Uburyo telefoni ngendanwa yinjiye mu Rwanda, icyafatwaga nk’igikoresho cy’abaherwe kikorohereza benshi

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 17 Nyakanga 2020 saa 07:22
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Izina Martin Cooper ryubashywe mu Isi y’itumanaho rya telefoni, mu buryo bumwe n’uko Pelé ameze mu mupira w’amaguru, Archimedes mu mibare cyangwa Albert Einstein mu bugenge.

Ku wa 3 Mata 1973 nibwo Copper wakoraga muri Motorola yabashije guhamagara bwa mbere akoresheje telefoni itifashisha imigozi inyura mu butaka nk’uko byari bimenyerewe. Iyo telefoni yapimaga ikilo 1.1, ikareshya na santimetero 23 cm.

Nyuma y’imyaka 25 iri tumanaho ryatangiye kugera mu Rwanda, ritangira mu buryo bugoye kuko ibikorwa remezo byari bike n’ubushobozi bw’abaturage buri hasi.

Umwe mu bakurikiranye iterambere ry’iri tumanaho mu Rwanda ni Sam Nkusi, ubu ni umuyobozi wa Liquid Telecom muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba. Yabaye Umunyamabanga wa Leta muri Minisiteri y’Ibikorwa remezo ushinzwe ingufu n’Itumanaho, ndetse yayoboye Rwandatel, ikigo cya mbere cy’itumanaho cyashinzwe mu Rwanda.

Avuga ko telefoni zatangiye gukoreshwa mu Rwanda mu myaka ya za 80, ariko zari iz’imigozi, guhamagara bigasaba gukaraga ikiziga ngo ugere ku muntu ushaka. Zakoreshaga iminara yabaga ku misozi nk’i Nyanza na Jali, iza kuraswa mu bihe bya Jenoside.

Jenoside irangiye mu buryo u Rwanda rwisuganyaga mu nzego zose, abahanga b’abanyarwanda bari mu mahanga bagasabwa kuza gutanga umusanzu mu kubaka igihugu, nibwo buryo Nkusi yajemo, yinjira mu kubaka itumanaho mu gihugu.

Yagize ati “Nta telefoni n’imwe yakoraga. Kugira ngo dutangire twiyubake, byari ugusubizaho ya matelefoni yari ahari, atarakoraga neza. Ari ya minara yaduhuzaga no hanze bari barayirashe, ariko icyiza bamwe nyine twari tuzi icyo gukora kuko twabaga hanze, ari nabyo twakoragamo.”

Guverinoma nshya mu byo yari ishyize imbere harimo no kubaka ikoranabuhanga, hatangira kurebwa uburyo telefoni ngendanwa zagezwa mu Rwanda, kandi ngo zari zitaranakwira mu bihugu bitanyuze mu bibazo nk’iby’u Rwanda, ku buryo muri Afurika zari nko mu bihugu bibiri.

Yakomeje ati “Noneho turavuga ngo natwe tujye kuzishakisha, tuze tuzishyire aha mu Rwanda. Ariko icyo gihe mu Rwanda, urumva mu 1994 twari tuvuye mu bihe bibi kandi byari bitarashira, ari amarira, ari amaraso, kugira ngo tubashe kureba imbere, kuvuga ngo tugiye mu ikoranabuhanga rya telefoni zigendanwa, tube mu ba mbere bashaka kubizana kubera icyifuzo cyacu na gahunda dufite, kandi tuvuye mu bihe bibi tumaze kwicana, uwo wabwiraga wese ntakumve, urumva nta wabishakaga.”

Muri icyo gihe ikigo MTN cyo muri Afurika y’Epfo cyari cyaratangiye ibikorwa, ariko kidakorera kuri uyu mugabane, ku buryo ibikorwa byacyo muri Afurika ari nk’aho byatangiriye mu Rwanda.

Nkusi yakomeje ati “Njye mu 1995 nahuye nabo, nti muze mushore imari aha mu Rwanda. [Bati] mu Rwanda se icya mbere muri agahugu gato, icya kabiri mwaricanye, kandi n’ubu ntabwo dufite icyizere ko bizagera aho [mutubwira], twebwe twagira umuhate wo kujya mu bihugu ahantu twakuramo inyungu, duhe impamvu yatuma tuza aha nubwo aribwo bwa mbere.”

