindira umutekano.

Abatangabuhamya benshi bavuga ko abasirikare b’Abafaransa bashyiraga Abatutsi Interahamwe bakazishishikariza kubica. Abafaransa iyo bafataga Abatutsi babashyiraga abicanyi bakabicira mu maso yabo. Ibyo byakorwaga kuri za bariyeri zari zarashyizweho n’Interahamwe kuva muri Mata 1994 ariko Abafaransa bakaba baraziretse zigakomeza gukora mu gice cya Turquoise.

Bariyeri yari izwi cyane ni iyari ku iteme rya Mwogo ryatandukanyaga Perefegitura za Gikongoro na Butare. Abasirikare b’Abafaransa baretse Interahamwe zikomeza kugenzura indangamuntu z’abahacaga, bakicira mu maso y’Abafaransa Abatutsi bahafatiraga.

Abanyamakuru bari bahari mu mezi ya Nyakanga na Kanama 1994, berekana ko abari bararokotse ubwicanyi bashoboraga kwicwa n’Interahamwe mu gihe Abafaransa bagombaga guhagarika ubwicanyi. Corinne Lesnes wo mu kinyamakuru cy’Abafaransa Le Monde yagize ati “I Murambi hari impunzi barinzwe ariko bafite ubwoba bwinshi, bifuza gusa kubona uko bava muri icyo gice ngo cyashyiriweho kubarindira umutekano.’’

Dominique Garraud wo mu kinyamakuru cy’Abafaransa Libération na we yasanze abarokotse Jenoside batari barinzwe ‘‘Mu nkengero z’isoko, ahari imboga nyinshi byerekana ko ubuhinzi muri ako karere bwateye imbere, abasirikare ba Leta n’Interahamwe, bitwaje imbunda za Kalashnikov ku rutugu, bararamukanya n’abasirikare b’Abafaransa. Ibyo bisa nkaho nta kibazo cyari gihari. Nyamara abicanyi bakomeje kwica impunzi z’Abatutsi n’Abahutu batavuga rumwe.’’

Hari inyandiko z’umwimerere za Opération Turquoise zanditswe n’abasirikare b’Abafaransa kuri Kaduha zerekana ko muri Nyakanga 1994, hari imirambo itamaze iminsi, bivuze ko Abatutsi bakomeje kwicwa mu gihe Abafaransa bari barahageze. Hari inyandiko yo ku wa 10 Nyakanga 1994 ivuga ibi bikurikira ‘‘Ibyobo byinshi birunzemo amagana y’imirambo, byabonetse i Kaduha. Kandi hari n’imirambo itamaze iminsi yagaragaye hafi y’isoko.’’

Kuba Abatutsi barakomeje kwicwa i Kaduha byabonywe n’abanyamakuru b’abanyamahanga bazanye n’abasirikare b’Abafaransa. Nibyo Christian Lecomte wo mu kinyamakuru La Vie yabonye ‘‘Hagati mu kwezi kwa Nyakanga 1994, mu Kiliziya ya Kaduha hari hakiri ibimenyetso bw’ubwicanyi bwahakorewe: amaraso yari akiri hose. Nta kigeze gisukurwa kuko abicanyi ntacyo bahishaga, bari bazi ko batazakurikiranwa […] muri Superefegitura ya Kaduha Abatutsi baracyahigwa.’’

-  Abasirikare b’Abafaransa bafashe ku ngufu Abatutsikazi babahindura abaja babo kuri izo mpamvu

Habaye ibikorwa byo gufata ku ngufu, guhutazwa no kugirwa abaja bafatwa ku ngufu igihe bashakiye, kandi bivugwa n’abacitse ku icumu babikorewe nyamara bacumbitse ahantu hitwa ko abo basisikare bagombaga kubarindira umutekano. Ibindi bikorwa by’urugomo nk’ibyo bivugwa n’ababibonye cyangwa bumvise abo basirikare b’Abafaransa babiganira.