Muri icyo gihe ngo MTN ntabwo yumvaga impamvu yazana ibikorwa mu Rwanda, hashira umwaka nta mwanzuro uragerwaho, bigera mu 1996 ibiganiro birakomeza.

Yakomeje ati “Ndababwira nti nimuza aha rero mwireba u Rwanda gusa uko rungana, [nimutaza] namwe muzaguma mu kato kanyu muri Afurika y’Epfo. Ubwo nari nahuye n’umukuru wabo mu ndege, tugenda tuganira, ati ‘mufite ibitekerezo byiza ariko ntawabizera.”

Icyo gihe ngo bitsaga ku buryo u Rwanda ari igihugu gifite abaturage bake, kikiva mu ntambara, ubukungu bwacyo buri hasi, n’ibindi, ku buryo ibitekerezo u Rwanda rwabagezagaho by’imikoranire, byafatwaga nko kurota.

Nkusi ati “Ntitwacika intege, ubuyobozi bwacu bukomeza kubashishikaza, mu 1998 MTN yafunguye aha aribwo bwa mbere ifungura hose muri Afurika, tubereka ko gufungura mu Rwanda, n’aho duhagaze nk’igihugu, uzaba winjiye no mu karere. Turakwinjiza no muri Uganda, niko byagenze, urajya no muri DRC, uragukira no muri Afurika yose, noneho bamwe tuba muri iryo tsinda ryo kubitekereza.”

MTN yahise ifungura ibikorwa mu Rwanda, ahagana mu kwezi kwa cumi mu 1998. Iryo tumanaho uko ryagendaga rirutana (generation ikunzwe gusimbuzwa inyuguti ya G), mu 1980 hari 1G ijyana no kuvugira kuri telefoni gusa, 2G ukavuga ukanohereza ubutumwa, 3G ukavuga, ukohereza ubutumwa n’amafoto, kugeza kuri 4G aho ibikorwa byihuta kurutaho, ndetse mu gihe kiri imbere hitezwe 5G.

Mu 2017 Perezida Kagame yavuze ko kugira ngo MTN yemere gufungura mu Rwanda, byasabye ko hashyirwamo ishoramari ryo mu gihugu, mu buryo bw’imigabane.

Yasobanuye ko usibye igice cy’amafaranga FPR yari yarakusanyije mu gihe cy’urugamba cyakoreshejwe mu kuzahura ibikorwa by’ubucuruzi hagendewe ku byo abanyarwanda bari bakeneye cyane, andi agira uruhare mu gutuma MTN ikorera mu gihugu.

Ati “Igice cya ya mafaranga cyakoreshejwe mu kugura imigabane muri MTN dore ko na mbere yashidikanyaga kuza mu Rwanda yibaza iti ni gute dushora imari muri iki gihugu cyasenyutse? Turababwira tuti ‘turashaka kwiyemeza iki kintu hamwe namwe’, twaguze 51% by’imigabane bo basigarana 49% tunabarekera ubuyobozi.”

Ingorane zari zose

Uyu munsi nuganira n’umuntu azakubwira ko kumara umwanya adafite telefoni ye mu ntoki cyangwa ku mufuka bigoye, kuva mu mujyi kugera mu byaro. Nyamara si ko byahoze.

Mbere wasangaga telefoni zihenze cyane, ugasanga ziratungwa n’abayobozi n’abacuruzi, ndetse kenshi ugasanga ziba mu mujyi.

Byongeye, bamwe kugira ngo babashe guhamagara kuri telefoni byabasaga kurira umusozi cyangwa bakajya ahantu hirengeye, cyangwa bakurira ibiti.

Muri icyo gihe habagaho ikarita yo guhamagara nk’uko tuzizi ubu, hakabaho n’iyo kwitaba ubu itakibaho. Kugira ngo hagire ubasha kuguhamagara muri telefone wagombaga kuba ufite amafaranga 2500 atavaho, ukongeraho n’ayo uhamagaza.

Ibintu byaje guhinduka, hatangira kuboneka telefoni za make ndetse zikwirakwira hirya no hino mu gihugu. Ibyo bikagendana n’uburyo abantu bazihaga amazina y’Ikinyarwanda atandukanye n’ayo zasohokanye mu nganda nka Gatoroshi, Bagore beza, Merci Cheri, Darfur, naho Karasharamye zo ni iz’ejobundi.

Wasangaga umuntu atunze telefoni ifite umubyimba munini, akayitwara ahantu hagaragarira buri wese nko ku itako cyangwa ku kuboko.

Nkusi avuga ko telefoni ngendanwa zitabiriwe cyane kurenza uburyo mu kwiga umushinga batekerezaga ko bizaba bimeze.

Ati "Ikintu cya mbere nakunze, ni ikosa twakoze, n’abo babizobereyemo ba MTN. Iryo kosa riteye rite? Ni ukuvuga ngo kubera uko u Rwanda rungana, mu igenamigabi tuzakenera iminara ingana itya, abantu bazazifata bazaba bangana batya, ubushobozi bwabo burangana butya, mu gusesengura ubucuruzi. Ibyo twari twatangiye tuvuga ngo tuzabigeraho mu mwaka umwe, twabigezeho nyuma y’ukwezi kumwe.”

Ibyo ngo byagaragaje ko abantu benshi bari banyotewe na serivisi za telefoni ngendanwa, kandi ngo icyo gihe zarahendaga cyane.

Muri icyo gihe hashyizwe imbaraga mu kongera ubushobozi bw’iminara, itumanaho ritangirira mu Mujyi wa Kigali rikomeza kugenda ryagukira mu bindi bice by’igihugu.

Yakomeje ati “Telefoni yarahendaga kandi ikagirwa na bake, ugasanga natwe twari abayobozi ahubwo abantu batwivovotera, bikabababaza cyane kuba ucuruza ikintu umuntu akaza akakwinginga ati ariko wampaye telefoni, bakajya no ku murongo.”

Mu kumvikanisha uburyo telefoni zari zihenze, woherezaga ubutumwa bugufi cyangwa wavugana n’umuntu bakagenda bakata ku mafaranga washyize muri telefoni, uburyo buzwi nka ‘pay as you go’, bwari butaratangira.

Nkusi yakomeje ati “Mbere warazaga ukiyandikisha, ariko abantu baratunagaga cyane batishyura, ukavuga ngo bazishyure nyuma y’ukwezi, akagenda wajya kumwishyuza nk’uko byagendaga muri Rwandatel ntakwishyure.”

Harebwe nk’impuzandengo y’amafaranga umuntu yashoboraga gukoresha byageraga mu madolari 20 buri kwezi. Bimwe mu byatumaga igiciro cy’itumanaho rya telefoni muri icyo gihe cyari gihanitse cyane, harimo ko n’ibyuma byakoreshwaga byari bihenze bitewe n’aho ibihe byari bigeze.

Abakoresha telefoni bakomeje kwiyongera

Ubwo MTN Rwanda yatangiraga mu 1998, yatangaga itumanaho ry’amajwi mu buryo bwo guhamagara no kwitaba gusa, hakiyongeraho kohereza no kwakira ubutumwa bugufi (SMS). Ubu ibikorwa byamaze kwaguka kuko hiyongereyeho internet, mobile money n’ibindi bisubizo by’itumanaho n’ikoranabuhanga.

Imibare igaragaza ko nko mu mwaka wa 2001 abakoreshaga telefoni ngendanwa mu Rwanda bari 44 117, bahurira ku murongo wa MTN Rwandacell. Icyo gihe abakoreshaga imirongo y’imigozi ya Rwandatell bari 21 458, bivuze ko abakoreshaga telefoni muri rusange bari 65 575.

Mu 2006 abakoreshaga umuyoboro wa MTN Rwanda bari 303 612, mu gihe abakoreshaga telefoni muri rusange bari 330 299. Barimo abakoreshaga imirongo yo mu nzu izwi nka ‘fixed lines’ 21 197.

Nyamara iyo mibare yaratumbagiye cyane kuko ku wa 13 Nyakanga 2020, Urwego Ngenzuramikorere, RURA, rwatangaje ko kugeza mu mpera za Kamena 2020, abantu bakoresha telefoni bari 9,860,169, wabara ushingiye ku baturage 100 ugasanga abaturage 77.9% bakoresha telefoni ngendanwa.