Byakorewe mu bigo by’abasirikare b’Abafaransa by’i Karama (Cyanika), Murambi na SOS Gikongoro. Ibindi byakorewe ahantu abasirikare b’Abafaransa batinze nka Kinyamakara, Kaduha na Mushubi. Hari uwafashwe ku ngufu n’abasirikare b’Abafaransa bari kumwe na burugumesitiri wa Komini Karama.

-  Abasirikare b’Abafaransa bakoze ibikorwa by’iyica rubozo banasahura umutungo wa Leta

Abatangabuhamya benshi bavuze ko abasirikare b’Abafaransa bahohoteye abantu b’abasivili bakabakorera iyicarubozo, bakabakubita, bakabafungirana n’ibindi. Bavuga ko byabahungabanyije, ariko nibyatuma bata ubumuntu bwabo. Kandi mbere yo kuva ku Gikongoro, abasirikare b’Abafaransa basenye cyangwa batwara muri Zaïre umutungo wa Leta. Rimwe na rimwe bareberaga abaturage basenya banasahura umutungo wa Leta.

-  Abasirikare b’Abafaransa bakoranye n’abicanyi aho kubafata

Abayobozi b’Abasirikare b’Abafaransa muri Opération Turquoise ku Gikongoro, bakoranye n’abayobozi b’abicanyi, ahandi bashyiraho abayobozi kabone baragize uruhare muri Jenoside. Kandi muri icyo gihe abenshi mu bakoranye n’Abafaransa bari bazwi nk’abicanyi ruharwa ku buryo byari kuborohera kubimenya iyo bashaka kubibaza.

Abafaransa bari bazi abo batoranyaga gukorana nabo, abo ba burugumesitiri n’aba superefe, byaba ku Gikongoro, i Cyangugu no ku Kibuye. Niyo mpamvu umwe muri bo, Capitaine de Fregate Marin Gillier yabwiye umunyamakuru Christian Leconte muri Nyakanga 1994 ibi bikurikira ‘‘Tuzi ko abenshi mu ba burugumesitiri n’aba superefe bo muri aka karere, bagize uruhare mu bwicanyi Abatutsi bakorerwa, no mu kubutegura. Twabonye ubuhamya bwinshi bubyemeza. Ariko muri iki gihe nibo dufite bonyine tuvugana nabo mu bagera kuri miliyoni n’igice z’impunzi z’Abahutu bahungiye muri iki gice.’’

Abafaransa bakoranye n’aba bicanyi b’ingenzi bakurikira:

-  Laurent Bucyibaruta, Perefe wa Gikongoro, wahungiye mu Bufaransa

-  Damien Biniga, Superefe wa Munini, ugishakishwa n’inzego zo mu butabera z’u Rwanda

-  Joseph Ntegeyintwali, Superefe wa Karaba, wakatiwe urupfu bikaza guhindurwamo igifungo cya burundu.

-  Joachim Hategekimana, Superefe wa Kaduha, wakatiwe igifungo cya burundu, etc.

Umubare munini w’ababurugumesitiri, aba konseye ba segiteri, n’abigeze kuba aba burugumesitiri bavuye mu Rwanda barinzwe n’abasirikare b’Abafaransa.

UMWANZURO

Mu buhamya bwatanzwe, bigaragara ko mu gihe bari ku Gikongoro, abasirikare b’Abafaransa bahohoteye bikomeye abasivili bari bashinzwe kurinda mu buryo bwinshi, ari ku buzima, ku mubiri no kuri roho. Ibyo bikorwa barabikomeje mu turere tunyuranye twa perefegitura.

Mbere yo gutaha kandi, abasirikare b’Abafaransa bafashije abayobozi b’abicanyi n’abasirikare ba Leta nabo bakoze Jenoside kuva mu Rwanda bagahungira muri Zaïre bitwaje abaturage b’abasivili kugira ngo babakingire ikibaba.

Ibyabaye i Murambi byerekana neza ko Abafaransa ba Opération Turquoise batari bazanwe n’ubutabazi, ariko ko byari bigamije kurinda abicanyi bakabafasha gusohoka mu gihugu.


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