Ibigo by’itumanaho nabyo byagiye byaguka, kuko mu mwaka wa 1993 u Rwanda rwabonye ikigo cy’itumanaho cya Rwandatel ariko cyo kigatanga itumanaho ry’imigozi, gishingwa na leta, kiguma mu kibuga cyonyine kugeza mu 1998 ubwo MTN Rwandacell yahageraga.

Mu 2005 Rwandatel yaje gutangira itumanaho rya telefoni ngendanwa ubwo yari kimaze kwegurirwa abikorera, imigabane 99% igurwa na Terracom, mu mwaka wa 2013 nibwo yaje kugurwa na Econet Wireless binyuze mu kigo Liquid Telecom, kimaze kubaka izina mu gukwirakwiza internet ya 4G mu Rwanda no hanze yarwo.

Mu 2009 nibwo Tigo yinjiye mu gihugu, benshi bibuka ibyapa n’amatangazo byavugaga ngo “Tigo Yahageze!” Muri Nzeri 2011 ikigo Bharti Airtel cyo mu Buhinde cyahawe uburenganzira bwo gukorera mu Rwanda.

Icyo gihe Bharti Airtel yasanze MTN Rwanda ifite abafatabuguzi 2,824,874 naho TIGO Rwanda ifite 1,300,159.

Mu 2017 nibwo mu rwego rwo kwagura imikorere yayo no gutuma Airtel igira umwanya ukomeye mu itumanaho ry’u Rwanda, Bharti Airtel yatangaje ko yaguze imigabane yose ya Tigo Rwanda, muri Mutarama 2020 iki kigo gihabwa icyangombwa kimwe gifite igihe cy’imyaka 12 ku isoko ry’itumanaho mu Rwanda, uruhushya Tigo yari ifite rwo gukora ruvanwaho.

Ubuzima bwaroroshye kubera telefoni

Ubu wifashishije telefoni kandi ubasha kubona serivisi zose za banki, ukohereza amafaranga, ukayakira cyangwa ukayavana kuri konti ya banki uyashyira ku ya telefoni, cyangwa ukabibusanya.

Nta n’uwakwirengagiza imiryango itunzwe no kugurisha serivisi z’imari kuri telefoni cyangwa gucuruza amayinite, kuko hari abasore, inkumi, abagabo n’abagore benshi bitunze.

Nkusi avuga ko telefoni imaze kugera mu gihugu yahinduye byinshi mu buryo abanyarwanda bakoraga.

Yakomeje ati “Tekereza ufite umurwayi mu cyaro, ababyeyi bacu niho baba bari, baragutabaje, ukagenda ukabareba cyangwa niba uri i Kigali ukareba uko wabafasha, telefoni uravugana n’umuganga, ufite igicuruzwa cyawe uri mu Ruhengeri, ibirayi byawe bireze ariko washakaga inka i Nyagatare, mukumvikana aho ngaho. Nta nubwo bigihagije kuvugana gusa, muravugana munarebama.”

“Ntabwo wagereranya ngo hahindutse iki, niyo mibereho, ahubwo hari n’abantu batabaho, ubu njye naryama mu nzu y’ibyatsi nk’iyo nakuriyemo, ariko kuryama ahantu ntafite telefoni aho ariho hose, cyangwa ntafite internet yanjye, ntabwo nasinzira muri iki gihe.”

Ubu telefoni nziza ntigikorerwa mu mahanga gusa, kuko mu Ukwakira 2019 Perezida Paul Kagame yafunguye ku mugaragaro uruganda rwa Mara Phone, rwa mbere muri Afurika rukora telefoni zigezweho za smartphones, rwitezweho kuzamura uburyo Abanyarwanda babyaza umusaruro ikoranabuhanga rya telefoni ngendanwa.

Kugeza ubu hakomeje ubukangurambaga bwa Connect Rwanda, buzatuma n’abatishboye noneho badakomeza gutekereza za telefoni ziciriritse, ahubwo bagahabwa smartphones, cyane zisigaye zinakorerwa iwabo.

Iyi telefoni yatunzwe na benshi, baza kuyita Merci Cheri
Nokia 3310 yaje guhabwa izina rya Bagorebeza, ni imwe muri telefoni yanditse amateka mu Rwanda
Martin Cooper hamwe na telefoni ngendanwa zabimburiye izindi ku isoko

Video: Kazungu Armand


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